Re-Order Re-Order

Chat Support
Monday to Saturday


Venous Ulcers: Symptoms, Risk Factors, Causes, and Treatment

What is a Venous Ulcer?

A venous ulcer is a wound that takes longer than usual to heal. It is due to vein and blood flow issues and often occurs on your legs near your ankle. This condition can sometimes lead to severe problems if left untreated. However, there are also several ways to prevent them from happening. 

The Signs and Symptoms of Venous Ulcer

  • Brownish discoloration
  • A foul-smelling fluid oozing from the sore
  • A rash or dry skin

Worsening symptoms include:

  • Worsening pain
  • A fever
  • A redness or swelling of the surrounding skin
  • Pus

Call your doctor if you experience:

  • Bleeding
  • Odor
  • Fever or chills
  • Redness, increased warmth, or swelling around the wound
  • More drainage than before or drainage that is yellowish or cloudy
  • Increased pain

Risk Factors Of Venous Ulcers

  • Obesity
  • Deep vein thrombosis
  • Sitting for long periods with legs positioned below heart level
  • Family history of ulcers.
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Lymphedema 
  • Standing for long periods
  • Uncontrolled swelling
  • Older age
  • Personal history of venous ulcers
  • Trauma, such as a fracture or burn

What Causes Venous Ulcers?

Your veins contain tiny valves that keep blood circulating throughout your body. These valves snap open and shut to move blood against the force of gravity back to your heart. In some people, venous diseases affect valve functioning. Other medical conditions, like diabetes, can also put you at risk for leg and foot ulcers.

The veins in the leg, which should send blood back to the heart, might not be doing their job all that well. That is often because the valves that stop the flow of blood back into the veins are not. The backflow of blood means increased pressure at the end of the limb. Over time, it can weaken the skin and make it harder for a cut or scrape to heal. 

Other causes are:

  • High blood pressure, which damages blood vessel walls.
  • Venous obstruction is a vein blockage that’s sometimes due to blood clots.
  • Venous reflux is when blood flows backward through weak or damaged valves.

If left untreated, this condition may cause the following complications:

  • Infection. Bacteria, viruses, or fungi can lead to infection of the wound. Some severe infections, such as osteomyelitis or septicemia, can occur and require antibiotics.
  • Worsening or nonhealing ulcer. An untreated ulcer or underlying

Treatment, Management, and Prevention of Venous Ulcers

Venous ulcers don’t heal on their own. The longer you live with them, the greater the likelihood of permanent tissue damage. The damage can spread or cause infections that can become life- or limb-threatening. To prevent this condition, you can:

losing weight
  1. Use compression stockings especially if you experience this condition before. Compression stockings may be recommended by your doctors to squeeze your legs and improve your circulation.
  2. Weight loss. Maintaining a healthy weight loss is essential for people who have obesity or are overweight. It can help treat and prevent venous leg ulcers. Excess weight leads to high pressure in the veins in your legs, which can damage your skin. To help you lose weight, regular exercise and a healthy, balanced diet are recommended.
  3. Treating underlying problems. Varicose veins are a common condition that may worsen venous ulcers. Treating underlying conditions involves inserting a flexible tube into the affected veins, with high-frequency radio waves or lasers used to seal them.

Venous ulcers that are severe or not responding to standard therapies may require additional treatments such as:

  • Growth factor therapy. It uses injectable substances that attract healthy cells to ulcers.
  • Hyperbaric oxygen therapy. It is a treatment in which you sit in a special, pressurized chamber and inhale pure oxygen.
  • Lymphedema therapy. Massage, skincare, and bandaging techniques that clear fluid buildup.
  • Skin graft, replacing diseased skin with healthy skin from another part of your body.
  • Stem cell therapy, injections of bone to generate healthy tissue.
  • Venous disease treatment to correct blood pooling problems and improve circulation.

Fungal Nail Infection: Symptoms, Types, Risk Factors, Causes, and Treatment

Fungal nail infection is one of the most common infections of the nail. It begins as a yellow-brown or white spot that appears under the tip of your nail. As time passes, the nail might change color, thicken, and then break near the edge. Nail fungus can affect several nails. Fungi may be found in soil, air, plants, and our bodies. Fungi can be beneficial or harmful, like other microbes.

Types Of Fungal Nail Infection

  1. The subungual onychomycosis can be lateral or distal. It is the most prevalent type. It’s caused by a fungus known as a dermatophyte. It can be found on your toenails or fingernails. It starts inside the nail bed, beneath the nail. It’s a yellowish area that extends across the edges of your nail towards the center and the places it breaks away from the nail bed.
  2. White, superficial onychomycosis. It is not as common and only affects the nail’s surface, mostly around your fingernails. The first signs are white spots that turn dry and cause the nail to crack.
  3. Proximal subungual onychomycosis. It is first seen as white spots in the middle of the nail bed, near the cuticle. They expand as the toenail or finger expands. It’s not common and typically is seen in people with issues with their immune system, such as HIV infection.
  4. Candidal onychomycosis. The yeast that causes this infection generally affects the fingernails. The nail area is usually inflamed and swollen, and the nails could disappear completely. It is common for nails to be damaged due to an injury or a different infection.

Signs and Symptoms of Fungal Nail Infection

Fungal Nail Infection
  • Nails with thickened nails
  • Nails with discoloration
  • Crumbly, crumbly, or rough
  • Misshapen nails
  • Separated from the nail bed
  • Smelly

See your doctor if you experience:

  • If you have diabetes, you may be developing a nail fungal infection
  • Nail bleeding
  • Pain or swelling around the nails
  • Walking is difficult.

Risk Factors Of Fungal Nail Infection

A serious nail fungus condition could be painful and result in permanent nail damage. Factors that could increase the risk of developing nail fungus are:

  • Older age
  • Shoes that cause your feet to sweat very much
  • A history of an athlete’s foot in the past
  • Untidy walking in areas with damp conditions, such as fitness centers, pools, and shower rooms.
  • A minor skin or nail injury
  • Being afflicted with a skin disease that affects your nails, like psoriasis,
  • Being diagnosed with issues with blood flow or a deficient immune system

What Causes Fungal Nail Infection?

The cause of the infection is different organisms. The most prevalent is known as Dermatophyte. Bacteria, yeast, and mold can also result in nail infection. The discoloration caused by an infection caused by bacteria tends to be black or green. It may be spread to the nail, and fungal infections of the nail may spread to the feet. It is also possible to get the infection by touching areas where fungi thrive, such as the floor tiles in a gym shower or inside sweaty, dark, and moist shoes.

Treatment, Management, and Prevention of Fungal Nail Infection

woman washing hands on he sink with bubbly soap
  • Clean your feet and hands frequently. Wash your hands immediately after touching a nail that is infected. Dry them well, and apply antifungal foot powder and moisturizer to your nails.
  • Try applying a nail softener that can assist in strengthening the cuticles and nails.
  • Straighten nails, smooth out the edges using a file, and then file the thickened areas. Make sure to clean your nail clippers following every use. Allowing your nails to grow long gives more opportunities for fungus to thrive.
  • Change your socks with absorbent socks, or wear absorbent ones. Your socks during the day.
  • Select shoes made of substances that allow air to circulate.
  • Please remove old shoes, or treat them with antifungal or disinfectant powders.
  • Pick a salon that employs sterilized manicure equipment for each client. Also, disinfect the tools you use to do your manicures at home.
  • If you suffer from an athlete’s foot, treat it using an antifungal medication.

Medication Used for Fungal Nail Infection

Terbinafine tablet. This tablet treats fungal diseases of nails and fingernails. Terbinafine is part of a group of drugs known as antifungals. It stops the growth of the fungi.

Insulin Resistance: Symptoms, Risk Factors, Causes, and Treatment

What is Insulin Resistance?

Insulin resistance is when cells in your muscles, fat, and liver don’t respond well to insulin and can’t use glucose from your blood for energy. It may also include conditions like obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and type 2 diabetes. Insulin is a hormone released by the pancreas that tells your cells to open up to that sugar and convert it into energy.

When you eat food, your body converts that food into dietary sugars. The cells do not react with resistance, resulting in excessive sugar in the blood. Over time, the pancreas keeps trying to regulate the blood sugar, producing more and more insulin until it wears out and may not produce large amounts of insulin anymore. As a result, blood sugar levels increase to the point of being in the diabetic range. 

Signs and Symptoms of Insulin Resistance

  • A fasting triglyceride level over 150 mg/dL
  • A HDL cholesterol level under 40 mg/dL in men and 50 mg/dL in women
  • Skin tags
  • A waistline over 40 inches in men and 35 inches in women
  • Blood pressure readings of 130/80 or higher
  • A fasting glucose level over 100 mg/dL
  • Patches of dark, velvety skin 

What are the Risk Factors of Insulin Resistance?

Anyone can develop insulin resistance temporarily or chronically. Over time, chronic insulin resistance can lead to pre-diabetes and then Type 2 diabetes if it’s not treated or can be treated. You are at risk if:

  • You have obesity, or you are overweight, especially when the extra body weight is around the midriff
  • You have a sedentary lifestyle 
  • You smoke or drink excessive amounts of alcoholic beverages
  • You consume large amounts of alcohol, which can impact the liver
  • You have sleep issues
  • Having high cholesterol levels
  • Having high blood pressure

How Common is Insulin Resistance?

The best way to measure the prevalence of insulin resistance is through the number of prediabetes cases. More than 84 million adults in the United States have prediabetes. That’s about 1 out of every 3 adults. 

This condition may progress to type 2 diabetes if you do not change how you eat and exercise. Your blood sugar levels will rise until you have prediabetes. It causes your pancreas to use extra insulin to make up for it. It will work for a while, and your blood sugar levels will stay normal.

How is Insulin Resistance Diagnosed?

Doctors usually request more than one of these tests to ensure an accurate diagnosis. Several tests can help diagnose prediabetes and diabetes:

  1. An A1C test measures a person’s average blood sugar level over the previous 3 months.
  2. Fasting blood glucose test: A doctor checks glucose levels after an individual refrains from eating or drinking for 8 hours.
  3. Random glucose test involves a medical professional checking blood glucose levels at some point during the day.

How to Prevent Insulin Resistance?

losing weight
  • Factors such as genetic and family history are not preventable. Ensure to visit your doctor for further recommendations. Here are some tips to prevent the condition:
  • Manage your weight or quit smoking to prevent heart disease and stroke. Experts say that up to 50% of people with prediabetes can prevent the onset of diabetes through such measures.
  • According to the CDC, if a person with overweight or obesity loses 5 to 7% of their body weight, this can significantly reduce their risk of developing diabetes.
  • Exercise can also help. Muscles become more sensitive to insulin after exercise, helping the body reverse insulin resistance.

Medication Used For Insulin Resistance

Pioglitazone. It enhances the transcription of insulin-responsive genes and improves the entry of glucose into muscles and fats. It can also be used as monotherapy along with diet and exercise in mild cases and to supplement insulin in advanced cases.

Esophageal Ulcers: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

An esophageal ulcer is a type of peptic ulcer that develops in the lining of the esophagus. It occurs when the layer of mucus, which lines and protects the gastrointestinal tract, wears away. The condition results from an infection with a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori. It can also be caused by destruction from stomach acid moving up into the esophagus.

Signs and Symptoms of Esophageal Ulcers

  • Difficult or painful swallowing
  • Pain that is lessened by eating, drinking, or taking antacids
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Acid reflux or indigestion
  • Sour taste in the mouth
  • Dry cough
  • Bloating
  • Vomiting
  • Lack of appetite

What Causes Esophageal Ulcers?

Most of the time, this problem can be caused by a bacterium called H. Pylori. The bacterium damages the mucosal lining of the esophagus. It makes the esophagus vulnerable to damage caused by stomach acid.

A chronic condition called GERD can cause an ulcer in the esophageal tract. People suffering from GERD suffer from frequent acid reflux. Patients who suffer from GERD suffer from acid reflux at least every two weeks.

Acid reflux happens in the stomach when contents travel backward towards the stomach and into the esophagus. It can occur when the lower esophageal sphinx is damaged or weak, so it can’t close properly.

Alcohol consumption, smoking, and the frequent consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications may also cause damage to the mucosal linings of the esophagus. It can lead to an ulcer. Genetics also plays a part.

infectious bacteria in microscope

Several pills could cause ulcers and irritation of the esophagus if not taken with enough water or lying down right after taking. If you take any type of pill, you must swallow it with plenty of water.

For those with compromised immune systems, the problem could be caused by other fungal, bacterial, or viral infections, such as:

Treatment, Management, and Prevention of Esophageal Ulcers

The treatment for ulcers of the esophageal tract is dependent on the reason. Most ulcers are treated with proton pump inhibitors, an acid-blocking drug. If you’ve been diagnosed with esophageal ossification on endoscopy, ongoing treatment using PPI medication could be necessary.

If an ulcer has begun to bleed, a doctor may treat the bleeding through an endoscopy. It can be done by injecting the region with medication or heating the site to stop bleeding. They may also advise avoiding NSAIDs, particularly when those drugs cause the ulcer. When the ulcer appears to be related to an infection, doctors may also recommend medication.

If you’ve had the typical signs of esophagitis due to a pill following a prescription and are unsure what to do, it’s unlikely to need an endoscopy. In these cases, if there’s a strong connection, the injury usually requires the time needed to recover.

Homecare Management and Recovery Tips

Treatment and Medication for Polio 
  • Avoid  and drink more water
  • Avoid smoking and lose some weight if you have excess pounds
  • Find ways to reduce stress, such as by exercising or taking a yoga class
  • Eat smaller meals more frequently
  • Chew some gum after meals to help increase saliva and keep acid out of the esophagus
  • Stand for a couple of hours after eating
  • Get adequate sleep
  • Eat a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains and low in processed or sugary foods

To prevent the condition from coming or worsening, it would be helpful if you will incorporate a diet. During a treatment plan, your doctor might suggest dietary adjustments. Contrary to what many believe, having a bland food plan or avoiding all spices is unnecessary. Instead, you should eat a balanced diet of fruits, fiber, and vegetables.

Also, avoid anything that can make the symptoms worse. The symptoms are aggravated by food items that relax the esophageal muscle. Keep a food journal to keep track of the foods that cause your symptoms. It can aid in eliminating problematic foods.

Diabetic Nephropathy: Symptoms, Risk Factors, Stages, Causes, and Treatment

Diabetic nephropathy affects the kidneys’ ability to do their usual work of removing waste products and extra fluid from your body. The best way to prevent or delay diabetic nephropathy is by maintaining a healthy lifestyle and adequately managing your diabetes and high blood pressure. Over many years, the condition slowly damages your kidneys’ delicate filtering system. Early treatment may prevent or slow the disease’s progress and reduce the chance of complications.

What is Diabetic Nephropathy?

Diabetic nephropathy is a serious complication of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. It’s also called diabetic kidney disease. In the United States, about 1 in 3 people with diabetes have diabetic nephropathy. There are five stages of diabetic nephropathy. The fifth stage is ESRD. Progress from one stage to the next can take many years.

Signs and Symptoms of Diabetic Nephropathy

In the early stages of diabetic nephropathy, you would likely not notice any signs or symptoms. In later stages, signs and symptoms may include:

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Symptoms
  • Worsening blood pressure control
  • Protein in the urine
  • Swelling of feet, ankles, hands, or eyes
  • Increased need to urinate
  • Reduced need for insulin or diabetes medicine
  • Confusion or difficulty concentrating
  • Shortness of breath
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Persistent itching
  • Fatigue

Make an appointment with your doctor if you have any signs or symptoms of kidney disease. If you are living with diabetes, visit your doctor yearly or as recommended for kidney function tests.

Risk Factors of Diabetic Nephropathy

If you’re living with diabetes, factors that can increase your risk of diabetic nephropathy include:

  • Uncontrolled high blood sugar (hyperglycemia)
  • Uncontrolled high blood pressure (hypertension)
  • Being a smoker
  • High blood cholesterol
  • Obesity
  • A family history of diabetes and kidney disease

Stages of Diabetic Nephropathy

The stages of any kidney disease, including diabetes-related nephropathy, include:

  • Stage I. Your GFR is 90 or higher. At this stage, your kidneys have mild damage but still function normally.
  • Stage II. Your GFR may be as low as 60 or as high as 89. You have more damage to your kidneys than in stage I, but they still function well.
  • Stage III. Your GFR may be as low as 30 or as high as 59. You may have mild or severe loss of kidney function.
  • Stage IV. Your GFR may be as low as 15 or as high as 29. You have severe loss of kidney function.
  • Stage V., Your GFR, is below 15. Your kidneys are nearing or at complete failure.

What Causes Diabetic Nephropathy?


Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a complication of diabetes that is believed to contribute most directly to diabetic nephropathy. Hypertension is believed to be a cause of diabetic nephropathy and a result of the damage created by the disease. As kidney disease progresses, physical changes in the kidneys often lead to increased blood pressure. Uncontrolled hypertension can make the progress toward stage five diabetic nephropathy occur more rapidly.

The high blood sugar associated with diabetes also causes damage to the kidney through many different and complicated pathways. Most of this damage is directed toward the blood vessels that filter the blood to make urine.

Treatment, Management, and Prevention of Diabetic Nephropathy

The first step in treating diabetic nephropathy is to treat and control your diabetes and high blood pressure. It includes diet, lifestyle changes, exercise, and prescription medications. With good management of your blood sugar and hypertension, you may prevent or delay kidney dysfunction and other complications. If your disease progresses to kidney failure, your doctor will likely discuss options for care focused on either replacing the function of your kidneys or making you more comfortable. 

If you have diabetes, you should schedule regular appointments with your healthcare provider every three to six months or as your healthcare provider recommends. If you have diabetes, your healthcare provider will recommend annual diabetes-related nephropathy testing five years after your initial diagnosis. Kidney damage usually doesn’t appear within the first 10 years of your diabetes diagnosis. If you’ve had diabetes for more than 25 years and don’t have kidney damage, you’re less likely to develop diabetes-related nephropathy.

The best way to prevent diabetes-related nephropathy is to manage your diabetes and lower your blood pressure. Be sure to follow your treatment plan as prescribed by your healthcare provider. 

How Can Fungal Infections Affect The Lungs?

A fungus is a tiny type of germ that usually doesn’t cause any problems. They are all around us. You can only see them with a microscope. But fungi can infect your lungs in some situations, particularly if you have other serious illnesses. It can be very serious and requires specialist care.

What are Fungal Infections?

Fungi infection

Fungi may cause lung disease through direct infection of pulmonary tissue, infection of pulmonary air spaces/lung cavities, or their ability to trigger an immunological reaction when fungal material is inhaled. The latter mechanism is involved in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, aspergillus-induced asthma, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to fungi.

Except for aspergillosis, these infections are usually not present to any significant degree in immunocompetent residents of the UK. They are more likely to affect those who have traveled abroad to areas where they are endemic or arise as opportunistic infections in patients who are immunocompromised due to oncological treatment due to immunomodulation following solid organ transplantation or HIV infection. Pulmonary infection occurs after inhalation of spores/conidia or by the reactivation of latent infection. Hematogenous dissemination of fungal infection leading to a systemic mycosis tends to occur chiefly in immunocompromised patients.

Types of Fungal Infections

  • Fungal nail infections
  • Vaginal candidiasis
  • Ringworm
  • Candida infections of the mouth, throat, and esophagus
  • Blastomycosis
  • Cryptococcus gattii infection
  • Paracoccidioidomycosis 
  • Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever)
  • Histoplasmosis
  • Aspergillosis
  • Canadida auris infection
  • Invasive candidiasis 
  • Candidiasis 
  • Cryptococcus neoformans infection 
  • Mucormycosis 
  • Talaromycosis 
  • Fungal eye infections 
  • Sporotrichosis
  • Mycetoma 

Signs and Symptoms of Fungal Infections

Symptoms of fungal infections can range from mild to very serious. The exact symptoms depend on the type of fungus that has caused the infection. Some common symptoms include:

Chest pain

Fungal infections can affect many parts of the body, including:

  • Hair
  • Skin
  • Lungs
  • Bloodstream
  • Brain
  • Gastrointestinal system
  • Vagina

Symptoms of fungal infections can mimic other conditions, so it’s important to consult your physician for a complete exam and diagnosis.

Treatment, Management, and Prevention of Fungal Infections

Antifungal medicines can kill a fungus. Or they may stop it from multiplying or growing. There are several classes of antifungal medications and different types of medicines. Your healthcare provider will select the best prescription medicine. Or they may guide you to an effective over-the-counter (OTC) treatment.

There are OTC and prescription antifungal medicines. Talk to your healthcare provider about what treatment to use.

Antifungals come in different forms, including:

  • Injections (shots) or IV
  • Oral pills or liquids
  • Topical (skin) creams, ointments, gels and sprays
  • Vaginal suppositories

Treatment length varies depending on the fungal infection. Some fungal skin infections like ringworm clear up in a few weeks. But clearing up some fungal nail, blood, and lung infections can take months or years.

Recommended medication used for fungal infection:

Antifungal medications treat fungal infections affecting skin, nails, lungs, and other organs. Some fungal infections clear up in a few weeks. Others may need months of treatment. Taking antifungal medicines for an extended period or failing to complete the prescribed treatment may lead to antifungal resistance.

Medication safety depends on the antifungal drug. Breastfeeding infants who develop thrush can get antifungal mouth drops. Their moms also need treatment, typically with an antifungal skin cream. Your healthcare provider can determine whether it’s okay for you or your child to take an antifungal medicine.

Side effects from antifungals vary. Results depend on the type of drug, dosage (strength), and fungus. You may experience the following:

Rarely, an antifungal drug may cause serious problems like:

  • Liver damage (jaundice)
  • Severe allergic reactions like anaphylaxis
  • Severe allergic skin reactions, such as blisters and peeling skin

Getting To Know More About Antiepileptic Drug

Antiepileptic medications do not cure epilepsy but rather attempt to prevent seizures. The medications do not alter the underlying problem predisposing to seizures. People with epilepsy are prescribed antiepileptic medications to decrease seizures’ number, severity, and duration. While seizure freedom is the ideal treatment outcome, seizures can still occur while taking antiepileptic medication.

What is an Antiepileptic Drug?

Normal brain function involves communication between millions of nerve cells. At any one time, nerve cells are resting, exciting, or inhibiting other nerve cells. A nerve cell comprises a cell body and branches called axons and dendrites, which join other neurons at synapses. Electrical signals are sent from the cell body along the axon to the synapse, resulting from ion currents across channels in the nerve cell membrane. Chemical signals pass across synapses between neurons. Neurotransmitters cross the synaptic gap between neurons and fix to receptor points of the adjoining neuron. Some neurotransmitters excite the joining neuron to send a further electrical signal. Other neurotransmitters inhibit the joining neuron and electrical signals passing down that neuron. The millions of neurons within the brain communicate and function normally through these electrical and chemical pathways.

Seizures occur when there is an imbalance within these excitatory and inhibitory circuits in the brain, either throughout the brain or in a localized part of the brain, so neurons fire off in a bizarre fashion.

Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) protect against seizures by modulation of voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels, enhancing GABA receptor-mediated synaptic inhibition, and inhibiting ionotropic glutamate receptor-mediated synaptic excitation.

How Do Antiepileptic Drugs Work?

Antiepileptic medications work in different ways to prevent seizures, either by decreasing excitation or enhancing inhibition. Specifically, they act by either:

  • Altering electrical activity in neurons by affecting ion channels in the cell membrane.
  • Altering chemical transmission between neurons by affecting neurotransmitters in the synapse.
  • For some drugs, the mode of action is unknown.

As the specific mechanisms that cause epilepsy are mostly unknown, drugs with specific mechanisms of an action directed at the underlying epileptic processes have not yet been developed.

List of Antiepileptic Drugs

Narrow-spectrum Antiepileptic Drugs:

  • Phenytoin (Dilantin)  
  • Phenobarbital
  • Carbamazepine (Tegretol)
  • Oxcarbazepine (Trileptal)
  • Gabapentin (Neurontin)
  • Pregabalin (Lyrica)
  • Lacosamide (Vimpat)
  • Vigabatrin (Sabril)

Broad-spectrum Antiepileptic Drugs:

  • Valproic acid (Depakote)
  • Lamotrigine (Lamictal)
  • Topiramate (Topamax)
  • Zonisamide (Zonegran)
  • Levetiracetam (Keppra)
  • Clonazepam (Klonopin)
  • Rufinamide (Banzel)

Recommended medication used for seizures:

Side Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs

Epilepsy is a common condition that affects the brain and causes frequent seizures. Seizures are bursts of electrical activity in the brain that temporarily affect how it works. They can cause a wide range of symptoms. Epilepsy can start at any age but usually in childhood or in people over 60. It’s often lifelong but can sometimes get slowly better over time.

Seizures can affect people differently, depending on which part of the brain is involved. Possible symptoms include:

  • Uncontrollable jerking and shaking are called a “fit.”
  • Losing awareness and staring blankly into space
  • Becoming stiff
  • Strange sensations, such as a “rising” feeling in the tummy, unusual smells or tastes, and a tingling feeling in your arms or legs
  • Collapsing

Sometimes you might pass out and not remember what happened.

Treatment can help most people with epilepsy have fewer seizures or stop having seizures completely.

