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Angina Pectoris

Angina Pectoris

Angina Pectoris is chest pain or discomfort that keeps coming back. It happens when some part of your heart does not get enough blood and oxygen. Angina can be a symptom of coronary artery disease which occurs when arteries that carry blood to your heart become narrowed and blocked because of blood clots or atherosclerosis. It can also occur because of poor blood flow through a narrowed heart valve, unstable plaques, a reduced pumping function of the heart muscle, as well as a coronary artery spasm.

There are two other forms of angina pectoris:

  • Variant angina pectoris 
  • Microvascular angina 

Causes of Angina Pectoris

Angina is caused by decreased blood flow to your heart muscle. Your blood carries oxygen which your heart muscle needs to survive. Once your heart is not getting enough oxygen, it causes a condition called ischemia. 

During times of low oxygen demand, your heart muscle may still be able to function on the decreased amount of blood flow without triggering angina symptoms. 

Risk Factors of Angina Pectoris

The following risk factors increase your risk of angina:

  • Diabetes
  • Tobacco use
  • High blood cholesterol or triglyceride levels
  • High blood pressure 
  • Older age
  • Family history of heart disease
  • Stress
  • Obesity
  • Lack of exercise 

Symptoms of Angina Pectoris

Angina symptoms may include chest discomfort and pain. You may also have pain in your back, shoulder, jaw, neck, or arms. 

Other symptoms that you may have include:

These symptoms need to be assessed right away by a doctor who can determine whether you have stable angina which can be a precursor to a heart attack.


Diagnosis of Angina Pectoris

To diagnose angina, your doctor will start by doing a physical exam and asking about your symptoms. You will also be asked about any risk factors, including whether you have a family history of heart disease.  

There are other tests that your doctor may help to confirm whether you have angina:

  • Electrocardiogram
  • Stress test
  • Echocardiogram
  • Nuclear stress test
  • Chest X-ray
  • Blood tests
  • Coronary angiography
  • Cardiac computerized tomography scan
  • Cardiac MRI

Treatment and Medications for Angina Pectoris

There are lots of treatment options for angina pectoris including medications, lifestyle changes, coronary bypass surgery, or angioplasty and stenting. The goal of the treatment is to lessen the frequency and severity of a heart attack. However, if you have unstable angina or angina pain that is different from what you usually have, you need immediate treatment. 

If lifestyle changes alone don’t help your angina, you may need to take medications such as:

  • Nitrates 
  • Aspirin
  • Beta-blockers
  • Statins
  • Calcium channel blockers
  • Blood pressure-lowering medications 
  • Clot-preventing drugs – Clopidogrel helps prevent blood clots from forming by making your blood platelets less likely to stick together.  

thyroid gland


The thyroid is a small organ in the front of the neck that is wrapped around the windpipe. The thyroid is a gland. Each individual has glands throughout the body where they produce and release substances that help the body do a certain thing. The thyroid makes hormones that help control several vital functions in the body.

When the thyroid does not function well, it may impact your entire body. If your body makes too much thyroid hormone, you may develop a condition called hyperthyroidism. Hypothyroidism is where your thyroid makes too little thyroid hormone.

What Does Thyroid Do?

The thyroid has an important role in the body. It releases and controls thyroid hormones that control metabolism. Metabolism is a process where the food you take into your body is transformed into energy. The thyroid controls your metabolism with T3 and T4. These are hormones that are produced by the thyroid. They tell the cells of the body how much energy to use. When your thyroid functions well, it will maintain the right amount of hormones to keep your metabolism working at the right rate.

thyroid disease

What Is Thyroid Disease?

Thyroid disease is the overall term for a medical condition that keeps your thyroid from making the right amount of hormones. Your thyroid usually makes hormones that keep your body functioning generally.

When the thyroid makes excessive thyroid hormone, your body uses energy too fast. This is called hyperthyroidism. Using energy too quickly will do more than make you tired which makes your heart beat faster. It causes you to lose weight without trying and even makes you feel nervous. In addition, if your thyroid makes too little thyroid hormone, it is called hypothyroidism. When you have too little thyroid hormone in your body, it can make you feel tired, you might gain weight and you may even be unable to tolerate cold temperatures.

thyroid surgery

Thyroid Disease Treatment

The goal of your health care provider is to return your thyroid hormone levels to normal. This can be done in different ways and each specific treatment will depend on the cause of your thyroid condition.

