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What are the Types of Depressive Disorders?

What are Depressive Disorders?

Depression is a mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. It affects how you feel, think and behave and can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems. Sometimes you may feel as if life is not worth living but note that you’ll get through it and that what you feel is valid. 

Types of Depressive Disorders

  1. Major depressive disorder. This is a clinical depression that causes intense or overwhelming symptoms that last longer than two weeks. These symptoms interfere with everyday life.
  2. Bipolar depression. This causes alternating periods of low mood and extremely high-energy periods. Low periods can lead to depression symptoms like sadness, hopelessness, and fatigue.
  3. Perinatal and postpartum depression. An individual may suffer from postpartum depression during pregnancy or up to one year after giving birth. Symptoms go beyond and cause minor sadness, worry or stress.
  4. Persistent depressive disorder. It is also known as dysthymia. This causes less severe symptoms than major depression. But people experience PDD symptoms for two years or longer.
  5. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder.  The premenstrual dysphoric disorder is a severe form of premenstrual disorder.  It affects women in the days or weeks leading up to their menstrual period.
  6. Psychotic depression. There are severe depressive symptoms as well as hallucinations and delusions in people with psychotic depression. Hallucinations involve seeing, hearing, or feeling things that aren’t really there, while delusions involve believing in things that aren’t true.
  7. Seasonal affective disorder. Late fall and early winter are the most common times for seasonal depression or seasonal affective disorder. It often goes away during the spring and summer.

Symptoms and Signs of Depressive Disorders

  • Unhappiness, emptiness, or hopeless feeling
  • Angry outbursts, irritability or frustration, even over small matters
  • The inability to enjoy most or all normal activities, such as hobbies, sports, or sex
  • Weight loss or weight gain due to reduced appetite and increased food cravings
  • Anxiety, agitation, or restlessness
  • Slowed thinking, speaking, or body movements
  • Fixation on past failures or self-blame, feelings of worthlessness or guilt
  • Trouble thinking, concentrating, making decisions and remembering things
  • Sleep disturbances, including insomnia or sleeping too much
  • Tiredness and lack of energy, so even small tasks take extra effort
  • Suicidal thoughts attempt to commit suicide, or thoughts of death regularly
  • Unexplained physical problems, such as back pain or headaches

Risk Factors for Depressive Disorders

  • Characteristics such as low self-esteem, dependence, self-criticism, or pessimism can be attributed to certain personality types
  • Traumatic or stressful events, such as physical or sexual abuse, the death or loss of a loved one, a difficult relationship, or financial problems
  • Family members who suffer from depression, bipolar disorder, alcoholism, or suicide
  • History of other mental health disorders, such as anxiety disorder, eating disorders, or post-traumatic stress disorder
  • Abuse of alcohol or recreational drugs
  • Serious or chronic illness, including cancer, stroke, chronic pain, or heart disease
  • Medicines that lower blood pressure, such as sleeping pills.

Depressive Disorders Medication

Medications and psychotherapy are effective for most people with depression. Medication can be prescribed to relieve symptoms by your primary health care provider or psychiatrist. People with depression may also benefit from seeing a psychiatrist, psychologist, or other mental health professional. Bupropion is an antidepressant medication that works in the brain. It is also used to treat major depressive disorder ,seasonal affective disorder, and to help people quit smoking

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