Treatments include:

  • Medicines called antiepileptic drugs – are the main treatment
  • Surgery to remove a small part of the brain that’s causing the seizures
  • A procedure to put a small electrical device inside the body that can help control seizures
  • A special diet that can help control seizures

Some people need treatment for life. But you might be able to stop treatment if your seizures disappear over time.

Side effects are common when starting treatment with Antiepileptic drugs. Some may appear soon after starting treatment and pass in a few days or weeks, while others may not appear for a few weeks.

The side effects you may get depend on the medicine you’re taking. Common side effects of Antiepileptic drugs include:

hair loss
  • Drowsiness
  • A lack of energy
  • Agitation
  • Headaches
  • Uncontrollable shaking (tremor)
  • Hair loss or unwanted hair growth
  • Swollen gums
  • Rashes 

Contact your doctor or specialist if you have symptoms like being drunk, such as instability, poor concentration, and being sick. It could mean your dose is too high.

Viagra: How To Take, Uses, and Side Effects

Viagra relaxes muscles found in the walls of blood vessels and increases blood flow to particular body areas. Some medicines can cause unwanted or dangerous effects when used with Viagra. Tell your doctor about all your current medicines.  

What is Viagra?

Viagra is a medicine used to treat erectile dysfunction (ED, also called impotence). It works by helping to relax the blood vessels in the penis, allowing blood to flow into the penis and causing an erection. If you plan to use Viagra, take it an hour before the planned sexual activity.

Viagra doesn’t cause erections alone — sexual stimulation is still needed. It also does not cure ED, increase a man’s sexual desire, protect from sexually transmitted diseases, or serve as a male form of birth control. If you use Viagra, you should not take more than 1 tablet in 24 hours, and it should not be taken with other ED medicines.

How To Take Viagra?

taking Viagra
  • If you are taking Viagra to treat erectile dysfunction, follow your doctor’s directions and guidelines. Take Viagra as needed before sexual activity. The best time to take sildenafil is about 1 hour before sexual activity, but you can take the medication from 4 hours to 30 minutes before sexual activity. Viagra usually should not be taken more than once every 24 hours. If you have certain health conditions or are taking certain medications, your doctor may tell you to take sildenafil less often. You can take Viagra with or without food. However, if you take Viagra with a high-fat meal, it will take longer for the medication to start to work.
  • If you are taking Viagra to treat PAH, follow your doctor’s directions and the guidelines in this paragraph. You will probably take sildenafil three times a day with or without food. Take sildenafil around the exact times daily, and space your doses about 4 to 6 hours apart.
  • Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take Viagra exactly as directed. Please do not take more or less of it or more often than your doctor prescribes.
  • Suppose you are taking Viagra for erectile dysfunction. In that case, your doctor will probably start you on an average dose of sildenafil and increase or decrease your dose depending on your response to the medication. Tell your doctor if Viagra is not working well or if you are experiencing side effects.
  • If you are taking Viagra for PAH, you should know that Viagra controls PAH but does not cure it. Continue to take medicine even if you feel well. Please do not stop taking it without talking to your doctor.
  • Ask your pharmacist or doctor for a copy of the manufacturer’s information for the patient.

Uses of Viagra

Viagra treats male sexual function problems (impotence or erectile dysfunction-ED). In combination with sexual stimulation, sildenafil increases blood flow to the penis to help a man get and keep an erection. This drug does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases (such as HIV, hepatitis B, gonorrhea, and syphilis). Practice “safe sex,” such as using latex condoms. Consult your doctor or pharmacist for more details.

Treatments for erectile dysfunction are big business, and online scams abound. If you do buy medications over the internet:

  • Make sure you get the correct prescription and dose. When you order medications and receive them in the mail, make sure they’re the exact dose and type prescribed by your doctor.
  • Don’t be fooled into buying ‘herbal viagra.’ Never take medications that claim to be the “herbal” equivalent of an oral medication for erectile dysfunction. These aren’t practical alternatives, and some contain harmful substances.

Side Effects of Viagra

migraine with aura

Most men who take oral erectile dysfunction medications aren’t bothered by side effects. When side effects do occur, they can include:

  • Flushing
  • Headache
  • Indigestion
  • Visual changes, such as a blue tinge to vision, sensitivity to light, or blurred vision
  • Stuffy or runny nose
  • Back pain

Dysuria: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Dysuria refers to pain when you urinate. Individuals with dysuria usually describe it as a burning sensation. It can affect anyone of any age, but it is most common in women. Treatment for dysuria depends on the underlying cause. If a bacterial infection causes dysuria, antibiotics are usually prescribed.

What is Dysuria?

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Symptoms

Dysuria is pain or discomfort when you urinate. It isn’t about how often you go, though urinary frequency often happens together with dysuria. Dysuria is not a diagnosis. It’s a sign or symptom of an underlying health problem.

Men and women of any age can experience painful urination. It’s more common in women. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are commonly associated with dysuria. UTIs occur in more women than men.

Other people at a higher risk of dysuria include:

  • Pregnant women
  • Men and women with diabetes
  • Men and women with any disease of the bladder

Signs and Symptoms of Dysuria

Symptoms of painful urination can vary between men and women, but both genders usually describe it as a burning, stinging, or itching. Burning is the most commonly reported symptom.

Pain can occur at the start of urination or after urination. Pain at the start of urination is often a symptom of a urinary tract infection. Pain after urination can be a sign of a problem with the bladder or prostate. In men, pain can also remain in your penis before and after urination.

Symptoms in women can be internal or external. Pain outside your vaginal area may be caused by inflammation or irritation of this sensitive skin. Internal pain can be a symptom of a urinary tract infection.

Dysuria is a symptom. It causes a burning sensation, pain, and discomfort. You will likely contact your healthcare provider because this symptom is uncomfortable. It’s essential to see your provider determine if your symptom relates to a urinary tract infection or another medical cause. In any case, the sooner you see your provider, the sooner a diagnosis can be made and treatment can be started.

What Causes Dysuria?

There are many causes of dysuria. Also, know that doctors can’t always identify the cause.

WOMEN: Painful urination for women can be the result of:

Couple feet under the sheets
  • Bladder infection (cystitis)
  • Vaginal infection
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Endometritis and other causes outside the urinary tract, including diverticulosis and diverticulitis
  • Inflammation of the bladder or urethra (urethritis) 
  • Sexual intercourse, douches, soaps, scented toilet paper, contraceptive sponges, or spermicides may also cause inflammation.

MEN: Painful urination for men may be the result of:

  • Urinary tract infections and other infections outside the urinary tract include diverticulosis and diverticulitis.
  • Prostate disease
  • Cancer

Treatment, Management, and Prevention of Dysuria

Treatment for dysuria depends on the cause of your pain/burning sensation. The first step in your treatment is to determine if infection, inflammation, dietary factors, or a problem with your bladder or prostate causes your painful urination.

  • Urinary tract infections are most commonly treated with antibiotics. If your pain is severe, you may be prescribed phenazopyridine. Note: this medication turns your urine red-orange and stains undergarments.
  • Inflammation caused by irritation to the skin is usually treated by avoiding the cause of the irritant.
  • Dysuria caused by an underlying bladder or prostate condition is treated by addressing the underlying condition.

You can take several steps to reduce the discomfort of painful urination, including drinking more water or taking an over-the-counter aid to treat painful urination. Other treatments need prescription medications. If you have frequent urinary tract infections, your provider can help find the cause.

Recommended medication:

  • Famciclovir – Famciclovir is in a class of medications called antivirals. It works by stopping the spread of the herpes virus in the body. Famciclovir does not cure herpes infections and may not stop the spread of the herpes virus to other people. However, it may decrease the symptoms of pain, burning, tingling, tenderness, and itching. It also help sores to heal and prevent new sores from forming.

Medical Tips For Nausea And Vomiting Caused By Cancer Treatment

One of the most common side effects of cancer treatment is nausea. It can be caused by chemotherapy, radiation therapy and even anaesthesia. Dehydration or constipation can play a part, too. Several medications are available now to help patients manage nausea. 

What are Nausea and Vomiting?

Nausea and vomiting are common and sometimes serious side effects of cancer treatment. Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and other cancer treatments can cause nausea and vomiting.

Nausea feels queasy, sick to your stomach, or like you might throw up. Vomiting is throwing up the food and liquid in your stomach.

It is important that your nausea and vomiting are controlled and managed. If these aren’t, these problems can affect your daily life, mental health, and physical health and even delay treatment. Relieving side effects, palliative care or supportive care, is an important part of cancer care and treatment. 

What Causes Nausea and Vomiting When On Cancer Therapy?

Chemo patient with hairy chest after the theraphy

When you have cancer, the causes of nausea and vomiting can include the following:

  • Chemotherapy. Nausea and vomiting are common side effects of certain chemotherapy drugs. Your healthcare team may call it chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). And a higher dosage of chemotherapy can make your side effects worse. 
  • Radiation therapy. Radiation therapy to large areas of the body, specifically the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, liver, or brain, can cause nausea and vomiting. A higher radiation therapy dosage is also more likely to cause these symptoms.
  • Other medications used in cancer care. Other drugs used to treat cancer, including targeted therapy and immunotherapy, can cause nausea and vomiting. Some medications to help with side effects can also cause nausea and vomiting. For instance, pain medications commonly cause stomach problems.

Types of Nausea and Vomiting Caused By Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy

  • Delayed nausea and vomiting usually start more than 24 hours after treatment and can last up to a few days after treatment ends. 
  • Anticipatory nausea and vomiting are learned or conditioned responses. It appears to result from previous experiences with treatment that led to nausea and vomiting, in which the brain pairs some parts of the treatment, such as the sights, sounds, and smells of the treatment area, with vomiting. 
  • Breakthrough nausea and vomiting happen even though treatment has been given to prevent it. When this happens, you may need more or different medicines to help prevent further nausea and vomiting.
  • Refractory vomiting is when you’reyou get medicines to prevent or control nausea and vomiting, but the drugs are not working. Your nausea and vomiting have become refractory to the medicines you’reyou take to prevent it. You may need more or different medicines to stop nausea and vomiting. 

Nausea and vomiting can be caused by radiation therapy based on the following:

  • Total body irradiation is linked to a high risk of nausea and vomiting if treatment is not given to prevent it. Patients may also get high doses of chemo to prepare for the transplant, raising the chance of nausea and vomiting.
  • The part of the body being treated. The risk is greatest when the brain is treated or the area of the body being treated includes a large part of the upper abdomen.
  • The dose of radiation given. The bigger the radiation dose given, the higher the risk for nausea and vomiting.

Treatment, Management, and Prevention of Nausea and Vomiting

woman having a glass of water

You can take steps to reduce your risk of nausea and vomiting. For example:

  • Eat what appeals to you. It’s best, however, to avoid sweet, fried or fatty foods. In addition, cool foods may give off less bothersome odours.
  • Eat small meals. Stagger small meals throughout the day rather than eating fewer, larger meals. If possible, don’t skip meals. Eating a light meal a few hours before treatment also may help.
  • Drink lots of fluids. Try cool beverages, such as water, unsweetened fruit juices, tea or ginger ale that’s lost its carbonation. It may help to drink small amounts throughout the day rather than larger amounts less frequently.
  • Cook and freeze meals before treatment to avoid cooking when you’re not feeling well. Or have someone else cook for you.
  • Avoid unpleasant smells. Pay attention to what smells trigger nausea and limit your exposure to unpleasant smells. Fresh air may help.
  • Use relaxation techniques. Examples include meditation and deep breathing.
  • Make yourself comfortable. Rest after eating, but don’t lie flat for a couple of hours. Try wearing loose fitting clothing and distracting yourself with other activities.
  • Consider complementary therapies. Complementary and alternative therapies, such as acupuncture and aromatherapy, may help you feel better when combined with your doctor’s medications. Tell your doctor if you’re interested in trying these treatments. He or she may be able to recommend a practitioner who works with people undergoing cancer treatments.

A recommended prescription that can be used for nausea and vomiting:

Urinary Incontinence: Symptoms, Types, Risk Factors, Causes and Treatment

Urinary incontinence is a common and often embarrassing problem. The severity ranges from occasionally leaking urine when you cough or sneeze to having the urge to urinate that’s so sudden and strong you don’t get to a toilet in time.

Though it occurs more often as people get older, urinary incontinence isn’t an inevitable consequence of ageing. Don’t hesitate to see your doctor if urinary incontinence affects your daily activities. For most people, simple lifestyle and dietary changes or medical care can treat symptoms of urinary incontinence.

What is Urinary Incontinence?

urinary incontinence illustration side by side

Urinary incontinence is a condition that impacts many people’s lives. You may experience bladder control issues and leak urine when you have incontinence. This leakage is often uncontrollable and can negatively impact your life.

Your urinary system comprises the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. These parts do several jobs. They filter, store and remove waste from your body. Your kidneys are the filters of your body. Waste products are removed from your blood by the kidneys, creating urine. The urine then moves down through two thin tubes called ureters. The ureters connect to the bladder, where the urine will collect until it leaves the body. Your bladder is like a storage tank. Once the bladder is complete, the brain signals that it’s time to urinate. Urine then leaves the bladder when a muscle opens up, allowing the urine to flow freely out of the body through the urethra. When this system is working smoothly, you usually have time to get to a bathroom before urinating, and you don’t experience any urine leakage. Urinary incontinence can happen when these parts don’t operate as they should. It can happen for many different reasons throughout your life.

Many people think incontinence is a normal part of ageing that can’t be helped. While it is true that your risk of incontinence increases as you get older, there are also treatments available to help you manage this condition. Incontinence doesn’t have to disrupt your life and keep you from being active.

Types of Urinary Incontinence

There are several different types of incontinence. These types have different causes, characteristics and triggers for urine leakage. Knowing the type of incontinence is often an essential part of the diagnosis and treatment plan for incontinence.

The types of incontinence include:

  • Urge incontinence
  • Stress incontinence
  • Overflow incontinence
  • Mixed incontinence

Signs and Symptoms of Urinary Incontinence

The main symptom of incontinence is a leakage of urine. It could be a constant dripping of urine or an occasional leakage experience. If you have incontinence, you might have significant amounts or small amounts of leaked urine. You might experience leakage for various reasons, often depending on the type of incontinence you have.

symptoms of Pet Allergy

You might leak urine when you:

  • Exercise
  • Cough
  • Laugh
  • Sneeze
  • Have the urge to urinate but can’t make it to the toilet on time
  • Have to get up in the middle of the night to urinate 

Risk Factors of Urinary Incontinence

Incontinence can happen to anyone. However, it’s more common in certain groups and times in your life. Incontinence is much more common in women than in men. It is often related to pregnancy, childbirth and menopause. Each of these experiences can cause a woman’s pelvic support muscles to weaken over time.

You’re also more likely to experience incontinence as you get older. The muscles that support your pelvic organs can become weaker over time, causing you to experience leakage issues.

What Causes of Urinary Incontinence

There are many different reasons that you could experience incontinence. These causes can vary depending on if you’re a woman or a man. Some causes are temporary health conditions that usually go away once treated. In those cases, your incontinence also usually stops once the condition is treated. Long-term medical conditions can cause incontinence. When you experience leakage issues because of a chronic condition, it’s usually something you will have to manage over a more extended period. Even with treatment, chronic conditions usually don’t go away. Incontinence may have to be managed over time as a symptom of your chronic condition.

Treatment, Management, and Prevention of Urinary Incontinence

There are many different factors that your healthcare provider will consider when creating a treatment plan for your incontinence. The type of incontinence and how it affects your life are significant considerations. Your provider will also talk to you about the type of treatment you are most comfortable with. You can explore three main treatment types for incontinence — medications, lifestyle changes and surgery. Each option has pros and cons that your provider will discuss with you.

5 Stages of Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease affects people in various ways, and those who live with the condition may not experience all of the typical symptoms. Those who share similar or identical symptoms may not necessarily have them simultaneously or experience the same intensity. It’s a disease that progresses uniquely from person to person, and the uncertainty of what might happen next can be very difficult for patients and their loved ones.

What Is Parkinson’s Disease?

Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease

 Parkinson’s disease is caused by a loss of nerve cells in a part of the brain called the substantia nigra, leading to progressive damage to several areas of the brain over many years. The loss of nerves reduces dopamine in the brain, which plays a vital role in the body’s ability to move. This reduction of dopamine is responsible for several Parkinson’s symptoms, mainly motor symptoms, but the mechanism for losing nerve cells remains unclear. Most experts agree that it’s due to genetic and environmental factors.

The three typical movement symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are:

  • Involuntary shaking or a ‘tremor’ of parts of the body
  • Slow movement
  • Stiff muscles and difficulties with flexibility

Additionally, people with Parkinson’s disease can also experience other physical and non-movement symptoms, such as:

  • Depression and anxiety
  • Balance issues
  • Losing sense of smell
  • Sleeping problems
  • Memory difficulties

Many medical professionals who diagnose Parkinson’s disease use the Hoehn and Yahr scale to classify symptoms and their severity. This scale rates the condition and breaks it into five stages based on disease progression. The scale allows doctors to evaluate how far PD has advanced in patients and what treatments may be most effective for symptom management.

Stage 1

Changes in a Person’s Habits

At stage 1, there can be mild symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, but they’re often not severe enough at this point to impact daily tasks and general quality of life. However, this isn’t to say symptoms are not present. Family and friends may notice changes in a person’s movement, recognize poor posture, and see differences in facial expressions at this early stage.

Stage 2

Muscle Stiffness and Posture Problems

Stage 2 of Parkinson’s disease is considered a ‘moderate’ condition, with symptoms becoming more noticeable than in the previous stage. Examples include noticeable tremors, stiffness, and trembling. Also, changes to facial expressions can occur but are not always apparent to others. 

Although stage 2 doesn’t usually cause balance-related issues, other movement symptoms, such as muscle stiffness, can make tasks more challenging. Additionally, the condition can hinder a person’s posture at this stage, leading to back and neck pain. At this point, the disease can impact both sides of the body, and difficulties with speech can also occur.

Progression from stage 1 to 2 can take months to years, and there are no reliable methods to predict how it will progress. People in stage 2 of Parkinson’s can generally live alone but tend to find everyday tasks more difficult.

Stage 3

Poor Reflexes and Balance Issues

The third stage of Parkinson’s is considered mid-stage Parkinson’s progression and a significant turning point in how the disease will progress from here on out. While many of the symptoms remain the same or similar to stage 2, stage 3 can also introduce poorer reflexes and loss of balance at times. For this reason, people in stage three experience more noticeable movement issues or appear to ‘slow down.’ Unfortunately, falls become more frequent at this stage due to balance and reflex problems. 

Stage 4

Poor Motor Skills

Grandfather walking his granddaughter on a cemented road

The critical factor in separating people with stage 3 Parkinson’s and stage 4 is independence. Motor skills are heavily impacted at stage 4, and movement symptoms affect a person’s ability to retain their independence. Some people at stage 4 can stand confidently without assistance, and some can walk without the help of equipment or another person, but it’s common for a person to require assistive equipment such as a walker.

Stage 5

Severe Stiffness

Stage 5 of Parkinson’s disease is the final and most debilitating stage and reflects the most advanced progression. Severe stiffness can make it difficult, if not impossible, for a person to stand or walk. It is due to stiffness causing the legs to freeze when the patient attempts to stand essentially. These symptoms make daily tasks impossible and dangerous for someone to try without assistance. Therefore, it’s common for stage 5 sufferers to need a wheelchair because of an inability to stand without help — meaning they often require supervision to avoid falls.

Recommended medications for this type of disease may include:

These drugs are in a class of medications called dopamine agonists. It works by acting in place of dopamine, a natural substance in the brain needed to control movement.

Soft Tissue Injury: Symptoms, Types, Causes, and Treatment

The most common soft tissues injured are muscles, tendons, and ligaments. These injuries often occur during sports and exercise activities, but sometimes simple everyday activities can cause damage. Even with appropriate treatment, these injuries may require a prolonged time to heal.

What is Soft Tissue Injury?

Soft tissue injuries (STI) occur when trauma or overuse occurs to muscles, tendons, or ligaments. Most soft tissue injuries result from a sudden unexpected, or uncontrolled movement like stepping awkwardly off a curb and rolling over your ankle. 

Types of Soft Tissue Injury

woman holding elbows muscle pain

Soft tissue injuries include the following conditions:

  • Sprains, especially of the ankle and wrist
  • Strains, especially in the back, calf, and hamstring
  • Golfer/tennis elbow
  • Contusions
  • Tendonitis
  • Bursitis

Even though soft tissue injuries can occur anywhere in the body, the ankles, knees, and wrists are especially vulnerable. These joints can turn inward, especially when you land sharply or twist from a fall. This sudden action places tension on the corresponding ligament, which can result in a sprain. By contrast, a strain affects the muscles and tendons. These injuries may occur when the body’s fibrous tissue or tears are stretched too far. Other injuries like tendonitis involve inflammation or irritation of muscles and tendons, stemming from stress or repetitive use that eventually manifests in pain.

A common factor connecting all soft tissue injuries, many can take an extended period to heal and may affect the body’s future performance.

Signs and Symptoms of Soft Tissue Injury

Symptoms of soft tissue injuries depend on the specific type of injury but often include general pain and swelling around the affected area. 

Other common symptoms are:

  • Muscle cramping
  • Weakness
  • Spasms
  • Lump or knot at the injury site
  • Joint instability
  • Inability to put weight on a limb

When soft tissue is damaged, there is usually immediate pain and immediate or delayed swelling. Stiffness is also very common as a result of the trauma and swelling. Bruising may also develop after 24 to 48 hours. In the case of moderate to severe soft tissue injuries of muscles, tendons, and ligaments around a joint, instability may be experienced, especially in weight-bearing joints like the hip, knee, and ankle.

What Causes Soft Tissue Injury?

Soft-tissue injuries fall into two basic categories: acute injuries and overuse injuries.

  • Acute injuries are caused by sudden trauma, such as a fall, twist, or blow to the body. Examples include sprains, strains, and contusions.
  • Overuse injuries occur gradually over time when an athletic or other activity is repeated so often that body areas do not have enough time to heal between occurrences. Tendinitis and bursitis are common soft-tissue overuse injuries.

Treatment, Management, and Prevention of Soft Tissue Injury

woman having a glass of water

Injuries often occur when people suddenly increase their activities’ duration, intensity, or frequency. Many soft-tissue injuries can be prevented through proper conditioning and training. Other prevention tips include:

  • Use proper equipment. Wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothes that let you move freely and are light enough to release body heat.
  • Aim for balanced fitness. Develop a balanced fitness program incorporating cardiovascular exercise, strength training, and flexibility. Add activities and new exercises cautiously. Whether you are sedentary or in good physical shape, try taking only a few actions at a time. Adding up to one or two new exercises per workout is best.
  • Warm-up. Warm up to prepare for exercise, even before stretching. Run in place for a few minutes, breathe slowly and deeply, or gently rehearse the motions of the movement to follow. Warming up increases heart and blood flow rates and loosens muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joints.
  • Drink water. Drink enough water to prevent dehydration, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke. Have a drink of water every 20 minutes or so while you exercise.
  • Cool down. Make cooling down the final phase of your exercise routine. It should take twice as long as your warm-up. 
  • Stretch. Begin stretches slowly and carefully until reaching a point of muscle tension. Hold each stretch for 10 to 20 seconds, then slowly and carefully release it. Inhale before each stretch and exhale as you release. Do each stretch only once. Never stretch to the point of pain, always maintain control, and never bounce on a fully stretched muscle.
  • Rest. Schedule regular days off from vigorous exercise and rest when tired. Fatigue and pain are good reasons not to exercise.
  • Avoid the weekend warrior syndrome. Try to get at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity every day. 

Recommended medication used for soft tissue injuries:

Delusional Disorder: Symptoms, Types, Causes, and Treatment

The delusional disorder most often occurs in the middle to late life, with the average age of onset being 40 years. Although delusions might be a symptom of more common disorders, such as schizophrenia, delusional disorder is rare. Approximately 0.05% to 0.1% of adults have a delusional disorder.

What is Delusional Disorder?

woman in black and white shouting in anxiety and mental problems

Delusional disorder is a type of psychotic disorder. Its main symptom is the presence of one or more delusions. A delusion is an unshakable belief in something untrue. The idea isn’t part of the person’s culture or subculture, and almost everyone knows this belief to be false.

People with delusional disorders often experience non-bizarre delusions. Non-bizarre delusions involve situations that could occur in real life, such as being followed, deceived or loved from a distance. These delusions usually involve the misinterpretation of perceptions or experiences. In reality, these situations are either untrue or highly exaggerated. Non-bizarre delusions are different from bizarre delusions, which include beliefs that are impossible in our fact, such as believing someone has removed an organ from your body without any physical evidence of the procedure.

People with delusional disorder often continue to socialize and function well, apart from the subject of their delusion. Generally, they don’t behave oddly or unusually. It is unlike people with other psychotic disorders, who might also have delusions as a symptom. In some cases, however, people with delusional disorder might become so preoccupied with their delusions that their lives are disrupted.