If you have high levels of thyroid hormones or hyperthyroidism, treatment options can include:

  • Anti-thyroid drugs such as Methimazole and Propylthiouracil. These are medications that stop your thyroid from making hormones.
  • Radioactive iodine type of medicine. This treatment damages the cells of your thyroid which prevents it from making high levels of thyroid hormones.
  • Beta-blockers are medications that don’t change the number of hormones in your body. These help control your symptoms.
  • Surgery is a more permanent form of treatment. Your healthcare provider may surgically remove your thyroid. It will stop it from creating hormones. Conversely, you will need to take thyroid replacement hormones for the rest of your life.

If you have low levels of thyroid hormones, the main treatment option is:

  • Thyroid replacement medication. This medication is a synthetic way to add thyroid hormones back into your body. One drug that’s commonly used is called Levothyroxine. By using the medicine, you can control thyroid disease and live a normal life.

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a disease that occurs in the heart. It develops when there’s damage in the flow of blood in your arteries. This supplies blood into your heart.

CAD is a common form of heart disease. A heart attack is the first sign of CAD. It affects millions of people in the US. It’s also one of the leading causes of death to both men and women.

This condition can also lead to different complication. But there’s a way you can do to prevent and treat this kind of disease. A medication and lifestyle change can be of great help to decrease your risk.

What Causes Coronary Artery Disease?

The cause of this disease is a plaque that builds up in the wall of arteries. The damage may be caused by the following:

  • Smoking
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Diabetes
  • High blood pressure
  • High cholesterol


The symptoms of CAD are the following:

  • Chest Pain (Angina)
  • Short Breathing
  • Chest Tightness
  • Numbness
  • Squeezing
  • Aching
  • Painful feeling
  • Burning
  • Heart Attack

The above-said symptoms may be mistaken as indigestion or heartburn.

Other symptoms that you may experience are:

  • Pain in the arms/shoulder
  • Sweating
  • Dizziness
  • Muscle Pain
  • Palpitations
  • Faster Heartbeat
  • Nausea

More symptoms are arising along the way if you’re blood flow becomes restricted. If the blockage will occur. It cut off your blood flow, this can result in a heart attack.

Seek for a medical attention. If you happen to experience the symptoms listed above.


Women can experience the same symptoms. But they are more likely to experience the following:

  • Back Pain
  • Jaw pain
  • Short Breathing without chest pain
  • Vomiting
  • Nausea


In doing the diagnosis of CAD, it requires the following:

  • Review of your Medical History
  • Physical Exam
  • Other Medical Testing

After the doctor has done the above-said test. A different test will follow such as:

  • Electrocardiogram
  • Echocardiogram
  • Stress Test
  • Cardiac Catheterization
  • Heart CT scan


The following are prevention tips to avoid developing the disease. And to improve your heart health such as:

  • Quit Smoking.
  • Stay physically active.
  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables.
  • Reduce and manage stress.
  • Control health condition (e.g high blood pressure, high cholesterol & diabetes)
  • Limit your alcohol.


The treatment for CAD requires a lifestyle change and medical drugs if needed. A medical procedure can also perform.

The drugs may include:

  • Aspirin
  • Beta Blockers
  • Calcium Channel Blockers
  • Cholesterol-modifying Medication
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE)
  • Nitroglycerin
  • Ranolazine

Some option treatment may include:

  • Angioplasty and Stent Placement (percutaneous coronary revascularization)
  • Coronary Bypass Surgery
  • Enhanced External Counterpulsation


  • Fish and Fish Oil
  • Flax and Flaxseed Oil
  • Omega-3 fatty acids

Other supplements include:

  • Artichoke
  • Barley
  • Beta-sitosterol
  • Cocoa
  • Garlic
  • Oat Bran
  • Sitostanol