Types of Delusional Disorder

  • Erotomanic: People with this type of delusional disorder believe that another person, often someone important or famous, is in love with them. They may attempt to contact the person of the delusion and engage in stalking behaviour.
  • Grandiose: People with this delusional disorder have an overinflated sense of self-worth, power, knowledge or identity. They may believe they have a great talent or have made an important discovery.
  • Jealous: People with this type of delusional disorder believe that their spouse or sexual partner is unfaithful without any concrete evidence.
  • Persecutory: People with this type of delusional disorder believe someone or something is mistreating, spying on or attempting to harm them. They may also make repeated complaints to legal authorities.
  • Somatic: People with this type of delusional disorder believe they have a physical or medical problem, such as a parasite or foul odour.
  • Mixed: People with this type of delusional disorder have two or more of the types of delusions listed above.

Signs and Symptoms of Delusional Disorder

man showing angry facial act on a grayscaled photo

Early symptoms of the delusional disorder may include:

  • Feelings of being exploited
  • Preoccupation with the loyalty or trustworthiness of friends
  • A tendency to read threatening meanings into benign remarks or events
  • Persistently holding grudges
  • A readiness to respond and react to perceived slights

What Causes Delusional Disorder?

As with many other psychotic disorders, researchers don’t know the exact cause of the delusional disorder. Researchers are, however, looking at the role of various factors that may contribute to the development of the condition, including:

  • Genetic factors
  • Biological factors
  • Environmental and psychological factors 

Treatment, Management, and Prevention of Delusional Disorder

Treatment for delusional disorder most often includes psychotherapy and medication, but the delusional disorder is highly resistant to treatment with medication alone. People with delusional disorder often don’t seek treatment for the condition on their own because most people with the delusional disorder don’t realize their delusions are problematic or incorrect. They’ll likely seek help due to other mental health conditions such as depression or anxiety.

People with severe symptoms or at risk of hurting themselves or others might need to be admitted to the hospital until the condition is stabilized.

Recommended medication:

Watery Eyes: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Watery eyes can be due to many factors and conditions. In infants, persistent watery eyes, often with some matter, are commonly the result of blocked tear ducts. In babies, the tear duct may not be fully open and functioning for the first several months of life.

What are Watery Eyes?

Watery Eyes

Epiphora is the medical term for having watery eyes. Usually, tears lubricate and protect your eyes. Epiphora happens when something causes you to make too many tears or stops them from draining away from your eyes as they should.

Epiphora can happen for lots of reasons, many of which don’t need any treatment. It can be a temporary condition, but it can also be a sign of a serious eye infection or a blockage in your tear ducts. Visit your healthcare provider if your eyes are constantly watering or you’re having trouble seeing. Anyone can be affected by epiphora. Most people experience watery eyes at some point throughout their life. Epiphora happens frequently and is more common in babies and adults older than 50.

Signs and Symptoms of Watery Eyes

Symptoms of watery eyes include:

  • Eyes that feel too wet or watery
  • Tears running down your face
  • Tears build up in your eyes when you’re not crying or laughing

What Causes Watery Eyes?

Watery eyes are usually a sign of another issue or condition that’s affecting your eyes or tear system. Some of the most common causes of epiphora include:

Symptoms of Drug Allergy
  • Allergies
  • Blepharitis
  • Blocked tear ducts 
  • Dry eyes
  • Styes
  • Chalazion
  • Entropion
  • Eye injuries can also cause epiphora, including:
  • Environmental irritants like smoke or air pollution
  • Scratched corneas 
  • Dirt, debris, chemicals, or any foreign object that touches your eye for too long

Infections like pink eye or sinus infections can cause watery eyes, as well.

Treatment, Management, and Prevention of Watery Eyes

How your watery eyes are treated depends on what’s causing them. Many people experience temporary watery eyes that clear up on their own without any treatment.

Your provider will tell you which type of treatment you’ll need. The most common treatments include:

  • Medications: You’ll need medication to treat your watery eyes if the epiphora is caused by allergies or an infection. If you have a condition like dry eye syndrome, your provider might prescribe artificial tears or prescription eye drops.
  • Removing foreign objects: If there’s something in your eye or something hit your eye and damaged it, your provider will remove it or treat the damage. You might need surgery if a foreign object severely damaged your eye.
  • Clearing blocked tear ducts: If you have blocked tear ducts, your provider will open them. They can flush them with a saline solution to rinse away the blockage. They can use a probe to open your tear ducts manually if they need to. If your tear ducts are damaged or blocked by something your provider can’t remove with either saline or a probe, you might need surgery to open them.
  • Repairing your eyes or eyelids: If the physical shape of your eyes or eyelids is causing epiphora, your provider will repair the damage. You might need surgery to correct some issues.

Your provider will tell you how to manage your epiphora symptoms. If they prescribe a medication, make sure to take it or use it as often as they say. This is especially true if they give you antibiotics for an infection. You need to take antibiotics for as long as your provider prescribes, even if your symptoms improve. If you don’t take the full course of antibiotics, the infection might come back, get worse or spread to other parts of your body.

The recommended prescription used for the condition:

Talk to your provider about ways you might be able to prevent watery eyes in the future.

Understanding Cholesterol Levels

Your cholesterol numbers show how much cholesterol is circulating in your blood. Your HDL (good cholesterol) is the one number you want to be high (ideally above 60). Your LDL (bad cholesterol) should be below 100. Your total should be below 200. Talk with your provider about what your results mean for you and how to manage your cholesterol.

Measuring Cholesterol Levels

Your provider checks your cholesterol levels through a blood test called a lipid panel. Your provider will draw blood from a vein in your arm and send the blood to a lab for analysis. Be sure to closely follow your provider’s instructions on how to prepare for the test. You’ll likely need to fast for 12 hours beforehand. This means avoiding all foods and drinks except water.

When your results come in, your provider will let you know. You may also be able to access your results through your electronic medical record.

Your lipid panel gives you the following numbers:

  • Total cholesterol: This is the total amount of cholesterol that’s circulating in your blood. Here’s the formula for calculating it: HDL + LDL + 20% triglycerides = total cholesterol.
  • HDL level: HDL is high-density lipoprotein. This is the “good” cholesterol that moves extra cholesterol from your bloodstream to your liver. Your liver then gets rid of it from your body. When you see HDL, think of “h” for help. HDLs help your arteries clear out the cholesterol your body doesn’t need. It’s the one number in your lipid panel that you want to be high.
  • LDL level: LDL is low-density lipoprotein. This is the “bad” cholesterol that contributes to plaque buildup in your arteries. You need some LDLs because they carry cholesterol to your body’s cells. But having too many can cause problems.
  • VLDL level: VLDL is a very low-density lipoprotein. It’s another “bad” form that contributes to plaque buildup. VLDLs carry a type of fat (triglycerides) in your blood. If you have too many VLDLs, the extra fat can build up in your arteries.
  • Triglycerides: This is a type of fat. You need some triglycerides. But high levels (hypertriglyceridemia) can put you at risk for atherosclerosis and other diseases.
  • Non-HDL cholesterol: This is all the cholesterol in your blood that isn’t HDL. The formula for calculating this number is simple: Total cholesterol – HDL = Non-HDL cholesterol
  • The ratio between total cholesterol and HDL: This is your total cholesterol divided by your HDL. In general, you want your number to be below five. Your results may show a chart with more details and desirable levels. 

Meaning Behind Cholesterol Levels and the Numbers

Healthcare providers measure cholesterol levels as milligrams of cholesterol per deciliter of blood. The abbreviation is mg/dL. Providers use these same units to measure your triglycerides.

High cholesterol generally means your total cholesterol is 200 mg/dL or higher. But providers use additional categories like borderline high and near-optimal to break down your results. If your numbers are close to normal levels, they may be easier to manage through lifestyle and dietary changes.

Why Are Cholesterol Numbers Important

Your cholesterol numbers are important because they help you know your risk for heart disease. Cholesterol is a type of lipid that helps your body perform many important functions. But too much cholesterol in your blood is bad for you. It can enter your artery wall, damage its integrity and lead to the formation of atherosclerotic plaque.

How To Lower Cholesterol Level?

smoking cigarettes

You may feel upset to learn you have high cholesterol. But now that you know about it, you can take action to lower your numbers. Follow your provider’s guidance on how to lower your cholesterol and reduce your risk of heart disease. Some general tips include:

  • Add more exercise to your daily routine.
  • Avoid smoking and all tobacco products.
  • Keep a weight that’s healthy for you.

Learn how food impacts your cholesterol, and start with small changes to your diet.

  • Manage high blood pressure and high blood sugar.
  • Learn new strategies for dealing with stress.
  • Take your medications as prescribed.

Most of all, don’t blame yourself. High cholesterol is a common condition that can be hard to control through lifestyle choices alone. And many factors beyond our control limit the choices we can make.

Medications that can be used to lower cholesterol:




These medications work by decreasing hepatic triglyceride synthesis and reducing circulating free fatty acids. As a result with proper lifestyle, helps with cholesterol levels. 

Eye Health – All About Intraocular Pressure

Your eyes are filled with fluid that helps keep them inflated like a ball. The normal pressure in the eyes can change during the day and differ from person to person. The fluids drain freely in healthy eyes to keep the eye pressure steady. If your eye pressure is consistently too high or too low, it could be a warning that you may have problems with your vision.

What is Intraocular Pressure?

Watery eye of a person with eye problems

Intraocular pressure is the medical term for the pressure of the fluid inside your eyes. Your body regulates your intraocular pressure automatically. As your eye creates new aqueous humor, an equal amount of older aqueous humor leaves your eye. Old aqueous humor runs out of your eye through the drainage angle — the spot where your iris meets the sclera.

Having high intraocular pressure is a health condition called ocular hypertension. If it’s not treated, this added stress on the parts inside your eye can damage your optic nerve. Untreated, ocular hypertension can cause glaucoma and make you permanently lose your vision.

Your body automatically adjusts your eye pressure. But certain changes inside your eye can affect your intraocular pressure faster than your body can regulate it, including:

  • Your eye is producing too much aqueous humor.
  • A blocked drainage angle prevents aqueous humor from leaving your eye.
  • Traumas and eye injuries.
  • Side effects from some medications, especially corticosteroids.

People with high intraocular pressure have an increased risk of developing glaucoma. Ask an eye care specialist how often you should check your intraocular pressure.

How is Intraocular Pressure Measured?

An eye care specialist will check your intraocular pressure during an eye exam. Intraocular pressure is the amount of pressure or force inside of your eyes. Specifically, it measures the fluid pressure in your aqueous humor.

An eye care specialist will measure your eye pressure with a tonometry test. Tonometry measures the pressure inside of your eye by flattening your cornea. The more force needed to flatten your cornea, the higher your eye pressure is.

The most common type of tonometry is non-contact or air puff tonometry. A machine shoots a brief puff of air against your eye and measures how much your cornea moves. Your eye care specialist might also measure your intraocular pressure by numbing your eye with special drops and pressing a tool against your cornea.

Let’s Talk About The Eye Pressure

Eye pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury, like the way a thermometer measures temperature using mercury. Normal eye pressure is usually between 10 and 20 millimeters of mercury (mmHg). Having eye pressure that’s too low or too high can damage your vision.

Elevated eye pressure with no other symptoms is ocular hypertension. Some people can have higher eye pressure with no damage. Other people may lose vision even if the pressure is normal.

When someone has glaucoma, eye pressure damages the optic nerve. This damage permanently reduces vision. If glaucoma is not treated, it can lead to total blindness.

To treat this type of condition, you can do the following:

woman with a doctor giving her eye drops

An eye care specialist will treat high eye pressure. Which treatment you’ll need depends on how high your intraocular pressure is and what’s causing it. Some treatments include:

  • Medication (usually eye drops) decrease fluids and increase drainage in your eye.
  • Laser treatment to clear a blocked drainage angle.
  • Surgery to relieve pressure inside your eye.

Your eye care specialist will monitor you for signs of glaucoma. They’ll tell you how often you need your eye pressure checked.

Medication used:

Actinic Keratosis: Symptoms, Risk Factors, Causes, and Treatment

Actinic keratosis (AK) is a skin disorder. AK is a type of pre-cancer, which means that if you don’t treat the condition, it could turn into cancer. Without treatment, AK can lead to a type of skin cancer called squamous cell carcinoma. About 58 million Americans have one or more spots of actinic keratosis. AK is the most common type of skin pre-cancer.

What is Actinic Keratosis?

Actinic keratosis is a rough, scaly patch on the skin that develops from years of sun exposure. It’s often found on the face, lips, ears, forearms, scalp, neck, or back of the hands.

Also known as solar keratosis, actinic keratosis grows slowly and usually first appears in people over 40. You can reduce your risk of this skin condition by minimizing sun exposure and protecting your skin from ultraviolet (UV) rays.

Signs and Symptoms of Actinic Keratosis

man hands that has Actinic Keratosis clear on the skin

Usually, the first signs of actinic keratosis are rough, raised bumps on your skin. They can vary in color but often have a yellow or brown crust on top. These bumps may be:

  • Gray
  • Pink
  • Red
  • The same color as your skin

Symptoms may also include:

  • Bleeding
  • Burning, stinging, or itching
  • Dry, scaly lips
  • Hornlike skin growths that stick out (like an animal’s horn)
  • Loss of color in the lips
  • Pain or tenderness

It can be challenging to distinguish between noncancerous spots and cancerous ones. So it’s best to have new skin changes evaluated by a healthcare provider, especially if a scaly spot or patch persists, grows, or bleeds.

What Causes Actinic Keratosis?

The most common cause of actinic keratosis is too much exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light. UV light comes from the sun or indoor tanning equipment like beds. UV light can damage your outer layer of skin cells, called keratinocytes.

Risk Factors for Actinic Keratosis

UV rays from the sun and tanning beds cause almost all actinic keratosis. Damage to the skin from UV rays builds up over time. It means that even short-term exposure to the sun regularly can build up over a lifetime and increase the risk of actinic keratosis. 

Some people are more at risk than others, including:

  • People with pale skin, blonde or red hair, and blue, green, or gray eyes
  • People with darker skin, hair, and eyes who have been exposed to UV rays without protection
  • Older adults
  • People with suppressed immune systems (due to chemotherapy, AIDS, organ transplant, or other causes)
  • People with rare conditions that make the skin very sensitive to UV rays, such as albinism or xeroderma pigmentosum (XP)

Treatment, Management, and Prevention of Actinic Keratosis

Your healthcare provider will likely determine whether you have an actinic keratosis simply by looking at your skin. If there’s any doubt, your healthcare provider may do other tests, such as a skin biopsy. During a skin biopsy, a small skin sample is taken for analysis in a lab. A biopsy can usually be done in a clinic after a numbing injection. Even after treatment for actinic keratosis, your healthcare provider might suggest you have your skin checked at least once a year for signs of skin cancer.

doctor holding laser to treat skin diseases

An actinic keratosis sometimes disappears but might return after more sun exposure. It’s hard to tell which actinic keratosis will develop into skin cancer, so they’re usually removed as a precaution.

Many methods are used to remove actinic keratosis, including:

  • Freezing (cryotherapy)
  • Scraping (curettage)
  • Laser therapy
  • Photodynamic therapy

If you have several actinic keratoses, your healthcare provider might prescribe a medicated cream or gel to remove them, such as:

  • Imiquimod Cream – is in a class of medications called immune response modifiers. Imiquimod works on the immune system to help the body fight viruses that cause warts. It does not destroy the viruses directly. This medicine is for use on the skin only. Do not get it in your eyes, nose, mouth, vagina, or anus. Please do not use it on skin areas with cuts, scrapes, or burns. If it does get on these areas, rinse it immediately with water. 

Thromboembolic Disorders: Symptoms, Types, Risk Factors, Causes, and Treatment

A thromboembolic disorder is a blood clot that blocks blood flow through your veins. It can be stuck in the deep veins of the legs or arms or travel through the veins to the lungs. A thromboembolic disorder that blocks the lungs is life-threatening. As such, it requires immediate treatment. Knowing the signs of thromboembolism and who is at risk can help you better recognize when you or someone you love needs medical attention.

What are Thromboembolic Disorders?

Thromboembolism is when a blood clot (thrombus) forms in a blood vessel, breaks loose and travels to another part of the body via the bloodstream, which blocks another blood vessel. When an unattached mass (embolus) causes the blockage, it is called an embolism. Thromboembolic diseases can affect multiple organs, eventually causing the organ to shut down and die. 

Two main types of thromboembolic disorders are categorized by the affected blood vessels.

  • Venous thromboembolism – the resulting blood clot blocks a vein. Venous thromboembolisms most commonly occur in the legs. When this happens, it is called a deep vein thromboembolism. Thromboembolism that happens in the lungs is potentially life-threatening. Pulmonary embolism can be fatal depending on the exact location and degree of blockage. The arms, liver, kidneys, and brain are less common locations for venous thromboembolism.
  • Arterial thromboembolism – the resulting blood blot blocks an artery, causing ischemia and possibly an infarction. Most arterial embolisms happen because of a blood clot. Arterial thromboembolism usually happens in the legs and feet, although it may also occur in the brain. When it does, this is called a stroke and may lead to a heart attack. Other possible locations are the kidneys, intestines, and eyes.

Signs and Symptoms of Thromboembolic Disorders

Chest pain
  • Swelling
  • Redness
  • Warmth
  • Pain
  • Chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Rapid breathing
  • Lightheadedness
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Sweating or clamminess
  • Coughing up blood

What Causes Thromboembolic Disorders?

While venous thromboembolism and arterial thromboembolism share many risk factors, they have key differences.

Venous thromboembolism can be caused by:

  • Family history of venous thromboembolism
  • Obesity
  • Older age
  • Chronic illnesses such as heart disease, lung disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer
  • An injury to a vein (due to trauma or major surgery)
  • Use of a central venous catheter
  • Wearing a cast
  • Bed confinement
  • Sitting for a long time, particularly with crossed legs, such as on a long flight
  • Estrogen-based treatments (including birth control pills)

Arterial thromboembolism is strongly connected to the same risks associated with heart disease:

  • Obesity
  • Older age
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • High blood pressure
  • High cholesterol
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Diabetes
  • Recent surgery
  • Previous stroke of cardiovascular disease
  • Mitral stenosis (a type of heart valve disease)
  • Atrial fibrillation (the rapid, irregular rhythm of the heart’s atrial valves)

Risk Factors for Thromboembolic Disorders

old man in black and white with magnifying glass
  • Injury to a vein due to bone fracture or surgery
  • Infection
  • Slow blood flow from immobilization
  • Genetics and family history of VTE
  • High estrogen due to pregnancy, birth control or hormone replacement therapy
  • Blood clotting conditions, including Factor V Leiden disease, polycythemia vera and sickle cell disease
  • Certain chronic illnesses, including cancer, heart disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
  • Lifestyle factors, including smoking, obesity and lack of exercise
  • Age (VTE is most common in seniors, perhaps due to higher rates of illness and lifestyle factors.)

Treatment, Management, and Prevention of Thromboembolic Disorders

Thromboembolism has many risk factors, and not all can be managed. But in general, movement is the easiest prevention. Since most occur in the legs, you can mitigate a lot of risk by circulating blood in your legs. If you sit a lot for work or travel, get up and walk or exercise your leg muscles periodically to keep blood from pooling. If you’ve been sick or recovering from surgery, getting up and moving as soon as possible will help reduce the risk of clots. Exercise will also help you keep stress levels down and maintain a healthy weight, which is other contributing factors.

Medication can be used for the condition:

  • Clopidogrel – is in a class of medications called antiplatelet medications. It works by preventing platelets (a type of blood cell) from collecting and forming clots that may cause a heart attack or stroke.

The Effectiveness of Birth Control Pills

Birth control pills are an effective method of birth control with a success rate of about 91%. Birth control pills come in a pack, usually a 28-day cycle, with one pill assigned to each day. You take a birth control pill daily, typically during the same time frame each day, depending on the pill. It keeps certain hormones elevated, making you less likely to get pregnant.

What Are Birth Control Pills?

The birth control pill is a type of contraception that contains hormones that prevent pregnancy. People call it the pill because it comes in pill form. Women take the pill orally once a day. The pill is most effective when you take it consistently at the same time each day.

Recommended birth control pill:

  • Drospirenone – this is an oral contraceptive that works by preventing the release of eggs from the ovaries (ovulation) and changing the cervical mucus and the lining of the uterus. Drospirenone oral contraceptive is a very effective method of birth control. 

Types of Birth Control Pills

There are two different types of birth control pills. Both types contain hormones that prevent pregnancy.

  • Combination pills contain estrogen and progestin.
  • Progestin-only pills are also called mini pills. They are better for some women, such as those who are breastfeeding or have a history of blood clots and strokes and shouldn’t take estrogen.

The pill comes in different dosing packets, from 21-day pill packs to 90-day pill packs, to even 365 days of active pills. Traditionally, depending on the brand and dose, you take at least three weeks of active pills followed by two to seven days of hormone-free pills. It is called cyclical dosing. Most women have a menstrual period during the inactive pills. Some brands do not provide any inactive pills at all in the pack. With the 21-day packs, a woman takes no pills for a week. During this time, you’ll have your period, similar to when taking inactive, hormone-free pills.

Some formulations offer continuous dosing, which means you do not have any inactive pills, and a woman takes an active pill daily. Alternatively, extended cycle dosing is when inactive pills or breaks in the active pill regimen only occur three to four times yearly. Skipping inactive pills prevents menstruation. Your healthcare provider can discuss the best option for you.

How Do Birth Control Pills Work?

Hormones in birth control pills prevent pregnancy by:

  • Stopping or reducing ovulation (releasing an egg from an ovary).
  • Thickening cervical mucus to keep sperm from entering the uterus.
  • Thinning the uterus lining so that a fertilized egg is less likely to attach.

How Effective Are The Pills?

The pill can potentially be 99% effective at preventing pregnancy if you take it without fail, meaning you don’t forget to take the pill for even a day or two. However, taking the pill ideally can be difficult, so nine out of 100 women who use the pill will have an unintended pregnancy every year. The pill is most reliable when you take it consistently at the same time each day. Being consistent helps keep hormone levels from fluctuating.

How Soon Will The Pill Work?

It can take up to seven days for the pill to become effective in preventing pregnancy. During this time, you should use another form of birth control. If the pill controls symptoms such as acne or abnormal bleeding, it can take three to four months to see the benefits.

Benefits of Taking Birth Control Pills

curly haired woman wearing white shirt having abdominal cramps

Some women take the pill for health purposes. The pill can:

  • Regulate or lighten menstruation
  • Prevent anaemia by making periods lighter or shorter
  • Lessen menstrual cramps
  • Manage premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysmorphic disorder (PMDD)
  • Treat polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
  • Treat endometriosis or uterine fibroids
  • Lower the risk of ovarian cancer, uterine cancer and colon cancer
  • Improve acne
  • Stop unwanted hair growth
  • Reduce migraines
  • Control hot flashes during the transition into menopause

Side Effects of Taking Birth Control Pills

woman wearing white shirt confused and scratching head
  • Breast tenderness or swelling
  • Headaches
  • Irritability or moodiness
  • Nausea
  • Spotting between periods

Some women experience medication side effects when they start taking the pill. These side effects often improve after a couple of months. Tell your healthcare provider if you experience side effects.

Pneumococcal Infections: Symptoms, Types, Risk Factors, Causes, and Treatment

Pneumococcal disease is an infection caused by bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae. It causes contagious and potentially severe illnesses, including pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis, so early diagnosis and treatment are essential. Vaccines are the best protection against developing infection.

What are Pneumococcal Infections?

Pneumococcal disease is caused by bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae) that can attack different body parts. When these bacteria invade the lungs, they can cause pneumonia. When they invade the bloodstream, they can cause sepsis; when it invades the covering of the brain, they can cause meningitis.= These severe conditions often require hospitalization and can lead to death. The bacteria can also cause milder common conditions like middle-ear infection (otitis media) and sinusitis.

Types of Pneumococcal Infections

Scientists have identified about 100 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. They cause two main types of pneumococcal disease:

  • Noninvasive: This type of infection is more common, less severe, and doesn’t spread to infect major organs or your blood.
  • Invasive: This more severe type occurs in your blood, in an area of your body that shouldn’t have bacteria usually, or in a major organ like your lungs.

Signs and Symptoms of Pneumococcal Infections

Symptoms of pneumococcal disease vary based on the location and severity of the infection. In the case of mild conditions, you may experience pain, fever, or swelling of your affected body part:

  • Signs and symptoms of middle ear infection caused by pneumococcal bacteria include infection behind the ear drum, pain, and fatigue.
  • Sinus infections may lead to nasal congestion, headache, or loss of sense of smell (anosmia).

Pneumococcal disease can also lead to life-threatening complications.

In the case of pneumonia, you may have the following:

  • Chest pain
  • Cough
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Fever or chills

Symptoms of meningitis often include:

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Low appetite, poor drinking, or vomiting in babies
  • Sensitivity to light

If you have bacteremia, you may experience the following:

  • Chills
  • Fever
  • Confusion

You may develop an extreme inflammatory response to pneumococcal infection. These symptoms include:

  • Confusion
  • Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath 
  • Extreme discomfort or pain
  • Fever or chills
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Sweating
  • Death, if not treated quickly

Talk to your healthcare provider about your symptoms. Call 911 immediately if you or your child experiences a fever over 100.5 degrees Fahrenheit, chest pain, or difficulty breathing.

What Causes of Pneumococcal Infections?

Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria cause pneumococcal disease. These bacteria are often found in the noses and throats of healthy people, especially children. Illness develops when the bacteria spread and set up an infection in your body.

Risk Factors for Pneumococcal Infections

Anyone can develop the pneumococcal disease. Children younger than two are more likely to develop an infection, along with children who have:

  • Cochlear implants
  • A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak
  • Diabetes
  • Kidney disorders, such as nephrotic syndrome
  • Sickle cell disease, or damaged or removed spleens
  • Weakened immune systems due to medication, solid organ transplants, or conditions such as cancer or HIV/AIDS

Adults with weakened immune systems also face a higher risk of developing the pneumococcal disease, as well as those who:

Old woman in a wheelchair sitting by a Christmas tree
  • Are age 65 or older
  • Have alcohol use disorder
  • Have a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak.
  • Have chronic (long-term) lung disease, cardiovascular disease, liver disease, or kidney disease
  • Smoke cigarettes
  • Have cochlear implants

Treatment, Management, and Prevention of Pneumococcal Infections

Healthcare providers typically use antibiotics to treat bacterial infections such as pneumococcal disease. Your provider may have to try several antibiotics because the bacteria have become resistant to certain medications.

For mild infections, your healthcare provider may also recommend the following:

  • Fluids
  • Pain relievers
  • Rest

In severe cases, such as meningitis, you may need to stay in the hospital for treatment.

Pneumococcal vaccines are safe and don’t cause pneumococcal disease. Side effects are uncommon, typically mild, and should go away within two days. They may include pain, swelling, or tenderness where you received the shot. Rarely, you might experience symptoms like muscle aches, joint pain, or fever. Ask your provider any questions you may have about vaccine safety.

Recommended medicine:

Intermittent Claudication: Symptoms, Risk Factors, Causes, and Treatment

Intermittent claudication causes muscle pain during your activity and ceases when you take a break. It typically shows blood flow issues such as peripheral arterial disease. The problem may worsen in time, leading to serious health issues and complications. However, the condition is typically treatable in the early stages of diagnosis.

What is Intermittent Claudication?

Claudication occurs when there is insufficient flow of blood to muscles when exercising. Most of the time, it is felt in the legs following walking at a particular speed and for a specific amount of time, based upon the degree of issue. The condition is also known as intermittent claudication since the pain isn’t always continuous. It starts during exercise and is then cured by the need to rest. As the claudication gets worse but dis, comfort can occur even in relaxation. Claudication technically is a disease manifestation, usually peripheral artery disease, which is the narrowing of the arteries in the limbs, which restricts blood flow.

Signs and Symptoms of Intermittent Claudication

Colchicine Knee Pain

Claudication refers to muscle pain caused by a deficiency of oxygen, triggered by activity and eased through rest.

These symptoms are:

  • Aches, pain, or fatigue in muscles at any time these muscles are utilized
  • Calves pain and thighs, buttocks or feet, or hips
  • Less frequently, discomfort in the shoulders, forearms, and biceps.
  • Pain that eases quickly after having a rest
  • The pain can get worse over time. It’s possible to be numb when you are at the moment of rest.

The signs or symptoms of peripheral arterial disease, generally in more advanced stages, may include:

  • Cool skin
  • Chronic, intense pain that gradually progresses into numbness
  • Skin discolouration
  • Wounds that won’t heal

Speak to your doctor for advice if you have problems with your arms or legs while exercising. The condition can trigger an unending cycle of an increase in cardiovascular disease. Exercising can be painful, and the absence of exercise leads to lower health.

What Causes Intermittent Claudication?

The most common cause of claudication is signed peripheral artery disease. These are big vessels that supply blood to the arms and legs.

Peripheral artery disease results from damage to an artery that reduces blood flow within the leg or arm. If you’re sitting at home, blood circulation is typically sufficient. However, if you’re in a high-intensity situation, your muscles don’t receive adequate oxygen, nutrients, and oxygen to function effectively and stay healthy.

The damage to the peripheral arteries is typically due to atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is the accumulation of cholesterol, fats, and other substances on the artery wall. This accumulation is known as plaque. The plaque may cause vessels to narrow, thereby preventing blood flow. The plaque could also explode and cause blood clots.

Risk Factors for Intermittent Claudication

smoking cigarettes

Risk factors for claudication are:

  • You may be older than 50 if you smoke cigarettes or suffer from diabetes
  • Older than 70 years old
  • Diabetic kidney diseases
  • Diabetes
  • High Blood pressure
  • High cholesterol
  • Obesity
  • Smoking

Treatment, Management, and Prevention of Intermittent Claudication

The condition may not be recognized since many people view the discomfort as an unwelcome, normal part of ageing. Many people lower their activities to minimize discomfort. Claudication is a diagnosis, and peripheral artery disease is based on a thorough review of symptoms, physical examination, skin conditions on the legs, and tests to determine blood flow.

The main goals of treating claudication and peripheral artery disease are to ease pain and control the risk factors contributing to blood vessels and heart disease.

Exercise is an essential component of treatment for claudication. Exercise helps reduce pain, improves exercise duration, boosts the vascular system’s health within the affected limbs, and helps with weight management and overall health.

The recommended walking programs for you include:

  • Continue walking until you experience moderate discomfort or as far as possible.
  • Rest to ease discomfort
  • Walking to the next destination
  • Repetition of the walk-rest-walk for 30 to 45 minutes.
  • Walking at least three times a week

The use of medication can be used to treat the condition:

Consult your physician regarding supplements or medications you should not consume when prescribed a treatment.

Juvenile Arthritis: Symptoms, Types, Risk Factors, Causes, and Treatment

The most common type of Juvenile Arthritis that children suffer from is at the age of 16. Certain forms of this condition can lead to serious complications, including growth issues, joint injuries, and eye inflammation. Treatment is focused on reducing inflammation and pain, improving the eye’s function, and avoiding injuries.

What is Juvenile Arthritis?

Juvenile arthritis (JA), or pediatric rheumatic disease, is not a specific condition. It’s a broad word to define the inflammatory and rheumatic conditions that can develop among children who are younger than. The conditions affect more than 300,000 children and teens across the United States.

The majority of JA are auto-inflammatory illnesses. The immune system is designed to defend against foreign invaders, such as bacteria and viruses, which becomes misguided and releases an inflammatory chemical that attacks healthy cells and tissues. It leads to joint swelling, inflammation, and tenderness in most JA instances. However, some forms of JA are not accompanied by joint symptoms or affect only the internal organs and the skin.

Types of Juvenile Arthritis

There are many kinds of arthritis in juveniles. The classification is based on the following factors:

  • Symptoms
  • The types and number of joints are involved
  • There are certain markers in the blood

Doctors’ classification of juvenile arthritis can help predict the disease’s development.

The most common types of juvenile arthritis include:


Oligoarticular is the term used to describe a small number of joints. In this form of arthritis, only a few joints are affected at a young age. Children younger than 8 years old are more susceptible to developing it. For half of the children with oligoarticular juvenile arthritis, just one joint is typically affected by the ankle or knee. In certain cases, this type of arthritis may require just moderate treatment. For certain children, arthritis affects four or fewer larger joints.


Around 30% of children with arthritis in their juvenile years have the polyarticular form. This kind of arthritis is to be more prevalent among girls than boys.

Polyarticular juvenile arthritis can affect 5 or more joints, including large joints (knees and ankles) and smaller ones (hands and feet). Most often, both sides of your body can be affected.


Children who have psoriatic arthritis have arthritis as well as:

  • A skin condition that is known as Psoriasis
  • Siblings or parents with Psoriasis

They may also suffer from the appearance of a nail and a diffuse swelling of the finger or toe called dactylitis. In certain cases, only some joints are affected; in other instances, multiple joints, including large and small ones, can be affected.

Enthesitis-related Arthritis

Enthesitis-related joint arthritis is a type of juvenile arthritis typically causes inflammation of tendons, joints, and ligaments. It can even affect the spine. Children with this kind of arthritis may experience joint pain but no obvious swelling. They may also suffer from back discomfort. 


Systemic juvenile arthritis can cause swelling, pain, and limited movement in at least one joint. Other signs include rash and inflammation in internal organs like the liver, heart, spleen, and lymph nodes. A fever of 102deg per day for two weeks or more suggests this diagnosis.

Signs and Symptoms of Juvenile Arthritis

woman holding elbows muscle pain

Symptoms can change with time. There are times when symptoms are more intense and are referred to as flares, and when symptoms improve and get better, they are referred to as Remission. These symptoms and signs are:

  • Joint pain
  • Swelling
  • Fever
  • Stiffness
  • Rash
  • Fatigue
  • Appetite loss
  • Inflammation of the eye

The trouble with everyday tasks like dressing, walking or playing

What Causes Juvenile Arthritis?

The root cause of juvenile arthritis is unclear. Like many autoimmune diseases, the individual cases could be due to a mix of genetic causes, environmental exposures, as well as the immune system of the child.

Risk Factors for Juvenile Arthritis

Juvenile arthritis develops in the adolescent and young adult years. Children from any race and ethnic background are susceptible to the illness.

It’s uncommon to have families with more than one member family develop JA. However, children with older family members with chronic arthritis are more likely to be affected. A family member who has Psoriasis is one of the risk factors for developing a form of JA.

Treatment, Management, and Prevention of Juvenile Arthritis

Girl with pony tail sitting with doctor for a checkup

A child who has juvenile arthritis needs an intervention from a pediatric Rheumatologist. The doctor specializes in helping children with arthritis and other related ailments.

The treatment for juvenile arthritis is intended to:

  • Reduce swelling
  • Continue full motion of the affected joints
  • Reduce the pain
  • Maintain the normal development of joint

The recommended medication is:

  • Naproxen is a drug used to treat muscle pain and cramps. Naproxen is part of a group of medicines known as NSAIDs. It blocks your body’s ability to produce a substance that causes fever, pain and inflammation. 

Chronic Bronchitis: Symptoms, Risk Factors, Causes, and Treatment

Chronic bronchitis is one of the forms of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder). COPD is a class of lung disorders that can cause breathing difficulties and worsen with time. Another kind of COPD is Emphysema. A majority of people who suffer from COPD suffer from both emphysema as well as chronic bronchitis. However, how severe each kind of COPD is likely to differ from person to person.

What is Chronic Bronchitis?

The bronchial tubes are the tissues of your bronchial tube that carry air from and to your lung. Patients suffering from bronchitis will cough up thick mucus that can turn discoloured. Bronchitis can be chronic or acute.

Most often, the cause is the common cold or other respiratory infections. Chronic bronchitis is common. Chronic bronchitis, a more severe form of the disease, can cause continuous inflammation or irritation of the linings of the bronchial tubes. It is often related to smoking.

If you suffer from frequent bronchitis, you could suffer from chronic bronchitis requiring medical care. Chronic bronchitis is among the symptoms that are common in chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD).

Signs and Symptoms of Chronic Bronchitis

Chest pain

For acute bronchitis as well as chronic bronchitis, symptoms, and signs could be:

  • Cough
  • Mucus production (sputum) can be transparent white, yellowish-grey, or green; it may also be spotted with blood.
  • Fatigue
  • Breathlessness
  • Chills and a mild fever
  • Chest discomfort

If you suffer from acute bronchitis, you could suffer cold-like symptoms, including a slight headache or body pains. While these symptoms generally improve within a week, you could experience an unrelenting cough that lasts for a long time.

Chronic bronchitis can be a powerful cough lasting at least three months. It is characterized by recurring coughs lasting for at least two years consecutively.

If you suffer from chronic bronchitis, you’ll probably be experiencing periods where your cough and other symptoms worsen. During those instances, there could be an acute infection on top of chronic bronchitis.

Consult your physician if your cough is:

  • It lasts for more than three weeks
  • It stops you from sleeping.
  • It is often accompanied by a temperature that is greater than 100.4 F (38 C)
  • Produces discoloured mucus
  • Produces blood

What Causes of Chronic Bronchitis?

The presence of a virus or bacteria does not cause chronic bronchitis. Most specialists agree the primary reason for chronic bronchitis is smoking cigarettes. Air pollution in your work environment could be a factor. It is mainly the case if you smoke.

Treatment, Management, and Prevention of Chronic Bronchitis

smoking cigarettes

To decrease your chance of getting the bronchitis virus, you should follow these guidelines:

  • Avoid cigarette smoke. Smoking cigarettes increases the chance of developing chronic bronchitis.
  • Be vaccinated. A lot of episodes of acute bronchitis stem from influenza, a virus. The annual flu vaccination will help you avoid being ill with the flu. Think about vaccinations that guard against the different kinds of pneumonia.
  • Hands must be cleaned. To lower the risk of contracting a virus, Wash your hands often using alcohol-based soaps.
  • Use an operating mask. If you suffer from COPD, you should consider wearing a mask to work when you’re exposed to dust or fumes and in situations where you’ll be with other people, like when you travel.

Since viral infections are the primary cause of cases of bronchitis, antibiotics could be more effective. However, if your physician suspects that you may have a bacterial infection and prescribes an antibiotic, in some instances, the doctor might recommend alternative medications, such as:

  • The cough medicine. If you suffer from a cough that keeps you awake, consider taking cough suppressants before bedtime.
  • Other medicines. Suppose you have asthma, allergies, or chronic obstructive respiratory disease (COPD). In that case, your doctor might recommend an inhaler or other medications to help reduce inflammation and to open up narrowed lung passageways.

A recommended medicine to treat the treatment of bronchitis

  • Fluticasone is a medication used to reduce inflammation in the nose, making breathing easier. It is part of a class of medicines known as nasal steroids. The medicine can be used for different purposes. Consult your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

Multiple Sclerosis: Symptoms and Treatment

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially disabling brain and spinal cord disease. Symptoms of MS vary widely between patients and depend on the location and severity of nerve fiber damage in the central nervous system. Some people with severe MS may lose the ability to walk independently or ambulate. Other individuals may experience long periods of remission without any new symptoms depending on their MS type.

What is Multiple Sclerosis?

smoking cigarettes

In multiple sclerosis, the immune system attacks the protective sheath (myelin) that covers nerve fibers and causes communication problems between your brain and the rest of your body. Eventually, the disease can cause permanent damage or deterioration of the nerve fibers.

These factors may increase your risk of developing multiple sclerosis:

  • Age. Multiple sclerosis can occur at any age, but onset usually occurs between 20 and 40. However, younger and older people can be affected.
  • Sex. Women are more than 2 to 3 times as likely as men to have relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.
  • Family history. If one of your parents or siblings has had MS, you are at higher risk of developing the disease.
  • Certain infections. Various viruses have been linked to MS, including Epstein-Barr, the virus that causes infectious mononucleosis.
  • Vitamin D. Low vitamin D levels and low exposure to sunlight are associated with a greater risk of MS.
  • Obesity. An association between obesity and multiple sclerosis has been found in females. It is especially true for female childhood and adolescent obesity.
  • Certain autoimmune diseases. You have a slightly higher risk of developing MS if you have other autoimmune disorders such as thyroid disease, pernicious anemia, psoriasis, type 1 diabetes, or inflammatory bowel disease.
  • Smoking. Smokers who experience an initial symptom that may signal MS are likelier than nonsmokers to develop a second event confirming relapsing-remitting MS.

What Are Its Symptoms?

man fatigue and tired on a table

The symptoms of multiple sclerosis vary widely from person to person and can affect any part of the body.

The main symptoms include:

  • Fatigue
  • Difficulty walking
  • Vision problems, such as blurred vision
  • Problems controlling the bladder
  • Numbness or tingling in different parts of the body
  • Muscle stiffness and spasms
  • Problems with balance and coordination
  • Problems with thinking, learning, and planning

Depending on your MS type, your symptoms may come and go in phases or get steadily worse over time.

What Is Its Treatment?

There are no specific tests for multiple sclerosis. Instead, a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis often relies on ruling out other conditions that might produce similar symptoms, known as a differential diagnosis. Your doctor is likely to start with a thorough medical history and examination.

Your doctor may then recommend the following:

  • Blood tests
  • Spinal tap (lumbar puncture)
  • MRI
  • Evoked potential tests

Diagnosing multiple sclerosis can be more difficult in people with unusual symptoms or progressive disease. Further testing with spinal fluid analysis, evoked potentials, and additional imaging may be needed in these cases.

There is no cure for multiple sclerosis. Treatment typically focuses on speeding recovery from attacks, reducing new radiographic and clinical relapses, slowing the progression of the disease, and managing the symptoms. Some people have such mild symptoms that no treatment is necessary.

  • Corticosteroids, such as oral prednisone and intravenous methylprednisolone, are prescribed to reduce nerve inflammation. Side effects may include insomnia, increased blood pressure, blood glucose levels, mood swings, and fluid retention.
  • Plasma exchange (plasmapheresis). The liquid portion of part of your blood (plasma) is removed and separated from your blood cells. The blood cells are then mixed with a protein solution (albumin) and returned to your body. Plasma exchange may be used if your symptoms are new and severe and you haven’t responded to steroids.

Medication that can be used for multiple sclerosis:

What is Multiple Myeloma?

Multiple myeloma is a rare blood cancer that affects your plasma cells. Plasma cells are white blood cells and part of your immune system. Plasma cells make antibodies. These antibodies, called immunoglobulins, help fight infection.

Multiple myeloma happens when healthy cells become abnormal cells that multiply and produce abnormal antibodies called M proteins. This change starts a cascade of medical issues and conditions affecting your bones, kidneys, and body’s ability to make healthy white and red blood cells and platelets.

Factors that may increase your risk of multiple myeloma include:

  • Family history of multiple myeloma – If a brother, sister, or parent has multiple myeloma, you risk the disease more.
  • They are increasing in age – Your risk of multiple myeloma increases as you age, with most people diagnosed in their mid-60s.
  • Male sex – Men are more likely to develop the disease than women.
  • Black race – Black people are more likely to develop multiple myeloma than people of other races.
  • Personal History of a Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS) – Multiple myeloma almost always starts as MGUS, so having this condition increases your risk.

What Are The Symptoms?

Chest pain

Symptoms of multiple myeloma can vary, and there may be none early in the disease. When symptoms do occur, they can include:

  • Bone pain, especially in your spine or chest
  • Nausea
  • Constipation
  • Loss of appetite
  • Mental fogginess or confusion
  • Fatigue
  • Frequent infections
  • Weight loss
  • Weakness or numbness in your legs
  • Excessive thirst

Complications of multiple myeloma include:

  • Frequent infections – Myeloma cells inhibit your body’s ability to fight infections.
  • Bone problems – Multiple myeloma can also affect your bones, leading to bone pain, thinning, and broken bones.
  • A reduced kidney function – Multiple myeloma may cause problems with kidney function, including kidney failure.
  • Low red blood cell count – As myeloma cells crowd out normal blood cells, multiple myeloma can cause anemia and other blood problems.

How Do You Treat It?

If you are experiencing symptoms, treatment can help relieve pain, control complications of the disease, stabilize your condition, and slow the progress of multiple myeloma. 

The combination of treatments you’ll likely receive will depend on whether you’re considered a good candidate for a bone marrow transplant. Treatment depends on the risk of your disease progressing, age, and overall health.

  • If you’re considered a candidate for a bone marrow transplant, your initial therapy will likely include a combination of treatments, such as targeted therapy, immunotherapy, corticosteroids, and sometimes chemotherapy. Your blood stem cells will likely be collected after undergoing a few months of treatment. If it occurs, you may experience a bone marrow transplant soon after your cells are collected, or the transplant may be delayed until after a relapse. In some situations, doctors recommend two bone marrow transplants for people with multiple myeloma. After your bone marrow transplant, you’ll likely receive targeted therapy or immunotherapy as a maintenance treatment to prevent myeloma recurrence.
  • If you’re not considered a candidate for a bone marrow transplant, your initial therapy will likely include a combination of treatments, such as targeted therapy, immunotherapy, corticosteroids, and sometimes chemotherapy.
  • If your myeloma recurs or doesn’t respond to treatment, your doctor may recommend repeating another course of the treatment that initially helped you. Another option is trying one or more of the other treatments typically used as first-line therapy, either alone or in combination. Research on several new treatment options is ongoing, and you may be eligible for a clinical trial to gain access to those experimental treatments. Talk to your doctor about what clinical trials may be available to you.
Medications for Migraine

Because multiple myeloma can cause several complications, you may also need treatment for those conditions. For example:

  • Bone pain – Pain medications, radiation therapy, and surgery may help control bone pain.
  • Kidney complications – People with severe kidney damage may need dialysis.
  • Infections – Your doctor may recommend certain vaccines to prevent infections like the flu and pneumonia.
  • Bone loss – Your doctor may recommend bone-building drugs to help prevent bone loss.
  • Anemia – If you have persistent anemia, your doctor may recommend medications to increase your red blood cell count.

What is the Best Treatment for Actinic Keratosis?

What is Actinic Keratosis?

Actinic keratosis is a rough, scaly patch on the skin that develops from years of sun exposure. It grows slowly and usually first appears in people over 40. If left untreated, this condition may lead to squamous cell carcinoma is about 5% to 10%. The lesions frequently arise on sun-exposed areas of the face, lips, ears, scalp, shoulders, neck, and the back of the hands and forearms.

What are the Symptoms?

Hypersensitivity Syndrome
  • Bump on the top layer of skin or flat to slightly raised patch
  • Scaly patch of skin or rough dry, usually less than 1 inch
  • Color variations, including red, brown, or pink
  • In some cases, a hard, wart-like surface
  • New patches or bumps on sun-exposed areas of the head, neck, hands, and forearms
  • Burning, Itching, crusting, or bleeding
  • New patches or bumps on sun-exposed areas of the head, neck, hands, and forearms
  • Itching, burning, bleeding, or crusting

What Causes Actinic Keratosis?

AKs result from long-term exposure to UV rays. This means that if you already have an AK, you are likely to develop more in the future. This puts you at a higher risk for skin cancer which sometimes can be an invasive form of the disease.

Risk Factors of Actinic Keratosis

  • Are older than 40
  • You work outdoors most of the time
  • Have blond hair or blue and red or light-colored eyes
  • Tend to freckle or burn when exposed to sunlight
  • Have a history of a lot of sun exposure or sunburn
  • You have a weakened immune system

How to Prevent Actinic Keratosis?

skin care lotion
  1. Use sunscreen if possible. Apply a broad-spectrum water-resistant sunscreen with a sun protection factor of at least 30. Use a lip balm with sunscreen on your lips. Apply sunscreen at least 15 minutes before going outside and reapply it every two hours.
  2. Dress properly. For extra protection from the sun, wear tightly woven clothing that covers your arms and legs.
  3. Limit your sun exposure. Avoid time in the sun between 10 in the morning and 2 in the afternoon. You also have to avoid staying in the sun so long that you get sunburned.
  4. Avoid tanning beds. The UV exposure from a tanning bed can cause just as much skin damage as a tan from the sun.
  5. Check your skin regularly. Examine your skin regularly, looking for the development of new skin growths or changes in existing moles, freckles, bumps, and birthmarks. 

Treatment for Actinic Keratosis

In some cases, this condition will disappear on its own without the need for medication. If you have several AKs your healthcare provider might prescribe a medicated cream or gel to remove them.

Imiquimod cream is often recommended to treat skin infections such as AK. It is generally known as an immune response modifier and is sometimes indicated for other types of skin infections too. This also improves the immune response of the cells when applied. The activated immune cells travel to areas of infection and eliminate the infected cells. 

Surgical and Other Treatment Procedures

  • Laser therapy. This technique is increasingly used to treat this condition. Your healthcare provider uses an ablative laser device to destroy the patch, allowing new skin to appear. Side effects may include scarring and staining of the affected skin.
  • Freezing. The condition can be removed by freezing them with liquid nitrogen. As your skin heals, the damaged cells slough off, allowing new skin to appear. Cryotherapy is the most common treatment.
  • Photodynamic therapy. Your healthcare provider might apply a light-sensitive chemical solution to the affected skin and then expose it to a special light that will destroy the condition. 
  • Curettage. In this procedure, your healthcare provider uses a device called a curet to scrape off damaged cells. Side effects of this procedure may include infection, scarring, and changes in the skin color of the affected area.

What Are Some Antipsychotic Medications?

Antipsychotic medications can reduce or relieve symptoms of psychosis, such as delusions and hallucinations. Formerly known as significant tranquilizers and neuroleptics, antipsychotic medications are the main class of drugs used to treat people with schizophrenia. They are also used to treat people with psychosis, bipolar disorder, depression, and Alzheimer’s disease. Other uses of antipsychotics include:

  • Stabilizing moods in bipolar disorder
  • Reducing anxiety in anxiety disorders
  • Reducing tics in Tourette syndrome

What Are Some Antipsychotic Drugs?

Medications Used For Kidney Infection
  • Abilify (Aripiprazole)
  • Abilify Maintena 
  • Alaquet (Quetiapine)
  • Amisulpride
  • Anquil (Benperidol)
  • Aripiprazole
  • Asenapine
  • Benperidol
  • Denzapine (Clozapine)
  • Depixol (Flupentixol)
  • Dolmatil (Sulpiride)
  • Haldol (Haloperidol)
  • Haldol Decanoate 
  • Largactil (Chlorpromazine)
  • Latuda (Lurasidone)
  • Levomepromazine
  • Lurasidone
  • Moderate (Fluphenazine Decanoate)
  • Neulactil (Pericyazine)
  • Nozinan (Levomepromazine)
  • Olanzapine
  • Olanzapine Pamoate Monohydrate (Depot)
  • Orap (Pimozide)
  • Paliperidone
  • Paliperidone Palmitate (Depot)
  • Pericyazine
  • Pimozide
  • Prochlorperazine
  • Promazine
  • Psytixol (Flupentixol Decanoate)
  • Quetiapine
  • Reagila (Cariprazine)
  • Risperidone
  • Seroquel (Quetiapine)
  • Solian (Amisulpride)
  • Stelazine (Trifluoperazine)
  • Stemetil (Prochlorperazine)
  • Sulpiride
  • Sulpor (Sulpiride)
  • Sycrest (Asenapine)
  • Trifluoperazine
  • Zuclopenthixol
  • Zuclopenthixol Decanoate (Depot)
  • Zuclopenthixol Dihydrochloride

What Is The Purpose Of Antipsychotic Drugs?

Antipsychotic medications can help to calm and clear confusion in a person with acute psychosis within hours or days, but they can take up to four or six weeks to reach their full effect. These medications can help control symptoms but do not cure the underlying condition. When taken over a longer term, antipsychotics can help to prevent further episodes of psychosis. While antipsychotic medications can help some people with psychosis and mood disorders, these drugs can have serious side effects. Medication treatment aims to reduce and control symptoms while keeping side effects at a minimum.

Combining antipsychotic medication with other therapy and support can help people to manage symptoms and improve their quality of life. Family therapy, peer support, school and job counseling, and housing and employment support can all be helpful. Some therapists now offer cognitive-behavioral therapy to help people cope with voices and auditory hallucinations.

Taking care of your physical health is especially important if you take antipsychotic medication. Both schizophrenia and the medicines used to treat it can increase the risk of diabetes and other serious health problems. Regular checkups and medical care can help you have good physical health. Eating a nutritious diet, exercising regularly, and getting enough sleep can also help you to get and stay well.

What Is The Best Anti Psychosis Medicine?

Anxiety and stress

Antipsychotic medications don’t ‘cure’ psychosis, but they are often effective in reducing and controlling many symptoms, including:

  • Delusions and hallucinations, such as paranoia and hearing voices
  • Anxiety and severe agitation, for example, from feeling threatened
  • Incoherent speech and muddled thinking
  • Confusion
  • Violent or disruptive behavior
  • Mania

Rather than obliterating these symptoms, sometimes antipsychotic medication may prevent the symptoms from being so intrusive and intense, helping the person feel more stable and productive.

One of the best antipsychotic medications:

  • Chlorpromazine – this is a prescription medicine used to treat the symptoms of Schizophrenia and Psychotic Disorders. Doctors also recommend to their patients to control agitation and mania in people who have bipolar disorder. Chlorpromazine is a psychiatric medication that belongs to the class of drugs called phenothiazine antipsychotics. It works by helping to restore the balance of certain natural substances in the brain. It can reduce aggressive behavior and the desire to hurt yourself/others. It may also help to decrease hallucinations.

What Happens If A Normal Person Takes Antipsychotic Medication?

Antipsychotics have been abused and misused by inpatients and outpatients. Most published case reports of antipsychotic abuse involve quetiapine, although some describe the misuse of other agents, including olanzapine.

Both typical and atypical antipsychotics commonly cause side effects like drowsiness, dizziness, blurred vision, constipation, nausea, and vomiting. These often go away. But the drugs can also cause serious long-term side effects.

Antipsychotic medication can cause movement disorders such as twitching and restlessness, sedation and weight gain, and lead to diabetes. Taking antipsychotics can increase your risk of developing metabolic syndrome. If you experience metabolic syndrome, this means you are at higher risk of developing diabetes and stroke.

Gastroenteritis: Symptoms and Treatment

You may say you have the stomach flu if you have diarrhea and vomiting. These symptoms often are due to a condition called gastroenteritis. With gastroenteritis, your stomach and intestines are irritated and inflamed. The cause is typically a viral or bacterial infection.

What is Gastroenteritis?

green colored bacteria inside the digestive track that is under the light

Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of the lining of the stomach and intestines. There can be many different causes of gastroenteritis:

  • Viruses
  • Bacteria
  • Parasites
  • Chemicals
  • Reactions to certain medicines and food

Viral gastroenteritis is the most common type. Many different viruses, including noroviruses and rotaviruses, can cause it. Some people call viral gastroenteritis the stomach flu. But this name needs to be medically correct. Flu viruses do not cause it. The flu is a respiratory infection that affects your nose, throat, and lungs. When gastroenteritis is caused by consuming foods or drinks contaminated with viruses, bacteria, parasites, or chemicals, this is called food poisoning.

The viruses, bacteria, and parasites that cause gastroenteritis can also spread from person to person. You could be infected when you touch something with germs on it and then touch your eyes, mouth, or nose.

What Are The Symptoms Of Gastroenteritis?

The symptoms of gastroenteritis include:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Pain or cramping in your abdomen 
  • Sometimes fever

Gastroenteritis is usually not serious. But, it can sometimes cause lead to dehydration or cause severe symptoms. Certain people are at higher risk for these problems. They include:

  • Pregnant women
  • Older adults
  • People with weakened immune systems or other serious health conditions
  • Infants
  • Babies who were born prematurely or had other health conditions

What Is The Treatment For Gastroenteritis?

Drink plenty of water

There’s often no specific medical treatment for viral gastroenteritis. Antibiotics aren’t effective against viruses. Treatment first involves self-care measures, such as staying hydrated.

To help keep yourself more comfortable and prevent dehydration while you recover, try the following:

  • Let your stomach settle. Stop eating solid foods for a few hours.
  • Try sucking on ice chips or taking small sips of water often. Consider drinking clear soda, clear broths, or non-caffeinated sports drinks. In some cases, you can try oral rehydration solutions. Drink plenty of liquid every day, taking small, frequent sips.
  • Ease back into eating. As you’re able, you can return to eating your normal diet. You might find that you can eat bland, easy-to-digest foods at first, such as soda crackers, soup, oats, noodles, bananas, and rice. Stop eating if your nausea returns.
  • Avoid certain foods and substances until you feel better. These include caffeine, alcohol, nicotine, and fatty or highly seasoned foods.
  • Get plenty of rest. The illness and dehydration may have made you weak and tired.
  • Try anti-diarrhea medications. Some adults may find it helpful to take to manage their symptoms. However, avoid these if you have bloody diarrhea or fever, which could be signs of another condition.

Medication that can be used for the condition:

What Are Serious Cases Of Gastroenteritis?

Older adults or very young children are more vulnerable to the symptoms of gastroenteritis. They’re also at a higher risk of complications. If you have a loved one at a higher risk, keep a close eye on them so they can get medical care if needed.

Complications of these infections include high fevers, muscle pain, and inability to control bowel movements. Some bacterial infections can cause:

  • Kidney failure
  • Bleeding in your intestinal tract
  • Anemia

Quickly seeking treatment for bacterial gastroenteritis lessens your risk of complications. Gastroenteritis should last only a few days and does not normally require treatment. Medication for nausea or diarrhea can be useful for adults but may not be safe for children. Antibiotics are rarely helpful. The most important treatment for gastroenteritis is to drink fluids. Frequent sips are easier for young children than a large amount. Keep regularly drinking even if you are vomiting. You can also buy rehydration fluids from a pharmacy. These are the best fluids to use in gastro cases, especially for children.

Why is Schizophrenia a Devastating Disorder?

Owing to the signs of Schizophrenia, a person with the illness is likely to interpret reality in a way that seems abnormal to others. They may believe that others are trying to control or harm them and may feel compelled to act in ways to protect themselves that appear inexplicable to others. For instance, keeping all doors and windows closed protects the family from the neighbours’ attempts to kill or harm them. People with Schizophrenia are not aware of the changes in their behaviour.

Why is Schizophrenia a Devastating Disorder?

Schizophrenia, one of the most devastating and baffling mental illnesses, is a group of disorders that cause distorted thought and perception. Perceptions can be distorted beyond reality, causing people to see or hear things that are not there.

People with Schizophrenia go through periods of getting better and worse, remission and relapse. They can go for long periods without any symptoms, but because Schizophrenia is often a chronic illness, it requires ongoing medical attention like hypertension or diabetes.

Schizophrenia is neither a “split” personality nor multiple personality disorder, a different and infrequent problem. Though often stigmatized for the behaviours caused by the illness, people with Schizophrenia did not bring the disease upon themselves by becoming involved with the “wrong” crowd or interests. Contrary to the beliefs reinforced by movies, television and books, people with the disorder are more likely to withdraw into isolation or become victims of crime than to hurt anyone else.

Can you Develop Schizophrenia with no family History?

Several different genes are directly linked to Schizophrenia, and scientists have gotten a lot better at pinpointing them. Researchers have discovered that specific genes impact the brain, resulting in structural differences in the brains of people with Schizophrenia and increasing the risk of developing the illness. However, we still do not fully understand how those genes interplay and activate in particular individuals who develop Schizophrenia. The genetics of Schizophrenia remains complex, and more research is needed.

On the other hand, a family member or member with Schizophrenia is a definite risk factor for developing the condition. 80% of people with Schizophrenia do not have relatives with the disease. Schizophrenia likely results from a confluence of factors, some of which are only beginning to be understood.

Does Schizophrenia get worse even when medicated?

Medications and treatment for PCOS

Getting a diagnosis of Schizophrenia can be devastating. You may struggle to think clearly, manage your emotions, relate to other people, or even function normally. But having Schizophrenia doesn’t mean you can’t live a whole and meaningful life. Despite the widespread misconception that people with Schizophrenia have no chance of recovery or improvement, the reality is much more hopeful. Although currently there is no cure for Schizophrenia, you can treat and manage it with medication, self-help strategies, and supportive therapies.

Since Schizophrenia is often episodic, periods of remission from the severest symptoms often provide an excellent opportunity to start employing self-help strategies that may help to limit the length and frequency of future episodes. A diagnosis of Schizophrenia is not a life sentence of ever-worsening symptoms and hospitalizations. You have more control over your recovery than you probably realize.

Can a Schizophrenic Succeed in Life?

Some people have one psychotic episode, while others experience many throughout their lives. When treated with medication and therapy, in many cases, people with Schizophrenia can pursue their goals, have healthy relationships, keep jobs, and be productive members of their communities. 

Once medication and therapy begin to work, these strategies can help ease the challenges of Schizophrenia:

  • Stay focused on your treatment goals. Tell family members or friends your goals so they can provide support.
  • Stick to your treatment plan. Even if symptoms lessen, you must go to therapy and take your medication as directed. Use a medication calendar or weekly pillbox to remember to take drugs.
  • Know your warning signs. Have a plan to deal with symptoms as they arise so you can get the right help as soon as possible.
  • Take care of yourself. Your physical health is an essential part of feeling good, too. Eat nutritious foods, exercise, and follow a regular sleep routine. Do not smoke or use alcohol or illegal drugs.
  • Incorporate relaxation and stress management techniques into your life. Regular meditation or tai-chi can help reduce stress and avoid triggering an episode.
  • Join a support group. Share stories and advice with people who understand what you are going through. 

Medication for Schizophrenia that you can use along with therapy:

What is Seasonal Affective Disorder?

Seasonal affective disorder, or SAD, is a depression that happens to a person only at a specific time of year. It causes a person to become depressed in fall or winter when days are shorter, and it gets dark earlier. It is brought on by the brain’s response to seasonal changes in daylight. When the daylight hours grow longer again, the sadness lifts. Take steps to keep your mood and motivation steady throughout the year.

What are the Symptoms of Seasonal Affective Disorder?

Treatment and Medication for Polio 
  1. Mood swings. The condition can cause a mood that is sad, depressed, or irritable. It can make people feel hopeless, discouraged, or worthless. They may cry or get upset more easily.
  2. Negative thinking. A person can become more self-critical or more sensitive to criticism. They may complain, blame, find fault, or see problems more often than usual.
  3. Lack of fun. People with this condition may lose interest in things they normally like to do. They may lose interest in friends and stop participating in social activities.
  4. Fatigue. People may feel tired, low on energy, or need more motivation to do things. To them, everything can seem like it takes too much effort.
  5. Sleeping troubles. A person may sleep much more than usual. They may need help getting up and ready for school or work early in the morning.
  6. Changes in eating. It may bring on cravings for comfort foods such as sugar and carbs and the tendency to overeat. Because of this change in eating, SAD can result in weight gain during winter.
  7. Trouble concentrating. Like any depression, it can make it hard to focus and may affect schoolwork and grades.

Seasonal Affective Disorder and Bipolar Disorder

People who have bipolar disorder are at increased risk of SAD. In some people with bipolar disorder, episodes of mania may be linked to a specific season. For example, spring and summer can bring on symptoms of mania or a less intense form of focus, worry, tension, and irritability. They may also experience sadness during the fall and winter months.

What are the Causes of Seasonal Affective Disorder?

  1. Circadian rhythm. The low level of sunlight in fall and winter may cause winter-onset SAD. This decrease in sunlight may disrupt your body’s internal clock and lead to feelings of depression.
  2. Serotonin levels. A drop in serotonin, a brain chemical that affects mood, might play a role in this condition. Reduced sunlight can cause a decline in serotonin which may trigger depression.
  3. Melatonin levels. The change in season can disrupt the balance of the body’s level of melatonin, which plays a role in sleep patterns and mood.

Can You Prevent Seasonal Affective Disorder?

There is no real way to prevent the onset of this disorder, but if you take steps to manage the symptoms, you can prevent it from worsening. Managing the symptoms can also reverse or head off serious changes in mood, appetite, and energy levels, as you can predict the time of the year in which these symptoms may start.

Treatment can help prevent complications, especially if the affective disorder is diagnosed and treated before symptoms get bad. Some people find it helpful to begin treatment before symptoms normally start in the fall or winter and then continue treatment past the time symptoms normally go away. 

What is the Treatment of SAD?

therapy - psychotherapy

Treatment for the seasonal affective disorder may include light therapy, psychotherapy, and medications. When prescribed light therapy or an antidepressant, let your doctor or mental health professional know if you have bipolar disorder

  • Light therapy. In light therapy, you sit a few feet from a special light box so that you are exposed to bright light within the first hour of waking up each day. Light therapy mimics natural outdoor light and appears to cause a change in brain chemicals linked to mood. Light therapy is one of the first-line treatments for fall-onset SAD. 
  • Psychotherapy. A type of psychotherapy known as cognitive behavioral therapy can help you learn healthy ways to cope with the condition, especially by reducing avoidance behavior and scheduling meaningful activities. It also enables you to identify and change negative thoughts and behaviors that may make you feel worse.
  • Medications. It may be recommended that you start taking an antidepressant before your symptoms typically appear every year. Amitriptyline is an antidepressant used for conditions like SAD. It works by increasing a chemical called serotonin in your brain. It can improve your mood.

How Does Childhood Depression Affect Growth?

The symptoms of childhood depression may vary. Most of these conditions are undiagnosed and taken for granted because symptoms are passed off as regular emotional and psychological changes. Although it is normal for children to feel sadness and irritability in some cases, persistent sadness may lead to melancholy.

What is Depression?

A mood disorder can cause sadness, irritability, or hopelessness. It can affect your sleep, appetite, or relationships with others. Sadness can also cause you to lose interest in hobbies or activities you once enjoyed. In severe cases, it can lead to thoughts of suicide. Although it is a serious medical condition, it is usually treatable.

How does Depression Affect Children?

The disorder can affect how children interact with friends and family. It may prevent your child from enjoying school, sports, hobbies, or other normal childhood activities. The condition often goes along with anxiety. Anxiety is a medical condition that causes fear, panic, or worries about everyday situations.

Sometimes, depression or anxiety in children gets chalked up to growing pains, but if you have any concerns about behavioral or mental health, talk to a healthcare provider. Early childhood depression alters brain development​​​​​ . The brains of children who suffer clinical conditions as preschoolers develop abnormally, compared with the brains of preschoolers unaffected by the disorder. 

What are the Characteristics of Childhood Depression?

Depression in Children
  • Crankiness or anger
  • Being more sensitive to rejection
  • Thoughts of death or suicide
  • Trouble during events and activities at home or with friends
  • Feelings of worthlessness or guilt
  • Changes in appetite, either increased or decreased
  • Changes in sleep
  • Vocal outbursts or crying
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Continuous feelings of sadness and hopelessness
  • Social withdrawal
  • Impaired thinking or concentration
  • Fatigue and low energy
  • Physical complaints 

How Common is Childhood Depression?

Up to 3% of children and 8% of adolescents in the U.S. have dejection. The condition is significantly more common in boys under the age of 10. However, by age 16, girls have a greater incidence of this condition.

Treatment for Childhood Depression

Treatment for children with depression involves therapy and prescription medication. Some children may benefit from one of these, but doctors may also recommend a combination approach. These are not lifelong treatments. The treatment plan for childhood depression often depends on the severity of the symptoms. Fortunately, proper care can help your child find relief from their symptoms.

Medications such as Amitriptyline is an antidepressant typically prescribed to treat depression. It works by increasing a chemical called serotonin in your brain. It improves mood and can also change how your nerves receive pain signals, so the pain goes away.

Lifestyle and Homecare For Childhood Depression

girl with parents in a therapy session with a doctor
  1. Make sure your child sticks to the treatment plan. Psychotherapy is an essential part of the treatment. Stopping may lead to the reoccurrence of the condition and may worsen withdrawal symptoms. 
  2. Educate yourself about your child’s condition to empower you and motivate you to stick to the treatment plan. Please encourage your family to learn about depression to help them understand and support your child. 
  3. Work with your child’s doctor or therapist to learn what might trigger the symptoms. Make a plan to know what to do if the symptoms worsen.
  4. Contact your doctor or therapist if you notice any changes in symptoms or how your child feels. Ask relatives or friends to help watch for warning signs.
  5. It may seem like alcohol or drugs lessen depression symptoms, but in the long run, they generally worsen symptoms and make depression harder to treat. If you have a teenager that engages in these activities, talk to a doctor or therapist to get help with alcohol or substance use.
  6. Ensure your child eats healthily, is physically active, and gets plenty of sleep.
  7. Sleeping well is essential for both physical and mental well-being. If your child is having trouble sleeping, talk to your doctor about what you can do.

Can Men Have Breast Cancer?

What is Breast Cancer?

Breast cancer forms in the cells of the breast but it can spread outside the breast through blood vessels and lymph vessels. It has two common kinds known as invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma. Invasive ductal carcinoma begins in the ducts and then grows outside the ducts into other parts of the breast tissue. It can also spread, or metastasize, to other parts of the body. Invasive lobular carcinoma begins in the lobules and then spread from the lobules to the breast tissues that are close by. They can also spread to other parts of the body.

What are the Symptoms of Breast Cancer?

breast cancer on mammogram with big lumps
  • A lump or thickening in the breast
  • Changes in breast size and shape
  • Changes in the physical appearance of the breast
  • Changes to the skin over the breast, such as dimpling
  • A newly inverted nipple
  • Peeling, scaling, or crusting of the area surrounding the nipple or breast skin
  • Flaking of the pigmented area of skin surrounding the nipple or breast skin
  • Redness or pitting of the skin over your breast

Can Men Have Breast Cancer?

Male breast cancer is rare cancer that forms in the breast tissue of men. These are common in older men but do not mean it does not occur in the younger population. Though breast cancer is most commonly thought of as a disease that affects women, breast cancer does occur in males. 

About 1 out of every 100 breast cancers diagnosed in the United States is found in a man. The most common type of breast cancer in men is infiltrating ductal cancer. It starts in the milk duct and spreads to nearby tissues. Other less-common types of breast cancer in men include inflammatory carcinoma and Paget disease of the nipple.

How to Diagnose Breast Cancer in Men?

Lung Cancer Diagnosis

Your doctor will assess the signs and symptoms as well as your medical history. During the visit, your doctor will do a clinical breast exam using his or her fingertips to examine your breasts and surrounding areas for lumps or other changes. Other diagnostic method includes:

  1. Imaging tests. Tests may include a breast X-ray or an ultrasound, which uses sound waves to create images and identify abnormal areas. 
  2. Biopsy. It will help your doctor determine the type of cells involved in cancer, the aggressiveness of cancer, and whether the cancer cells have hormone receptors or other receptors that may influence your treatment options.
  3. Other tests. This includes a bone scan, CT scan, and or a PET scan to determine the extent of the affected part or if cancer already spread to other organs. 

Treatment for Breast Cancer

Treatment for men’s and women’s breast cancer is similar. It involves killing or removing the affected cells of the breast. Male breast cancer treatment often involves surgery and may also include other treatments. Surgery may involve removing all of the breast tissue including the nipple and areola. Other surgical approaches will focus on removing a few lymph nodes for testing. f no cancer cells are found, there is a good chance that your breast cancer hasn’t spread beyond your breast tissue. 

Radiation therapy may be used after surgery to eliminate any remaining cancer cells in the breast, chest muscles, or armpit. Hormone therapy often involves medications that work in men. Chemotherapy is also recommended to remove affected cells using medication after surgery to kill any cancer cells that might have spread outside your breast. Chemotherapy may also be an option for men with advanced breast cancer.

Exemestane. It treats certain types of breast cancer. It also prevents cancer from returning after remission. It works by reducing the amount of estrogen the body makes and helps to slow or reverse the growth of these breast cancers. The dosage is based on your medical condition, response to treatment, and other medications you may be taking. 

What Causes Social Anxiety?

Social anxiety is also known as social phobia. It affects about 5.3 million people in the United States. The average age it begins is between ages 11 and 19 or the teenage years. In this condition, the fear is limited to one or two particular situations, like speaking in public or initiating a conversation. Others are very anxious and afraid of any social situation. The tough part is being able to ask for help. 

crowd at out party with lights

People who have this condition may have trouble with any of the following:

  • Talking to strangers
  • Eating in front of other people
  • Going to school or work
  • Speaking in public
  • Going to parties
  • Dating
  • Making eye contact
  • Starting conversations
  • Entering rooms
  • Using public restrooms

What are the Causes of Social Anxiety Disorder?

  1. Genetic traits. You’re more likely to develop social anxiety disorder if your biological parents or siblings have the condition. However, it isn’t entirely clear how much of this may be due to genetics and how much is due to learned behavior.
  2. Negative experiences. There is a greater risk of social anxiety disorder for children who have experienced teasing, bullying, rejection, ridicule, or humiliation. In addition, other negative events in life, such as family conflict, trauma, or abuse, may be associated with this disorder.
  3. Having a condition that draws attention. Social anxiety disorder can be triggered by facial disfigurement, stuttering, or tremors caused by Parkinson’s disease.
  4. Brain structure. A structure in the brain may play a role in controlling the fear response. It may cause other people to have a heightened fear response, causing increased anxiety in social situations.
  5. Environment. It can also be a learned trait as some people may develop significant anxiety after an unpleasant or embarrassing social situation.
Bipolar Disorder

Symptoms of Social Anxiety

  • Trembling
  • Sweating
  • Upset stomach or nausea
  • Trouble catching your breath
  • Fear of situations in which you may be judged negatively
  • Worry about embarrassing or humiliating yourself
  • Avoidance doing things or speaking to people 
  • Blushing
  • Fast heartbeat
  • Dizziness or lightheadedness
  • Intense fear of interacting or talking with strangers
  • Feeling that your mind has gone blank
  • Muscle tension
  • Avoidance of situations where you might be the center of attention
  • Anxiety in expectation of a feared activity or event
  • Intense fear or anxiety during social situations
  • Fear that others will notice that you look anxious

Does Social Anxiety Affect Your Life?

It prevents you from living your life as you avoid situations that most people consider normal. You might even have a hard time understanding how others can handle them so easily. It also affects your personal relationships. It leads to low self-esteem, negative thoughts, low social skills, depression, and sensitivity to criticism. 

If this condition keeps you from doing things you want or need to do, or from making or keeping friends, you may need treatment. Talk about your fears and worries with a doctor or therapist who has experience treating such conditions.

Why Should You Talk to a Professional?

Note that getting help from doctors does not mean that you are not normal. Your feelings are valid and you are not alone. Many people also experience the condition and experts can help you get through it. Talk to a professional to help you find solutions. Talk openly with your doctor about treatment to avoid depression, drug or alcohol problems, school or work problems, and a poor quality of life.

Treatment for Social Anxiety

The treatment depends on what causes the condition. A combination of medication and therapy would be a great help for your recovery. Psychotherapy improves symptoms and helps you learn how to recognize and change negative thoughts about yourself and develop skills to help you gain confidence in social situations.

Your doctor may also prescribe medcations such as anti anxiety, antidepressants, and beta blockers. Though several types of medications are available, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are often the first type of drug tried for persistent symptoms of social anxiety. To reduce the side effects, you may be instructed to start with a lower dosage. 

Roundworms: Parasitic Infections, Symptoms & Treatment

What are Roundworms?

Roundworms are small organisms that can live in your intestine. It can live in the human intestine for a long time and can cause many problems including diarrhea, high fever, and abdominal pain. They have long and round bodies that can be of different types and sizes. The eggs and larvae of this worm live in the infected stool and soil. 

What are its Symptoms?

  • Shortness of breath
  • Cough
  • Abdominal pain
  • Blood in the stool
  • Diarrhea and Nausea
  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Presence of the worm in stool or vomit

Are Roundworms Common?

Hundreds of millions of people around the world are infected with roundworms at any given time. However, these parasites are not common in the United States. People can acquire them when traveling to certain countries. 

The Life Cycle of A Worm

Risk Factors for Whipworm Infection
  1. Ingestion. It can be infectious when it comes in contact with soil. People can ingest them through exposure to contaminated soil or through hand-to-mouth contact by eating uncooked fruits or vegetables that have been grown in contaminated soil.
  2. Migration. The larvae hatch in your small intestine and migrate through the intestine to travel to the heart and lungs via the bloodstream or lymphatic system. After maturing for about 10 to 14 days in your lungs, the larvae break into your airway and travel up the throat.
  3. Maturation of the worm. The parasites grow into male or female worms. Female worms can be more than 15 inches and male worms are generally smaller.
  4. Reproduction. Female worms can produce 200,000 eggs a day if there are both female and male worms in the intestines, and the eggs leave your body in feces. 

What Causes the Spread of Roundworm Infection?

The causes of the spread of the infection are not directly from person to person. It starts with a person has to come into contact with soil mixed with human or animal feces that contain eggs or infected water. These are widespread in some developing countries where human feces are used for fertilizer, or poor sanitary facilities allow human waste to mix with soil in yards. People can also get it from eating uncooked meat products that are infected. 

What are the Treatments for Roundworms?

Anti-parasite medications are the first line of treatment against this infection. In some cases, these parasites will go on their own without the need for treatment. Doctors often recommend the following anti-parasite medication:

Ivermectin. It treats conditions caused by roundworms. It works by paralyzing and inactivating the gut of parasites in humans. It stops the adult one from producing larvae. It kills the newly developed parasite and works to treat the infection. Medications for this condition often start to work in 3 days period. Ensure to take your prescription at the same time each day to get the utmost benefit. 

Doctors may recommend surgery if the parasite causes heavy infestation. It may be necessary to remove worms and repair the damage they’ve caused. Intestinal blockage or holes, bile duct blockage, and appendicitis are complications that may require surgery.

Are Roundworms Life-threatening to Humans?

If humans ingest the larvae of cat or dog roundworms, they can become infected, and illness results from the larvae migrating through organs and tissues. In severe cases, the worms may partly or completely block your small intestine. You may get an inflamed pancreas. The infection can even be life-threatening.

How to Prevent Roundworm Infection?

Diagnosis for Hypersexuality
  • Avoid touching the soil as it might be contaminated with human feces.
  • Wash your hands with soap and water before preparing food. 
  • Teach your children to do the proper handwashing and let them wash their hands frequently. 
  • Wash, peel, and cook fruits and vegetables especially if they grow from manure-fertilized soil. 
  • Avoid exposure to improper sewage disposal. 
  • Contact your doctor if you have stomach problems especially if you have traveled from developing countries where there is an outbreak of the infection.

What is Schizophrenia: Symptoms and Treatment

What is Schizophrenia?

Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder in which individuals interpret reality abnormally and may result in some combination of delusions, hallucinations, and disordered thinking. This behavior damages daily functioning and inactivates a person’s daily dealings in life. This condition needs lifelong treatment.

What are the Symptoms of Schizophrenia?

woman with a lot in her thoughts mentally
  • Abnormal motor behavior. This may show a number of ways, from silliness to unpredictable agitation without purpose. It can cause difficulties in the performance of daily life activities.
  • Negative symptoms. Where people reduce or lack of ability to function normally. Take no interest in everyday social interactions, often appear emotionless, and lack the ability to experience pleasure.
  • Disorganized thinking. People with disorganized thinking may speak inarticulately, respond to questions with unrelated answers, shift topics frequently, or say unreasoned things.
  • Delusions. Is a belief that a person holds that is not based in reality and is not altered or modified when the person is presented with contradictory evidence. 
  • Hallucinations. It can be in any of the senses, but hearing voices is the most common one.

What are the Causes of Schizophrenia?

This condition has no specific cause but it is believed that a combination of genetics, brain chemistry, and environmental contributions can cause this disorder. Neuroimaging studies show differences in the brain structure and central nervous system of people with this condition. While researchers are not certain about the significance of these changes, they indicate that this is a brain disease. Common risk factors for this condition are:

  • Having a family history of schizophrenia
  • Some pregnancy and birth complications, such as malnutrition or exposure to toxins or viruses may impact brain development
  • Taking mind-altering drugs during teen years and young adulthood

Treatment of Schizophrenia

therapy - psychotherapy

This condition requires lifelong treatment, even when symptoms have subsided. Treatment with medications and psychosocial therapy can help manage the condition. However, some cases may also need hospitalization. 

Medications are the foundation for treating this condition. A patient may be recommended to take antipsychotic drugs that control the symptoms by affecting the brain neurotransmitter dopamine. The goal of this treatment is to manage signs and symptoms at the lowest possible dose. Other medications also may help, such as antidepressants or anti-anxiety drugs. It can take several weeks to notice an improvement in symptoms.

Chlorpromazine is a typically recommended prescription for this condition. It works by helping to restore the balance of certain natural substances in the brain and reduce aggressive behavior and the desire to hurt yourself or others. It may also help to decrease hallucinations.

Doctors may also give long-acting injectable antipsychotics as an option if someone has a preference for fewer pills which may help with adherence. They are usually given every two to four weeks, depending on the medication. Psychological interventions also play a very important role in treating this condition. This may include individual therapy, social skills training, and family therapy.

Coping and Homecare Support

  • Learn about this condition. Education about the disorder can help the affected individual understand the importance of sticking to the treatment plan. It can help the people around to understand the disorder and be more compassionate with the person who has it.
  • Focus on the goals. Keeping treatment goals in mind can help the person with this condition stay motivated. If a family member has this condition, ensure to help to remind them about taking medications. 
  • Avoid alcohol and drug use. Using alcohol and recreational drugs can make it difficult to treat this condition. get advice from a professional if a family member or someone you know is addicted because quitting can also be a challenge. 
  • Get help. These services may be able to assist with affordable housing, transportation, and other daily activities.
  • Learn relaxation techniques. The person with this disorder and loved ones may benefit from stress-reduction techniques. Ask for help from professionals on how to incorporate healthy routines along with the recovery process. 

What is Melancholia: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment?

What is Melancholia?

 Melancholia is a term used to describe the feeling of being deeply sad and desperate since that time. Also known as melancholic depression is a type of depression. About 15%-30% of people have this type of depression. This condition may have more severe symptoms than other types of depression and it’s harder to treat.

It is a major mental health condition characterized by persistent and intense feelings of sadness and hopelessness. The disorder can affect many areas of life and may also impact mood and behavior as well as various physical functions. People with this condition often lose interest in activities they once enjoyed and have trouble getting through the day. Occasionally, they may also feel as if life isn’t worth living.

What are the Symptoms of Melancholia?

woman depressed in dark room
  • Depression that is consistently worse in the morning
  • A different quality of depressed mood characterized by profound despair, sadness, or emptiness
  • Sleep badly and wale early in the morning
  • Lose their appetite and lose weight
  • Extreme or inappropriate guilt
  • Think about suicide

What Causes Melancholia?

The typical causes of this condition are changes in the brain and hormonal pathways. This is due to the malfunction of the adrenal glands, hypothalamus, and pituitary glands. These glands release chemicals that regulate stress and appetite. With this condition, you may have high levels of steroids and cortisol. These are hormones that are made by your adrenal glands when you are stressed. This affects many different functions in your body, including your metabolism, appetite, and memory. You may also have changes in brain signals called neurons. These signals affect how you respond to your surroundings.

What is the Treatment for Melancholia?

Psychotherapy and medication are often part of the treatment plan for this condition because it is believed to have a biological root. Causes of melancholic depression appear to be mainly due to genetic makeup and brain function, necessitating a medication that works on biological causes like brain function. Types of antidepressants used for this condition are:

  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. These works by changing the way the neurotransmitter serotonin works in the brain, thereby improving mood
  • Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. It affects the way both serotonin and norepinephrine work in the brain. 
  • Norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitors. It affects norepinephrine and dopamine.
  • Atypical antidepressants. These medications affect brain chemicals that seem to improve mood. 

In addition to medication, psychotherapy is also used to treat people who have MDD with melancholic symptoms. A combination of these two treatment methods is usually more effective than either approach on its own. This involves meeting with a therapist on a regular basis to discuss symptoms and related issues. It helps a patient in the:

  • Adjusting to a crisis or other stressful event
  • Managing or replacing negative beliefs and behaviors with positive, healthy ones
  • Improving communication skills and producing healthy coping mechanisms to solve problems
  • Regain a sense of satisfaction and control in life and boost self-esteem

Medication Used for Melancholia

Venlafaxine. It is an atypical antidepressant drug referred to as serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor. It works by increasing the levels of mood-enhancing chemicals called serotonin and noradrenaline in the brain. The side effects of this medication include feeling sick, headaches, sweating, and dry mouth are common. They are usually mild and go away after a couple of weeks.

Warnings and Precautions When Taking Venlafaxine

  • It can make your heart beat faster or cause an irregular heartbeat, so your doctor may not think it is suitable if you are already taking medicine for your heart.
  • Talk to your doctor if you have a history of blood pressure and heart problems before taking this medication.
  • If you are pregnant or planning to get pregnant, avoid this medication or talk to your doctor about its risks and benefits.
  • Take this medication as instructed by your physician and avoid inconsistent dosing.

OCD: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

What is OCD?

Obsessive-compulsive disorder or OCD is a common mental health disorder where a person has obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors. This condition can affect anyone and some people start having symptoms early, often around puberty but it usually starts during early adulthood.

What are the Causes of OCD?

Some causes of this condition are:

  1. Biology. It may be a result of changes in your body’s natural chemistry or brain functions.
  2. Heredity. It may have a genetic component, but specific genes have yet to be identified.
  3. Learning. Obsessive fears and compulsive behaviors can be learned from watching family members or gradually learned over time.

Experts are not sure why people have this condition. Genetics, brain abnormalities, and environment are supposed to play a role. Also, stress can make symptoms worse. It often starts in teens or early adulthood but it can also start in childhood as well. Other anxiety depression, problems, substance abuse, or eating disorders may happen with OCD. Watch out for the factors that may increase your risk of the condition such as;

  • A history of physical or sexual abuse as a child
  • Physical differences in certain parts of your brain
  • A parent, siblings, or child with OCD
  • Experience trauma, depression, and anxiety

What are the Symptoms of OCD?

man on gray shouting and having an anxiety episode
  • Fear of contamination or dirt
  • Doubting and having difficulty tolerating uncertainty
  • Needing things orderly and symmetrical
  • Aggressive thoughts about losing control and harming yourself or others
  • Unwanted thoughts, including aggression, or sexual or religious subjects

Compulsion symptoms include:

As with obsessions, compulsions typically have themes, such as:

  • Washing and cleaning
  • Counting
  • Following a strict routine
  • Orderliness
  • Checking
  • Demanding reassurance

How is OCD Diagnosed?

therapy - psychotherapy

It is sometimes difficult to diagnose this condition because symptoms can be similar to those of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, depression, or other mental health disorders. The steps for diagnosis are:

  • Psychological evaluation. This includes talking about your thoughts, feelings, symptoms, and behavior patterns to determine if you have obsessions or compulsive behaviors that interfere with your quality of life. 
  • Using the criteria for OCD. Your doctor may use criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders published by the American Psychiatric Association.
  • Physical exam. This may be done to help rule out other problems that could be causing your symptoms and to check for any related complications.

Treatment for OCD

The goal of the treatment is to help bring symptoms under control so that they don’t rule your daily life. Depending on the severity of the condition, some people may need long-term, ongoing, or more intensive treatment. Cognitive behavioral therapy, CBT therapy, and exposure and response prevention are typically recommended parts of the treatment. Doctors may also prescribe medications to control the obsessions and compulsions of this condition. Most commonly, antidepressants are tried first.

Paroxetine is a selective serotonin and reuptake inhibitor. It is used in the treatment of obsessive compulsion disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Generally, the goal is to effectively control symptoms at the lowest possible dosage. It’s not unusual to try several drugs before finding one that works well. Your doctor might recommend more than one medication to effectively manage your symptoms.

Care and Support for OCD

  • Learn about your condition to keep you motivated and empowered to follow the treatment plan. 
  • Stay focused on your goals in mind and remember that recovery is an ongoing process.
  • Reaching out to others facing similar challenges can provide you with support and help you cope with challenges.
  • Learn relaxation and stress management such as meditation, visualization, muscle relaxation, massage, deep breathing, and yoga may help ease stress and anxiety.
  • Work with your mental health professional to identify techniques and skills that help manage symptoms, and practice these regularly.

What are the Effects of Eczema on Children?

What is Eczema?

Eczema is a condition that causes dry, itchy, and swollen skin. This is common in young children but can happen at any age. This condition is long-lasting and tends to flare sometimes, and can be irritating, but it is not infectious. Persons with this condition are at risk of developing asthma, food allergies, and hay fever.

What are its Symptoms?

Skin rash
  • Rash on swollen skin that varies in color depending on your skin color
  • Dry, cracked skin, and Itchiness 
  • Oozing and crusting
  • Small, raised bumps on brown or Black skin
  • Darkening of the skin around the eyes
  • Raw, sensitive skin from scratching
  • Thickened skin

Talk to your doctor if your child has any of the following:

  • Has symptoms of Eczema
  • Has a skin infection look for new streaks
  • Has pus and yellow scabs
  • Has symptoms even after trying self-care steps
  • An uncomfortable condition that affects sleep and daily activities
  • If you or your child has a fever and the rash looks infected, seek immediate medical attention.

What is its Effect on Children?

In infants and toddlers, eczema looks and acts differently rather than it does in older children. 

  1. For infants or the first six months. It appears on the cheeks, face, forehead, scalp, and chin. It can also spread to other areas of the body, but not usually in the diaper area, where moisture protects the skin. The skin during this period also tends to look red. 
  2. For babies.  It often appears on your baby’s elbows and knees places which are easy to rub or scratch as they are crawling. If this condition rash becomes infected, it may form a yellow crust or very small bumps on the skin.
  3. For toddlers. It affects the face of children and can appear as red patches with small bumps, as shown here. The condition is more likely to appear in the creases of the elbows and knees or on their hands, wrists, and ankle. It may also appear on the skin around your toddler’s mouth and eyelids. 
Clotrimazole Cream

How to Prevent Eczema in Children?

  • Make sure that your child takes a bath daily. Use warm, rather than hot, water, and limit your bath or shower to about 10 minutes.
  • Use a gentle cleanser. For young children, you usually need only warm water to get them clean. Soap can be especially irritating to the skin of young children, so as much as possible, use the safest products. 
  • Moisturize your child’s skin at least twice a day. Creams, ointments, shea butter, and lotions seal in moisture. Choose a product or products that work well for your child. Using petroleum jelly on your baby’s skin may help prevent the development of atopic dermatitis.
  • Pat dry. After bathing, gently pat the skin with a soft towel. Apply moisturizer while your child’s skin is still damp.

Treatment for Eczema in Children

Start with regular moisturizing and a self-care routine for your child. If these do not help, your doctor might suggest medicated creams that control itching and help repair skin. These are sometimes combined with other treatments. This condition can be persistent, and your child may need to try various treatments over months or years to control it. 

There are several options that will help control itching and repair the skin. Products are available in various strengths and as creams, gels and ointments. Talk with your child’s doctor about the options and your preferences. Whatever is prescribed, apply it as directed before you moisturize. 

Recommended Medication for Eczema

Clobetasol. It is used to treat various types of skin disorders, such as eczema. It has properties that work by controlling the synthesis of inflammation-causing mediators such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Controlling the production of inflammation-causing substances can effectively reduce symptoms associated with allergic reactions in the skin.

Social Anxiety: Symptoms and Treatment

What is Social Anxiety?

Social anxiety disorder leads to avoidance which can interrupt your life. Severe conditions may affect your daily routines, relationships, school, work, or other activities. It can be a chronic mental health condition, but learning coping skills in psychotherapy and taking medications can help you gain confidence and improve your ability to interact with others.

It’s normal to feel anxious in some social situations. For instance, going to a game or giving a presentation may cause that feeling of cramps in your stomach. But in this condition, everyday interactions cause significant anxiety, self-consciousness, and embarrassment because you fear being examined or judged negatively by others. This is also known as social phobia.

What are the Symptoms of Social Anxiety?

This condition is more than shyness. It is a fear that does not go away and affects everyday activities, relationships, self-confidence, and school or work life. Numerous people rarely worry about social situations, but someone with this condition feels overly anxious before, during, and after them. Typical symptoms are:

group of friends talking in a restaurant with menu
  • Avoid or worry a lot about social activities, such as group conversations.
  • Avoid eating with company and parties.
  • Worrying about everyday activities, such as starting conversations
  • Find it difficult to do things when others are watching you.
  • You may feel like you are being judged and watched all the time.
  • Always worry about doing something you think is embarrassing.
  • Worry too much about sweating, blushing, or appearing incompetent
  • Often have symptoms like feeling trembling, sweating, sick, or having a pounding heartbeat.
  • Fear being criticized, avoid eye contact or have low self-esteem.
  • Many people with social anxiety also have other mental health issues, such as depression, panic disorder, or generalized anxiety disorder.
  • Have panic attacks, where you have an overwhelming sense of anxiety and fear 

What are the Causes of Social Anxiety?

This condition likely arises from a complex interaction of biological and environmental factors such as:

  1. Genetic traits. This condition typically tends to run in families. However, it isn’t entirely clear how much of this may be due to genetics and how much is due to learned behavior.
  2. Brain structure. A structure in the brain may play a role in controlling the fear response. People who have an overactive structure may have a sensitive fear response, causing increased anxiety in social situations.
  3. Environment. It can also be a learned behavior caused by an unpleasant or embarrassing social situation. Also, there may be an association between this condition and parents who either model anxious behavior in social situations or are more controlling or overprotective of their children.

The Common Risk Factors of Social Anxiety

  • Negative experiences. Children who experience teasing, bullying, rejection, ridicule, or humiliation may be more prone to social anxiety disorder. 
  • Personality. Children who are shy, timid, withdrawn, or restrained when facing new situations or people may be at greater risk.
  • Family history. You’re more likely to develop social anxiety disorder if your biological parents or siblings have the condition.
  • Having a condition that draws attention. Disfigurement, stuttering, or tremors due to Parkinson’s disease can increase feelings of self-consciousness and may trigger this condition in some people.
therapy - psychotherapy

How to Treat Social Anxiety?

The treatment of this condition depends on the severity of the condition or how it affects your daily life. It includes medications and psychotherapy or a combination approach of both. Psychotherapy improves symptoms in most people with this condition. It helps you learn to distinguish and change negative thoughts about yourself and develop skills to help you gain confidence in social situations.

Medication Used for Social Anxiety

Paroxetine. It is a selective serotonin and reuptake inhibitor that is believed to be because of the potentiation of serotonergic activity in the central nervous system resulting from the inhibition of neuronal reuptake of serotonin. Aside from taking medications, it is crucial for you to seek regular help and finish the therapy to manage and prevent any attacks. 

What is Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Suppression? Symptoms and Treatment

What is Hypothyroidism?

Hypothyroidism is a condition where the thyroid gland does not make enough hormones. It may not cause noticeable symptoms in the early stages, but if left untreated, it may trigger other health problems such as heart disease and high cholesterol.

What are its Symptoms?

man fatigue and tired on a table
  • Tiredness
  • Sensitivity to cold
  • Weight gain
  • Dry skin and constipation
  • Hoarse voice 
  • Coarse hair and skin
  • Muscle aches, tenderness, and stiffness
  • Muscle weakness
  • Puffy face
  • Memory problem
  • Depression 
  • Muscle weakness
  • Hair thinning
  • Irregular menstrual cycle for women

Symptoms in infants include:

  • Poor growth and feeding problems
  • Poor weight gain 
  • Jaundice or yellowing of the skin and eyes
  • Poor muscle tone
  • Constipation
  • Dry skin 
  • Hoarse crying 
  • Enlarges tongue
  • A soft bulge or swelling near the belly button 

Symptoms in children and teens

  • Stature caused by poor growth
  • Delayed development of permanent teeth
  • Delayed puberty
  • Poor mental development

What Causes Hypothyroidism?


It happens when the thyroid gland doesn’t make enough hormones. Conditions or problems that can lead to this condition include:

  1. Autoimmune disease. Hashimoto’s disease is a common autoimmune condition that triggers hypothyroidism. It happens when the immune system makes antibodies that attack healthy tissues. Sometimes that process involves the thyroid gland and affects its ability to make hormones.
  2. Problems at birth. Some babies are born with a thyroid gland that doesn’t work correctly. Often, infants born with hypothyroidism don’t have noticeable symptoms at first. That’s one reason why most states require newborn thyroid screening.
  3. Pituitary disorder. A relatively rare cause of hypothyroidism is the failure of the pituitary gland to make enough thyroid-stimulating hormone. This is usually because of a noncancerous tumor of the pituitary gland.
  4. Thyroid surgery. This medical procedure lowers the gland’s ability to make thyroid hormones or stop it completely.
  5. Radiation therapy. Using radiation to treat cancers of the head and neck can affect the thyroid gland and lead to hypothyroidism.
  6. Thyroiditis. It is an inflammation of the thyroid caused by an infection, or it can also result from an autoimmune disorder or another medical condition affecting the thyroid. It can trigger the thyroid to release all of its stored thyroid hormones at once. 
  7. Medicine. A number of medicines may lead to hypothyroidism. One such medicine is lithium, which is used to treat some psychiatric disorders. 
  8. Pregnancy. Some people develop hypothyroidism during or after pregnancy. If hypothyroidism happens during pregnancy and isn’t treated, it raises the risk of pregnancy loss, premature delivery, and preeclampsia. Preeclampsia causes a significant rise in blood pressure during the last three months of pregnancy. 

How Diagnose Hypothyroidism?

The diagnosis of hypothyroidism doesn’t rely on symptoms alone. It’s usually based on the results of blood tests. The first blood test is typically done to diagnose hypothyroidism and measures the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone in the blood. If the second test shows high TSH, but T-4 and T-3 are in the standard range, then the diagnosis is a condition called a subclinical condition. It usually doesn’t cause any noticeable symptoms.

Medication Used for Hypothyroidism

Thyroxine sodium. It is used for the treatment of hypothyroidism and pituitary TSH suppression. It binds to the thyroid hormone response element and results in gene transcription. This results in the expression of a predetermined genetically coded pattern of protein synthesis.

Most healthcare providers recommend taking the medicine levothyroxine to treat hypothyroidism. But an extract containing thyroid hormone derived from the thyroid glands of pigs is available. It is sometimes called desiccated thyroid extract. This medicine is taken by mouth. It returns hormone levels to a healthy range, eliminating symptoms of hypothyroidism.

You’ll likely start to feel better one or two weeks after you begin treatment. Treatment with this medication can be lifelong because the dosage you need may change. Visit your doctor from time to time for a regular check-up.

Systemic Mastocytosis: Symptoms, Risk Factors, Causes, and Treatment

What is Systemic Mastocytosis?

Systemic Mastocytosis is a rare condition that results in too many mast cells building up in your body. A mast cell is a type of white blood cell. These are found in connective tissues throughout your body. They help your immune system function properly and help protect you from disease.

Excess mast cells build up in your bone, skin, digestive tract, marrow, or other body organs when you have this condition. When triggered, these mast cells release substances that can cause signs and symptoms similar to an allergic reaction. This condition can also cause severe inflammation that may result in organ damage. Avoiding its typical triggers, such as spicy foods, alcohol, and certain medications, can help. 

Five Main Types of Systemic Mastocytosis

  1. Indolent. This usually doesn’t include organ dysfunction. Skin symptoms are common, but other organs may be affected, and the disease may worsen slowly over time.
  2. Smoldering. It is linked with more-significant symptoms and may include organ dysfunction and worsening illness over time.
  3. Systemic type with another blood or bone marrow disorder. This is considered a severe type that develops rapidly and is often linked with organ dysfunction and damage.
  4. Aggressive. This is more severe and may show several symptoms that are usually associated with progressive organ dysfunction and damage.
  5. Mast cell leukemia. This is an extremely rare and aggressive form of this condition. 
abdominal pain

Signs and Symptoms of Systemic Mastocytosis

The signs and symptoms depend on the part of the body where it occurs. Most of the cells build up in the skin, spleen, bone marrow, and liver skin. Signs and symptoms of systemic Mastocytosis may include:

  • Abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, or vomiting
  • Flushing, itching, or hives
  • Bone and muscle pain
  • Anemia or bleeding disorders
  • Enlarged liver, spleen, or lymph nodes
  • Depression, mood changes, or problems concentrating

People have different triggers for this condition, but the most typical causes include the following:

  • Skin irritation
  • Alcohol
  • Exercise
  • Insect stings
  • Spicy foods
  • Certain medications

Talk to your doctor if you have problems with hives or flushing or if you have concerns about the signs or symptoms listed above.

What Causes Systemic Mastocytosis?

Most cases of this condition are caused by a mutation in the KIT gene. Too many mast cells are produced and build up in tissues and body organs, releasing substances such as histamine, leukotrienes, and cytokines that cause inflammation and symptoms. This condition can cause several complications, such as:

  • Peptic ulcer disease. Chronic stomach irritation can lead to ulcers and bleeding in your digestive tract.
  • Anaphylactic reaction. This severe allergic reaction includes signs and symptoms such as rapid heartbeat, fainting, loss of consciousness, and shock. If you have a severe allergic reaction, you may need an injection of epinephrine.
  • Blood disorders. These can include anemia and poor blood clotting.
  • Organ failure. A buildup of mast cells in body organs can cause inflammation and damage to the organ.
  • Reduced bone density. Because systemic Mastocytosis can affect your bones and bone marrow, you may be at risk of bone problems, such as osteoporosis.

Treatment, Management, and Prevention of Systemic Mastocytosis

The treatment for this condition varies depending on the type of condition, and part of the organ is affected. It focuses on managing the symptoms, regular monitoring, and managing the disease itself. To control the triggers, identify and avoid the common triggers such as foods.

Ranitidine is a prescription used in the treatment and management of this condition. It blocks all the phases of gastric secretion. The recommended dosage of this medicine in adults is 150 mg twice daily or 300mg once daily, given at bedtime. The recommended dose of Ranitidine in pediatric patients is 2 to 4 mg once daily.

Diagnosis for Hypersexuality

Homecare and Lifestyle Support for Systemic Mastocytosis

  • Identify and avoid your triggers.
  • Treat allergic reactions and always carry your medications to avoid forgetting a dose.  
  • Follow your doctor’s recommended care and ongoing monitoring.
  • Learn as much as you can about your disease and make the best choices. 
  • Find a team of trusted professionals. Medical centers with specialty teams can offer you information about the disease. 

Coronavirus (COVID): Symptoms, Risk Factors, Causes and Treatment

What is Coronavirus (COVID)?

Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that can cause respiratory illness in humans. They are called “corona” because of crown-like spikes on the surface of the virus. Severe acute respiratory syndrome, Middle East respiratory syndrome, and the common cold are examples of coronaviruses that cause illness in humans. The new strain of this virus was detected in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and eventually becomes a pandemic.

Signs and Symptoms of Coronavirus (COVID)

Signs and symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 may appear 2 to 14 days after exposure. During the incubation period, the infected individual can spread the virus through respiratory droplets. Common signs and symptoms can include:

  • Tiredness
  • Loss of sense of taste and smell
  • Fever
  • Cough
Chest pain

Other reported symptoms can include:

  • Muscle aches
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
  • Sore throat
  • Chills and headache
  • Runny nose
  • Pink eye 
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Chest pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Rash

This list is not complete. Children have similar symptoms to adults and generally have mild illnesses. Emergency signs and symptoms can include: 

  • Persistent chest pain or pressure
  • Trouble breathing
  • New confusion
  • Pale, gray, or blue-colored skin, lips, or nail beds depending on skin tone
  • Inability to stay awake

This list is not complete. Let your healthcare provider know if you are an older adult or have chronic medical conditions, such as heart disease or lung disease, as you may have a greater risk of becoming seriously ill with this virus.

How Severe is Coronavirus (COVID)?

The severity of this virus’s symptoms can range from very mild to severe. Some people may have only a few symptoms. Some people may have no symptoms but can still spread it. Some people may experience worsening symptoms, such as shortness of breath and pneumonia, about a week after symptoms start. This is called post-COVID-19 conditions. Some children experience multisystem inflammatory syndrome, which can affect some organs and tissues after COVID-19. Rarely, do some adults experience the syndrome too.

smoking cigarettes

Who are at Risk of Coronavirus (COVID)? 

People who are older have a higher risk of serious illness from COVID-19, and the risk increases with age. People who have existing medical conditions also may have a higher risk of serious illness. Certain medical conditions that may increase the risk include:

  • Cancer
  • Serious heart diseases
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 
  • Overweight, obesity 
  • Type 1 or type 2 diabetes
  • Smoking
  • High blood pressure
  • Sickle cell disease or thalassemia
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Pregnancy
  • Weakened immune system due to organ transplant
  • Chronic lung diseases such as pulmonary hypertension
  • Asthma
  • Dementia
  • Liver disease
  • Weakened immune system due to severe infections
  • Down syndrome
  • Substance use disorders
  • Brain and nervous system conditions, such as strokes

If you have an emergency of these virus signs and symptoms, seek care immediately. 

What Causes Coronavirus (COVID)

Coronaviruses are zoonotic or they first develop in animals before being transmitted to humans. For the virus to be transmitted from animals to humans, a person has to come into close contact with an animal that has the infection. Once the virus develops in people, coronaviruses can be transmitted from person to person through respiratory droplets. 

The 2019 coronavirus has not been definitively linked to a specific animal. Researchers believe that the virus may have been passed from bats to another animal either snakes or pangolins and then transmitted to humans. This transmission likely happened in the open food market in Wuhan.

Treatment for Coronavirus Disease (COVID)

Remdisivir is an approved medication for the disease. It is given to hospitalized adults and children who are aged 12 and older in the hospital. For mild conditions, a combination of isolation and supportive care will be given until the infected individual recovers. 

In relieving symptoms of the virus, you can also use Nasal FabiSpray. The properties of FabiSpray, Nitric Oxide, prevent the virus’s transmission. It also protects high-risk patients from severe disease. It also treats symptoms such as colds, congestion, sneezing, and runny nose.

Psychosis: Definition, Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

What is Psychosis?

Psychosis is a condition that affects the way the brain processes information. This leads a person to lose touch with reality. Note that this is a symptom, not an illness.  It is triggered by a mental illness, injury, substance abuse, trauma, or extreme stress.

Signs and Symptoms of Psychosis

The symptoms of this condition depend on its cause. This may appear quickly or cause slow changes in a person’s thoughts and perceptions. The symptoms can be mild or severe. The early signs are:

  • A significant drop in school performance or job
  • The difficulty of thinking clearly
  • Trouble concentrating or thinking clearly
  • Suspiciousness and uneasiness around others
  • Having strong or inappropriate emotions
  • Social withdrawal
  • A decline of personal hygiene or self-care

This condition involves one of the following categories or domains:

  • Hallucinations. Experiences a person perceives to be real despite the lack of stimulus to cause them.
  • Negative symptoms. A decline or changes in emotions, words, movements, or motivation.
  • Delusions. False beliefs that a person holds despite a lack of evidence or proof.
  • Disorganized behavior. Random or inappropriate emotional responses that are not in line with the situation.
  • Disorganized thought. A person’s thought process may drift away from the topic. Their speech may make no sense to others.
  • Catatonia. The person may become unresponsive or oppose stimuli or present with unintentional movements or activities that lack purpose.
woman depressed in dark room

What Causes Psychosis?

There are no specific causes of this condition but some known factors include:

  1. Drugs. It is sometimes triggered by alcohol abuse, the use of marijuana, amphetamines, and LSD. Both drugs that depress the nervous system, like cannabis and stimulant drugs, like cocaine and ampethamines can affect your brain activity.
  2. Genetics. This condition may run in the family but that doesn’t always mean you will get psychosis.
  3. Trauma. The death of a loved one, a sexual assault, or other events that causes trauma can lead to the development of this condition. 
  4. Injuries and illnesses. This involves brain injuries, tumors, stroke, dementia, and Alzheimer’s disease can cause psychosis. 
  5. Severe depression. Some people with depression also have symptoms of psychosis when they are very depressed. 

Treatment, Management, and Prevention of Psychosis

The treatment of this condition involves a combination approach of medicine and therapy. Using antipsychotic medications relieves the symptoms and behavioral therapy helps reduce the need for hospital treatments. Therapy is significant, especially for conditions like schizophrenia.

Social support is also a successful aid in treating psychosis. Supporting a patient’s needs such as education, employment, and accommodation may significantly ease the condition along with proper medications.

Getting Help for Others

Affected people often have reduced insight and awareness of the real world. If you know someone who has the condition or showing symptoms, you can seek help for them. You can contact your community social worker for evaluation, take them to the nearest emergency department, or call their GP.

Medication Used to Treat Psychosis

Chlorpromazine. It is a prescription medicine used to treat the symptoms of Schizophrenia and Psychotic Disorders. It is also recommended by doctors to their patients to control agitation and mania in people who have bipolar disorder. It works by helping to restore the balance of certain natural substances in the brain. It can reduce aggressive behavior and the desire to hurt yourself or others. It may also help to decrease hallucinations.

Symptoms of migraine withourtaura

What are the Side Effects of Chlorpromazine?

  • Increased sensitivity of the skin to sunlight
  • Swelling or pain in breasts
  • Unusual secretion of milk
  • Unusual weight gain
  • Changes in the menstrual period
  • Reduced sexual ability

Inform your doctor if you experience persistent:

Rare but serious side effects can include:

  • Difficulty breathing
  • Fast heartbeat
  • Fever and increased sweating
  • Loss of bladder control
  • Seizures
  • Muscle stiffness
  • Unusual tiredness or weakness

Endometrial Hyperplasia: Symptoms, Types, Causes, and Treatment

What is Endometrial Hyperplasia?

Endometrial hyperplasia is a precancerous condition in which the lining of the uterus becomes unusually thick due to hormonal imbalance. This condition leads to various symptoms that may require medical care. In some women, this can lead to cancer of the uterus. However, this is a rare condition that affects at least 133 out of 100,000 women.

Types of Endometrial Hyperplasia

  1. Simple or without atypia. It consists of normal cells that are not cancerous and may improve without treatment.
  2. Simple or complex atypical EH. It is a precancerous type caused by an overgrowth of abnormal cells. This may turn into endometrial or uterine cancer if left untreated. 

Symptoms of Endometrial Hyperplasia

  • Abnormal menstruation 
  • Short or long menstrual cycle
  • Missed periods in some cases
  • Bleeding after menopause

What Causes Endometrial Hyperplasia?

woman depressed in dark room

Your menstrual cycle depends on the hormones estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen helps grow cells on the lining of the uterus. If there is no pregnancy taking place, the progesterone levels tell your uterus shed its lining. With an imbalance of these hormones, things can get out of sync. The typical cause of this condition is having too much progesterone instead of estrogen. An imbalance is caused by any of the following:

  • You’ve reached menopause or you are no longer ovulating and your body doesn’t produce progesterone.
  • You’re in perimenopause or when your ovulation happens regularly anymore.
  • You’re beyond menopause and have taken or are currently taking estrogen.
  • You have an irregular cycle, infertility, or polycystic ovary syndrome.
  • You take medications that imitate estrogen.
  • You are obese or overweight 

What are the Risk Factors of Endometrial Hyperplasia?

  • You were unlikely to be postmenopausal, at which time the risk was 0.2 times that of the asymptomatic premenopausal woman
  • You were more likely to be obese, and obesity was associated with an almost threefold risk
  • If postmenopausal, the risk was increased three times if hormone replacement therapy was being used.
  • You have a higher rate of diabetes mellitus which was associated with almost 2.5 times higher risk

How to Diagnose Endometrial Hyperplasia?

military man uwing ultra sound to check on a womans abdomen

After assessing your symptoms and medical history, your doctor may run the following diagnostic method:

  • Transvaginal ultrasound. It measures the thickness of your endometrium and views your uterus and ovaries.
  • Hysteroscopy.  A device will be inserted into your uterus through your cervix to check for anything unusual inside the uterus.
  • Biopsy. This involves taking a small tissue sample of your uterus to check for any cancerous cells. The tissue sample is then sent to a pathologist for analysis.

Treatment, Management, and Prevention of Endometrial Hyperplasia

Treatment for this condition can either be hormonal therapy or surgery. In some cases, the treatment may also include a combination of both, otherwise, it can be treated with:

  • Hormonal therapy. Progestin is a synthetic form of progesterone. This is available in a pill, injection, or intrauterine form.
  • Hysterectomy. If you have atypical hyperplasia, removing your uterus will lower your cancer risk. 

Medication Used for Endometrial Hyperplasia

Progesterone. It is mainly used to treat endometrial hyperplasia and secondary amenorrhea in women. t works as part of hormone replacement therapy by decreasing the amount of estrogen in the uterus. It works to bring on menstruation by replacing the natural progesterone that some women are missing.

Home Care Treatment for Endometrial Hyperplasia Symptoms

  • If your symptoms are acting up and you need relief, heat is one of the best home remedies you have at your disposal to relax your pelvic muscle. 
  • Castor oil has been used for hundreds of years to treat endometriosis. It can be used at the very beginning, when cramping is first felt, to help the body get rid of excess tissues
  • Turmeric has strong anti-inflammatory properties that can be beneficial to people experiencing symptoms. You can take turmeric capsules, or make turmeric tea by boiling one cup of water and adding a teaspoon of both turmeric and ginger powder.
  • You can use warm baths, hot water bottles, or heating pads to treat cramping effectively.
  • Over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can offer fast relief from painful cramping caused by the symptoms of this condition. 
  • Avoid foods that cause inflammation and increase foods with anti-inflammatory properties in your diet. 
  • Massaging the pelvic muscles can help relax them and reduce inflammation, and reduce cramps.

Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome: Symptoms, Risk Factors, Causes, and Treatment

What is Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome?

Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome is a rare condition that causes tumors to grow in your intestine or pancreas. Tumors or gastrinomas release hormones that trigger your stomach to produce gastric acid. Too much production may lead to ulcers and other complications which may also include cancerous tumors.

abdominal pain

Signs and Symptoms of Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome

  • Diarrhea
  • Stomach pain
  • Aching and burning discomfort in the upper abdomen
  • Heartburn
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Burping 
  • Acid reflux
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Bleeding in the digestive tract
  • Loss of appetite

Seek immediate help if you have aching or burning pain in your upper belly that does not go away with medications. Conditions associated with nausea, vomiting, and persistent diarrhea may need immediate medical attention.

What Causes Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome?

The exact specific cause of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is unknown. But the pattern of events that occurs in this condition typically follows the same sequence. The syndrome begins when one or more tumors form in your pancreas or a part of the duodenum or the section connected to your stomach. Sometimes the tumors form at other sites, such as the lymph nodes next to your pancreas.

Your pancreas sits behind and below your stomach. It makes enzymes that are needed for digesting food. Digestive juices from the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder mix in the duodenum. This is where most of your digestion happens.

The tumors that occur with this condition are made up of cells that secrete large amounts of the hormone gastrin. High gastrin production causes the stomach to make far too much acid. The excess acid then leads to peptic ulcers and sometimes to diarrhea. Besides causing excess acid production, the tumors are often cancerous and may affect the liver and other nearby organs.

What are the Risk Factors of Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome?

Anyone is at risk of this condition but people with the condition may have a genetic problem known as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). Children of adults with MEN1 are at a greater risk of getting the disease. This is common in men from 30 to 50 years old. Ensure to seek immediate help if you experience persistent symptoms of ZES.

How to Diagnose Zollinger Ellison Syndrome?

military man uwing ultra sound to check on a womans abdomen

Your doctor will assess your symptoms and review your medical history. To diagnose ZES, your doctor will run some blood tests to see through your gastrin levels. Other diagnostic method includes:

  1. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Tissue samples may be removed to examine gastrin-producing tumors. This test can determine whether the stomach is making high levels of gastric acid. 
  2. Endoscopic ultrasound. This procedure uses an endoscope to spot tumors in your stomach, duodenum, and pancreas. This test also requires fasting after midnight and sedation.
  3. Imaging tests.  One test is a nuclear scan called somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. This test uses radioactive tracers to help locate tumors. Other helpful imaging tests include ultrasound, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and Ga-DOTATATE PET-CT scanning.

Treatment, Management, and Prevention of Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome

The goal of the treatment is to focus on managing the hormone-secreting tumors as well as the ulcer they cause. The treatment of tumors includes an operation to remove the gastrinomas. If you have just one tumor, your provider may be able to remove it surgically. But surgery may not be an option if you have many tumors or tumors that have spread to your liver. Risks associated with surgery include infection, pain, and blood loss. Talk to your doctor to understand your risks.

Medication Used for Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome

Ranitidine. This drug blocks gastric secretion and treats conditions like hypersecretory conditions like ZES. Ranitidine counteracts the effects of gastrin. Medicines known as proton pump inhibitors are the first line of treatment. These are effective medicines for controlling acid production in ZES. Continue taking this medication throughout the treatment course to ensure recovery.

Insights on Musculoskeletal Disorders

What are Musculoskeletal Disorders?

Musculoskeletal disorders affect joints, bones, tendons, muscles, or ligaments. It is often characterized by persistent pain that affects mobility and dexterity. It reduces your ability to work and participate in any day-to-day activities.

What are the Different Types of Musculoskeletal Disorders? 

  • Muscle pain. Cramps, muscle spasms, and injuries can cause muscle pain. This may also include pain that is caused by tumors and other possible causes. 
  • Tendon and ligament pain. These are strong bonds of tissue that connects your joints. Overuse injuries, strains, and sprains can lead to pain.
  • Bone pain. This is caused by injuries such s bone fractures or other causes that cause pain. 
  • Joint pain. Inflammation and stiffness often accompany the pain. For many people, this pain gets better however some conditions worsen with activity.

Muscle spasms range from mild to intense conditions. The spastic muscle may feel harder than normal to touch and some may appear visibly distorted. Spasms typically last from seconds to fifteen minutes, or longer. Some attacks may also reoccur before totally going away. 

What are the Causes of Musculoskeletal Disorders?

There is usually no single cause of this condition. But it has various risk factors that often work in combination, including physical and organizational and psychosocial, and individual factors. Common causes of this condition include bone fracture, joint dislocation, overuse injuries, poor postures, and sprain. Direct blows to muscles and joints may also cause this condition.

woman holding elbows muscle pain

What are the Symptoms of Musculoskeletal Pain?

  • Stiffness and aching
  • Burning sensations in the muscles
  • Muscle twitches and fatigue
  • Pain that worsens with movement
  • Sleep disturbances

If the condition interferes with your daily activities or function, speak with your doctor. Seek immediate medical help if you have severe pain from a sudden injury.

What are the Risk Factors of Musculoskeletal Pain?

  1. Arthritis. It causes chronic joint inflammation. Many people experience this kind of condition.
  2. Fibromyalgia. It is a chronic illness that causes all musculoskeletal pain and fatigue.

Tunnel syndromes. This condition causes nerve compression. Examples of this condition include carpal tunnel syndrome, and cubital tunnel syndrome leads to these conditions.

How are Musculoskeletal Disorders Diagnosed?

Blood tests

Your doctor will start by assessing your signs, symptoms, and medical history. Symptoms such as fever or rash may help with the diagnosis to determine whether the pain is chronic or acute. Your healthcare provider will perform a hands-on exam to look for the source or cause of the pain by touching the affected area. Some testing methods may include:

  • Blood test
  • X-ray 
  • CT scan
  • MRI

Treatment for Musculoskeletal Disorder

Typically, this condition improves with proper treatment. If an underlying condition causes pain, treating that condition can help relieve symptoms. Maintaining strong bones and joints is essential for preventing this condition. Along with proper exercise and medications, ensure that you are following a healthy lifestyle, especially during the treatment course. Use good posture and limit repetitive movements to successfully treat the pain. 

Medication Used for Musculoskeletal pain

Ibuprofen. This is a tolerable pain reliever than using aspirin. It is used as a simple analgesic and antipyretic for muscle and bone pain. You can buy OTC ibuprofen but ensure to talk to your doctor about taking this medication especially if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

How to Manage and Prevent Musculoskeletal Pain?

  • Regular strengthening exercises and stretching can help keep your bones, joints, and muscles strong. 
  • It’s crucial to develop healthy lifestyle habits now.
  • Ask your doctor for more information about how you can maintain a healthy system and lower your risk of MSDs.
  • Maintain a tall posture to prevent back pain, and be careful when picking up heavy objects.
  • Keep repetitive motions to a minimum. Avoid prolonged work in poor postures 
  • By taking care of your body throughout adulthood, you can lower your risk of developing these disorders.

Gout: Symptoms, Risk Factors, Causes, and Treatment

What is Gout?

Gout is a type of arthritis caused by a build-up of uric acid crystals in the joints. This condition has the distinction as it is one of the most frequently recorded illnesses throughout history. A gout attack can occur suddenly that may often wake you up at night and even the weight of your bedsheet is intolerable. This condition can occur in anyone but they often come earlier in men than women because men often have higher levels of uric acid.

Symptoms of polio

What are the Symptoms of Gout?

  • Intense pain
  • Stiffness
  • Swelling and redness
  • Limited range of motion
  • Tenderness even to light touch
  • Warmth or a feeling like your joint is on fire

Some attacks may occur frequently and others go years between episodes. If left untreated, attacks may become more frequent and may last longer which may also happen over again in the same joint.

Risk Factors of Gout

You are more likely to develop this condition if you:

  • Eat lots of purine-rich foods such as red meat, sardines, scallops, and tuna
  • Are overweight or obese which causes your body to produce an excessive amount of uric acid
  • Have chronic conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, heart disease
  • Consume food and drinks that contain high fructose or corn syrup
  • Drink a high amount of alcohol
  • Are taking high blood pressure medications such as diuretics and beta blockers
  • Have an imbalance in your gut bacteria or have a weak immune system

What Causes Gout?

Gout is caused by crystals accumulating in your joint that cause inflammation and intense pain during an attack. Crystals can form when you have high levels of uric acid in your blood. Other causes are linked to certain medications, existing diseases, weight, and dietary choices.

Blood tests

How is Gout Diagnosed?

  • Joint fluid test. It is a method that uses a needle to draw fluid from the affected joint and examine it under a microscope.
  • Blood test. It measures the level of uric acid in the blood to determine your diagnosis.
  • X-ray imaging. Joint X-rays can be helpful to rule out other causes of joint inflammation.
  • Ultrasound. This test uses sound waves to detect urate crystals in joints.
  • Dual-energy computerized tomography (DECT). This test combines X-ray images taken from many different angles to visualize urate crystals in joints.

Treatment, Management, and Prevention of Gout

There are two types of medication available for this condition to focus on two different problems. The first type reduces the inflammation and pain associated with the attack. The second type prevents gout complications by lowering the amount of uric acid in your blood. However, the potency of the medication depends on the severity and frequency of your symptoms along with other health problems.

Medication Used for Gout

  1. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This includes OTC options however, talk to your doctor about taking this for a lengthier period as it increases your risk of developing stomach ulcers.
  2. Allopurinol. It is a medication used to reduce high blood uric acid levels. It prevents gout and specific types of kidney stones. The dosage of this medication depends on the recommendation from your doctor. Ensure to finish the treatment course to get the utmost benefits of the prescription.
  3. Corticosteroids. It controls inflammation and pain. Side effects of this medication may include mood changes, hypertension, and high sugar levels. Discuss with your doctor the possible risk and benefits of taking this prescription.

Lifestyle and Home Remedies for Gout

Medications work best if it is coupled with a proper diet and healthy lifestyle. If you have this condition it is always important to:

  • Choose healthier beverages and avoid sugar and alcohol
  • Avoid foods that are high in purine such as red meat. Swap your trigger foods with safer choices such as low-fat dairy products.
  • Exercise to keep your body healthy and improve mobility.
  • Keeping your body at a healthy weight is also a good remedy and prevention of gout attacks.

Rheumatoid  Arthritis: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

What is Rheumatoid  Arthritis?

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, progressive, and disabling autoimmune disease that causes inflammation, swelling, and pain in and around the joints and can affect other parts of the body. It usually affects the hands and feet first, but it can occur in any joint that may involve the same joints on both sides of the body.

Types of Rheumatoid Arthritis

  1. Seropositive type. People living with seropositive RA will have high levels of antibodies in their blood. High levels of these antibodies can occur for up to ten years before symptoms begin.
  2. Seronegative type. It means that a blood test doesn’t find certain antibodies your body typically makes when you have the condition. Your RA diagnosis would have to be based on symptoms and other things.
  3. Juvinille type of RA. It causes painful swelling of the joints. It usually begins before the age of 16 years. Symptoms may appear in children or even infants.
Symptoms of polio

Signs and Symptoms of Rheumatoid  Arthritis

  • Pain or achiness in the joints
  • Swelling in more than one joint
  • A general feeling of being unwell
  • Loss of appetite
  • Stiffness in more than one joint that may last for 30 minutes
  • Symmetrical joint involvement
  • A low-grade fever
  • Weight loss and weakness
  • Deformity of the joints
  • Loss of function and mobility
  • Unsteadiness when walking

What Causes Rheumatoid  Arthritis?

RA is the result of an immune response in which the body’s immune system attacks its own healthy cells. Although there is no specific cause of this condition, some factors can increase the risk of developing the disease. Eventually, if left untreated, the inflammation can invade and destroy cartilage.

What are the Risk Factors of Rheumatoid Arthritis?

  1. Age. RA can begin at any age, but the likelihood increases with age. The onset of this condition is highest among adults in their sixties.
  2. Obesity. Being obese can increase the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis. The more overweight a person is, the greater their risk of developing RA, according to studies examining obesity.
  3. Smoking. Cigarette smoking increases a person’s risk of developing RA and can worsen the disease, according to multiple studies.
  4. Early life exposures. Some early life exposures may increase the risk of developing this disease in adulthood.  For example, one study found that children whose mothers smoked had double the risk of developing RA as adults. 
  5. Sex. New cases of rheumatoid arthritis are typically two-to-three times higher in women than men.
  6. Genetics. People born with specific genes are more likely to develop this condition. Smoking or obesity can increase the risk of RA in people with these genes.
Medications Used For Kidney Infection

Treatment and Management of Rheumatoid  Arthritis

There is no cure for this condition but there are several ways to manage its symptoms and prevent future attacks.  Clinical studies indicate that remission of symptoms is more likely when treatment begins early with medications known as disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs.

Medications such as NSAIDs can relieve pain and reduce inflammation. A recommended medication for this condition is Nabumetone. It possesses analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory actions used to manage symptoms of RA. Discuss with your doctor the possible benefits and risk factors before using this medication.

Steroids are also used as a medication to reduce inflammation and pain and slow joint damage. Doctors also recommend conventional DMARDs to slow the progression of the disease and save the joints and other tissues from permanent damage.

Your doctor may also refer you to a physical or occupational therapist who can teach you exercises to help keep your joints flexible. Besides suggesting ways to do daily tasks that are easier on your joints, the therapist may also suggest new ways to do them.

Surgery is the last option of treatment for RA if medications fail to prevent or slow joint damage. To restore your ability to use your joint, your doctor may recommend surgery to repair damaged joints. It can also reduce pain and improve function.

Fibromyalgia: Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors, and Treatment

Fibromyalgia is a condition that causes pain all over the body or also referred to as widespread pain, sleep problems, fatigue, and often emotional and mental distress. People with this disease may be more sensitive to pain due to abnormal pain perception processing. Women are more likely to develop this condition than men. Many people also have tension headaches, temporomandibular joint disorders, irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety, and depression. 

Signs and Symptoms of Fibromyalgia

man fatigue and tired on a table

The primary symptoms of this condition include:

  1. Widespread pain. In most cases, fibromyalgia pain is described as a dull ache that has lasted for at least three months. To be considered widespread, the pain must occur on both sides of your body and above and below your waist.
  2. Fatigue. People with this disease often awaken tired, even though they report sleeping for long periods of time. Often, pain disrupts sleep, and many patients suffer from sleep disorders like sleep apnea and restless legs syndrome.
  3. Cognitive difficulties. A symptom commonly referred to as fibro fog impairs the ability to focus, pay attention and concentrate on mental tasks.

This condition often co-exists with other conditions, such as:

  • Postural tachycardia syndrome
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome
  • Interstitial cystitis or painful bladder syndrome
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Temporomandibular joint disorders
  • Anxiety 
  • Depression
  • Migraine and other types of headaches

Causes of Fibromyalgia

In people with fibromyalgia, repeated nerve stimulation changes their brains and spinal cords. This change involves an abnormal increase in levels of certain chemicals in the brain that signal pain. Moreover, the brain’s pain receptors seem to develop a memory of the pain and become sensitized, which means they can overreact in both painful and nonpainful situations.

Some of the related causes are Genetics as this condition tends to run in families, and certain genetic mutations may make you more susceptible to developing the disorder. Infections, physical, and emotional life events also cause chronic pain.

The Risk Factors of Fibromyalgia

  • Your gender. This condition is more often in women than in men.
  • Other disorders. If you have osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or lupus, you may be more likely to develop this condition.
  • Family history. You may be more likely to develop if a parent or sibling also has the condition.
Diagnosis for Hypersexuality

Treatment, Management, and Prevention of Fibromyalgia

Generally, treatments for this disease include both medication and self-care strategies. The emphasis is on minimizing symptoms and improving general health. The use of multiple treatment strategies can have a cumulative effect since no one treatment works for all symptoms. Common choices include:

  • Physical therapy. Strength, flexibility, and stamina can all be improved with the help of a physical therapist. Water-based exercises might be particularly helpful.
  • Occupational therapy. You can reduce the stress on your body by adjusting your work area or the way you perform certain tasks with the help of an occupational therapist.
  • Pain relievers. Over-the-counter pain relievers such as NSAIDs can help manage pain. 
  • Antidepressants. It may help ease the pain and fatigue associated with this disease. 
  • Anti-seizure drugs. Medications designed to treat epilepsy are often useful in reducing certain types of pain. 
  • Counseling. It is important to talk to a counselor to strengthen your belief in your abilities and to learn strategies for dealing with stressful situations.

Recommended Medication for Fibromyalgia

Duloxetine. It is an antidepressant that is also used to relieve chronic pain associated with a condition known as fibromyalgia. It is believed that duloxetine exerts antidepressant effects due to its serotonergic and noradrenergic activity in the central nervous system. 

Lifestyle and Home Remedies 

  • Getting good quality sleep is essential. Aside from getting enough sleep, practice good sleep habits, such as going to bed and waking up at the same time every day.
  • Exercising gradually and regularly often decreases symptoms. Developing an exercise program at home can be assisted by a physical therapist. Stretching, good posture and relaxation exercises also are helpful.
  • Develop a plan to avoid or limit overexertion and emotional stress. Allow yourself time each day to relax. 
  • Try stress management techniques, such as deep-breathing exercises or meditation.
  • Keep your activity on an even level. Likewise, it means not self-limiting or doing too little on days when symptoms flare up.
  • Maintain a healthy lifestyle. Eat healthy foods and avoid smoking or drinking alcoholic medication.

Dermatitis: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Dermatitis is a general term that describes a common skin irritation. It has many causes and forms and usually involves itchy, dry skin or a rash. This skin condition may also cause the skin to blister, ooze, crust, or flake off. Although this is not contagious, it will make you feel uncomfortable.

Different Types of Dermatitis

  1. Atopic. It is a condition that causes dry, itchy, and inflamed skin which is common in young children but can occur at any age. People with this type are at risk of developing food allergies, hay fever, and asthma
  2. Seborrheic. It is a common skin condition that mainly affects your scalp. It causes scaly patches, inflamed skin, and stubborn dandruff that affects oily areas of the body. This condition can be irritating but it is not contagious, and it does not cause permanent hair loss.
  3. Contact. It is an itchy rash caused by direct contact with a substance or an allergic reaction. The rash is not contagious, but it can be very uncomfortable. Many substances can cause this reaction, such as cosmetics, fragrances, jewelry, and plants. The rash often shows up within days of exposure.
Hypersensitivity Syndrome

Signs and Symptoms of Dermatitis

Each type of this condition tends to occur in a different part of your body. Symptoms may include:

  • Dry skin and itchiness
  • Rash on swollen skin that varies in color depending on your skin color
  • Blisters, perhaps with oozing and crusting
  • Flaking and thickened skin
  • Bumps in hair follicles

Seek immediate help if:

  • You have tried self-care steps but the symptoms persist
  • You are uncomfortable and losing sleep 
  • You suspect that your skin is infected
  • You are distracted from your daily routines
  • Your skin becomes painful
Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease

What Causes Dermatitis?

A common cause of this condition is contact with something that irritates your skin or triggers an allergic reaction. Other causes include dry skin, a viral infection, bacteria, stress, genetic makeup, and a problem with the immune system. Other factors that may cause dermatitis are:

  • Age. It can occur at any age, but eczema is more common in children than adults, and it usually begins in infancy.
  • Allergies and asthma. People who have a personal or family history of eczema, hay fever, allergies, or asthma are more likely to develop atopic conditions.
  • Occupation. Jobs that put you in contact with certain metals, solvents, or cleaning supplies increase your risk of this condition. 
  • Health conditions. This includes congestive heart failure, Parkinson’s disease, and HIV or AIDS.

Treatment, Management, and Prevention of Dermatitis

The treatment for this condition varies, depending on the cause and your symptoms. In addition to the lifestyle and home remedies, treatment might include one or more of the following:

  • Applying to the affected skin certain creams or ointments that affect your immune system 
  • Exposing the affected area to controlled amounts of natural or artificial light 
  • Applying to the affected skin corticosteroid creams, gels, or ointments
  • Using wet dressings, a medical treatment for severe atopic dermatitis that involves applying a corticosteroid and wrapping it with wet bandages
  • Using oral corticosteroids for severe conditions

Medication Used for Dermatitis

Clobetasol. It is a corticosteroid that treats various types of skin disorders by controlling the production of inflammation-causing substances. It effectively reduces symptoms associated with allergic reactions in the skin.

Lifestyle and Home Remedies for Dermatitis

  • Moisturize to help your skin. Ensure to use anti-inflammation and anti-itch products. Hydrocortisone cream might temporarily relieve your symptoms. 
  • Take a dilute bleach bath to manage severe atopic dermatitis by decreasing the bacteria on the skin. 
  • Avoid rubbing and scratching over the itchy area with a dressing if you can’t keep from scratching it. 
  • Apply a cool wet cloth to help soothe your skin.
  • Choose mild laundry detergent. Because your clothes, sheets, and towels touch your skin, choose mild, unscented laundry products.
  • Take a comfortably warm bath and sprinkle your bathwater with baking soda or finely ground oatmeal that’s made for the bathtub.
  • Use medicated shampoos or OTC shampoos containing selenium sulfide, zinc pyrithione, coal tar, or ketoconazole.

Otomycosis: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Otomycosis is a fungal infection in the outer ear and causes inflammation, dry skin, and a smelly discharge in the ear canal. It usually affects the outer ear canal that starts from your eardrum and continues to the outside of your head. In some cases, it may affect the middle ear as well. About 10% of outer ear canal infections are caused by fungi.

Signs and Symptoms of Otomycosis

Hypersensitivity Syndrome

These indications typically occur in one ear, but it is possible that both ears can be affected at the same time. Typical symptoms of otomycosis include:

  • A feeling of fullness in the ear
  • Pain and redness of the outer ear
  • Itching due to fungal infections
  • Flaky skin
  • Ringing in the ears
  • White or yellow discharge from the ear
  • Inflammation or swelling
  • Hearing loss, which can be mistaken for deafness
  • Redness in the outer ear

Otomycosis can become chronic if someone does not respond to treatment or has a weakened immune system, diabetes mellitus, or a chronic skin condition, such as eczema.

What Causes Otomycosis?

  1. Fungi. There are many different types of fungi that cause this condition. The most common fungi that cause these fungal infections are Aspergillus and Candida. ‌
  2. Antibiotic and steroid use. There has been an increase in otomycosis cases in recent years. In addition to antibiotic ear drops, broad-spectrum antibiotics and steroids are believed to be responsible for this increase. 
  3. Weakened immune systems. People with weakened immune systems are more likely to suffer from it. They may have more complications and recurrences of otomycosis. Infections that spread to the temporal bone of the skull can cause severe complications. If not treated, this can be fatal.

The Risk Factors of Otomycosis

  • Using cotton swabs to clean your ears and injuring your ear canal
  • Using hearing aids or earplugs, especially if you don’t clean them properly
  • Getting water in your ear when swimming 
  • Irritants like hair dye or hair spray get in your ear

Diagnosis of Otomycosis

Symptoms of otomycosis should always be evaluated by a doctor in order to get the correct diagnosis and treatment. The doctor will take a thorough medical history to determine if any risk factors are present. They will perform a physical exam with an instrument called an otoscope to look inside the ear canal and eardrum. In some cases, a sample of cells or fluid from the ear will be taken to be examined under a microscope. This will help them to differentiate between a fungal or bacterial infection.

Treatment and Management of Otomycosis

doctor using eardrops on a patients ear
  • Cleaning. Your doctor can thoroughly clean your ears to remove buildup and discharge. They may use rinses or other methods to clean your ears. Avoid using cotton swabs or other instruments inside your ears. Cotton swabs should only be used on the outside of the ear.
  • Ear drops. You may need to use antifungal ear drops to treat otomycosis. Usually, a 2% solution of these ear drops is used several times a day for about a week. 
  • Oral medications. Some fungal infections such as Aspergillus may be resistant to the usual ear drops. They may require oral medications or you may also be advised to take over-the-counter medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the pain.

Medication Used for Otomycosis

Clotrimazole Cream. It is an antifungal medication used as a topical treatment for tinea infections. Use this cream two or three times daily. Continue to use the cream for at least 14 days after your symptoms have gone. Ensure to finish the treatment course to get the most benefits. 

Tips to Prevent Otomycosis

  • Using earplugs when swimming to keep water out
  • Using a hairdryer on low speed to dry ears, being careful not to burn the skin
  • Leaving a small amount of earwax in the ears for its natural anti-fungal properties
  • Avoiding putting cotton swabs in the ears
  • Drying the ears well after swimming and bathing
  • Avoiding scratching the ears as this may damage the skin and make it easier for a fungus to invade

Bipolar 2 Disorder: Symptoms, Difference Between Bipolar 1 Disorder and Treatment

Bipolar 2 disorder is a form of mental illness that is similar to bipolar I disorder, with moods cycling between high and low over time. However, in this condition, the up moods never reach full-blown mania. The less-intense elevated moods in this disorder are called hypomanic episodes, or hypomania.

woman wearing white shirt confused and scratching head

Signs and Symptoms of Bipolar 2 Disorder

  • Flying quickly from one idea to the next
  • Hypersexuality
  • Inflated self-image
  • Making and pursuing grandiose, unrealistic plans
  • Increased energy and hyperactivity
  • Decreased need for sleep
  • Substance abuse
  • Excessive spending
  • Rapid, uninterruptable, and or loud speech

Most people with bipolar 2 disorder have also experienced periods of depression which may include:

  • Depressed mood 
  • Feelings of persistent sadness
  • Feelings of guilt or worthlessness
  • Loss of interest or pleasure in activities
  • Low energy and activity

Bipolar 1 Disorder Vs Bipolar 2 Disorder

Bipolar I disorder requires symptoms to meet the full criteria for what is known as a manic episode. The diagnosis of Bipolar I is not dependent on depression, but many people with the diagnosis experience both types of mood episodes. At least three of the following symptoms can determine the diagnosis:

  • Increased talkativeness
  • Increased self-esteem or grandiosity
  • Decreased need for sleep
  • Increase in goal-direct activity, energy level, or irritability
  • Racing thoughts
  • Poor attention

Mania is more extreme than a sudden burst in energy, motivation, or a happy mood. It often causes problems at work, school, and in relationships, and in some cases it may require hospitalization. A manic episode is also just as frequently characterized by an irritable mood as an elevated one for people with Bipolar I.

For bipolar 2 disorder, on the other hand, a person has to have experienced a depressive episode and a less severe form of mania which is known as hypomania. Mania occurs when an individual displays manic symptoms but is able to carry on with day-to-day responsibilities. In fact, job performance or other goal-directed activities may even improve. To meet the diagnosis of a depressive episode, a person must experience 5 or more of the following symptoms:

  • Sleep and eating changes
  • Lack of energy or fatigue
  • Restlessness or slowing down
  • Indecision or difficulty concentrating
  • Loss of pleasure in activities once enjoyed
  • Feelings of worthlessness or guilt
  • Depressed mood
  • Suicidal thoughts

Many people with bipolar 2 disorder are diagnosed with depression because they fail to report the elevated mood symptoms of hypomania to their doctor. Furthermore, people with bipolar 2 disorder are more likely to suffer from substance abuse and eating disorders, as well as have a family member suffering from a mental illness.

Treatment and Management of Bipolar 2 Disorder

woman in red with green background waking pills

The types and doses of medications prescribed are based on your particular symptoms of bipolar 2 disorder. Whether you have bipolar I or II, medications may include:

  1. Mood stabilizers. You will typically need mood-stabilizing medication to control episodes of mania or hypomania, which is a less severe form of mania. 
  2. Substance abuse treatment. Drugs and alcohol may seem to ease symptoms, but they can actually worsen depression or mania. If you have a problem with alcohol or other drugs, tell your provider so that both your substance use and bipolar disorder can be treated.
  3. Treatment programs. Participation in an outpatient treatment program for bipolar disorder can be very beneficial. However, hospitalization is needed if your condition significantly affects your functioning or safety.
  4. Antipsychotics. Your psychiatric care provider may add an antipsychotic medication alone or along with a mood stabilizer.
  5. Antidepressants. An antidepressant can sometimes trigger a manic episode, it needs to be prescribed along with a mood stabilizer or antipsychotic in bipolar disorder.
  6. Psychotherapy. To identify unhealthy, negative beliefs and behaviors and replace them with healthy, positive ones, your psychiatric care provider may recommend cognitive behavioral therapy. 
  7. Self-management strategies. The best way to manage your condition is to live a healthy lifestyle, including getting enough sleep, eating healthy foods, and exercising regularly.

Medication Used for Bipolar 2 Disorder

Chlorpromazine. It is used to address symptoms of mania, psychosis, or agitation and not for long-term bipolar 2 disorder management. It works by helping to restore the balance of certain natural substances in the brain. It can reduce aggressive behavior and the desire to hurt yourself or others.

Beta Blockers: Uses, Types, and Side Effects

What are Beta Blockers?

Beta-blockers are a class of medicines most commonly used for problems involving your heart and your circulatory system. Doctors may also recommend them for your nervous system and brain conditions. It works by slowing down certain types of cell activity, which can help control blood pressure, heart rate, and more.

Chest pain

Uses of Beta Blockers

These medications are recommended as a first treatment in people who have only high blood pressure. These are not usually prescribed for high blood pressure unless other medications, such as diuretics, are not working well. Also, a doctor may prescribe a beta blocker as one of several medications to lower blood pressure. Other uses include:

How Do Beta Blockers Work?

These medications work by decreasing the total peripheral resistance and as a result, the blood pressure fall. It reduces noradrenaline release from the sympathetic terminals due to beta-receptor blockade. The beta-receptor inhibition can cause a decrease in renin release from the kidney.

The Advantages of Beta Blockers

  1. These are effective for a wide range of medical problems. Because so many heart and circulatory problems are connected, using this medication to treat one problem can often benefit multiple related problems.
  2. These are being studied extensively. This medication has been in use for decades, with the first clinical trials for them taking place in the 1960s. Because of that, their effects are better understood, and it’s easier to use them safely and avoid negative effects.
  3. These are inexpensive.  These are typically very affordable, making it easier to ensure patients aren’t going without medications because they cannot afford the cost.

The Commonly Used Beta Blocker

Atenolol. It reduces cardiovascular complications in post-myocardial infarction patients. This medication has a longer duration of action and hence a dosage of once daily suffices. It also causes fewer CNS side effects and has a low risk of causing bronchoconstriction.

abdominal pain

What are the Side Effects of Beta Blockers?

  • Slow heartbeat and low blood pressure
  • Cold feet and hands
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Abdominal discomfort
  • Constipation
  • Weakness and dizziness
  • Sleeping difficulties
  • Confusion and or memory loss
  • Erectile dysfunction

Who  Are Not Allowed to Take Beta Blockers?

This medication can negatively impact several diseases, conditions, and health concerns. Tell your doctor if you have any of the following:

  • Slow heart rate or low blood pressure. Most blockers will aggravate either of these conditions by further lowering heart rate and blood pressure.
  • Raynaud’s phenomenon. This condition causes decreased circulation in your hands and feet and sometimes in parts of your face. 
  • Moderate to severe asthma. Nonselective medications can aggravate or cause an asthma attack or trouble breathing. People with milder respiratory problems may be prescribed B1-selective to minimize this, while people with moderate to severe respiratory problems will often avoid beta-blockers altogether.
  • Certain types of arrhythmias. It can aggravate some arrhythmias.
  • Hypoglycemia. It can delay feeling most of the effects of low blood sugar. For people with conditions that cause low blood sugar like diabetes, this can delay taking action to stabilize blood sugar levels. If the levels drop too low, you may become confused, pass out or have seizures. A key symptom of low blood sugar that blockers don’t cover is sweating.

Warning and Precautions When Using Beta Blockers

  • The dosage of prescriptions should be adjusted in patients with severe renal impairment.
  • This should not be taken together with disopyramide as it can cause severe bradycardia and heart failure.
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or breastfeeding to avoid complications.
  • In cases of severe side effects, ensure to seek immediate help or go to the nearest health facility for medical attention. 
  • Avoid stopping the medications if the treatment period is not over.
  • Take your medications at the same time each day to get the most benefits during the treatment course.
  • Inform your doctor if you have drug allergies or if you are taking other medications before.  

Conjunctivitis: Symptoms, Types, Causes, and Treatment

What is Conjunctivitis?

Conjunctivitis, also known as pinkeye, is an inflammation of the conjunctiva or the thin clear tissue that lies over the white part of the eye and lines the inside of the eyelid. This condition is common in children and can be contagious. Nevertheless, this condition is rarely severe and unlikely to damage vision.

symptoms of food allergy

Signs and Symptoms of Conjunctivitis

  • More tears than usual
  • Thick and yellow discharge that crusts over the eyelashes
  • Redness in the white of the eye or inner eyelid
  • Swollen conjunctiva
  • Green or white discharge from the eye
  • Itchy eyes
  • Burning eyes and blurry vision
  • More sensitive to light
  • Swollen lymph nodes caused by viral infections

Seek immediate help if you or your child experience any of the following symptoms:

  • You have severe pain in your eye when you look into a bright light
  • There’s a lot of yellow or green discharge from your eye, or if your eyelids are stuck together in the morning
  • You have a high fever, shaking chills, face pain, or vision loss.
  • Your vision is obviously affected by pinkeye

Types of Conjunctivitis

  1. Allergic conditions. It occurs more commonly among people who already have seasonal allergies. The condition occurs when their eyes are triggered by an allergic reaction to a substance.
  2. Viral type. It is most commonly caused by contagious viruses associated with the common cold. A person with an upper respiratory tract infection can spread it by coughing or sneezing. Viral conjunctivitis can also occur as the virus spreads along the body’s own mucous membranes.
  3. Ophthalmia neonatorum. It is a severe form of bacterial conjunctivitis that occurs in newborn babies. If not treated immediately, this condition can lead to permanent eye damage. Ophthalmia neonatorum occurs when an infant is exposed to chlamydia or gonorrhea while passing through the birth canal.
  4. Giant papillary type. It is caused by the chronic presence of a foreign body in the eye. This form of conjunctivitis is more common among people who wear hard or rigid contact lenses, wear soft contact lenses that aren’t replaced frequently, have exposed sutures on the surface of their eye, or have a prosthetic eye.
  5. Bacterial type. It is caused by bacteria from your own skin or respiratory system. Insects, physical contact with other people, poor hygiene, or using contaminated eye makeup and facial lotions can also cause the infection.
Four dust mites on a microscope and cloth

What Causes Conjunctivitis?

  • Bacterial or viral infection or also known as an infective type
  • Allergic reaction due to pollen or dust mites
  • Direct contact with eye irritants such as shampoo or chlorinated water, or a loose eyelash rubbing against the eye

Treatment and Management of Conjunctivitis

The appropriate treatment for this depends on its cause.

  • Conditions caused by allergens

The first step is to remove or avoid the irritant, if possible. Cool compresses and artificial tears sometimes relieve discomfort in mild cases. Antihistamines and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications may be prescribed in more severe cases. 

  • Conditions caused by infections

This condition is usually treated with antibiotic eye drops or ointments. Bacterial pinkeye condition may improve after three or four days of treatment, but patients need to take an entire course of antibiotics to prevent a recurrence. However, no drops or ointments can treat conditions caused by viral infections. Like a common cold, the virus has to run its course, which may take up to two or three weeks. Symptoms can often be relieved with cool compresses and artificial tear solutions.

  • Conditions caused by chemicals

It is treated with careful flushing with saline. People with chemical conditions also may need to use topical steroids. In the case of severe chemical injuries, particularly alkali burns, scarring, damage to the eye or sight, or even loss of sight can occur. If chemical spills in your eye, flush the eye for several minutes with a lot of water before seeing your medical provider.

Medication Used for Conjunctivitis

Promethazine. It is a phenothiazine derivative used in the treatment of rhinitis, pinkeye, and mild and uncomplicated allergic skin reactions. Promethazine is an H1 selective antagonist that exhibits sedative and antiemetic properties.

Malaria: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

What Is Malaria?

Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite that is spread to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes. People who have this disease usually feel very sick with a high fever and shaking chills. This disease is uncommon in temperate climates, but it is still common in tropical and subtropical countries.

Signs and Symptoms of Malaria

Some people who have malaria experience cycles of attacks that you usually start with shivering and chills, followed by a high fever, followed by sweating, and a return to normal temperature. Symptoms include:

What Are the Causes of Malaria?

It is caused by a single-celled parasite of the genus Plasmodium. The parasite is transmitted to humans most usually through mosquito bites.

Here’s the transmission cycle:

  1. Uninfected mosquito. A mosquito becomes infected by feeding on a person who has malaria.
  2. Transmission of a parasite. If this mosquito bites you in the future, it can transmit malaria parasites to you.
  3. In the liver. When the parasites enter your body, they travel to your liver where some types can lie undeveloped for as long as a year.
  4. Into the bloodstream. Once the parasites mature, they leave the liver and infect your red blood cells. This is the time when people typically develop malaria symptoms.
  5. On the other person. If an uninfected mosquito bites you at this point in the cycle, it will become infected with the parasites in your and can possibly spread them to other people through bites. 

Who Are at Risk of Malaria?

Anyone can get malaria, but people who live in Africa have a higher risk of infection than others. There is an increased risk of malaria mortality among young children, the elderly, and pregnant women. The disease is more likely to cause complications in poor people with no access to healthcare. More than 90% of deaths occur in Africa, and almost all of them are children under the age of five. 

Blood tests

How Is Malaria Diagnosed?

Your doctor will review your medical history and recent travel, as well as your symptoms. Blood testing is the main diagnostic method to determine the condition. Blood tests can indicate:

  • The presence of the parasite in the blood
  • The type of parasite that is causing your symptoms
  • A parasite resistant to certain drugs
  • Whether the disease is causing any serious complications

Treatment and Management of Malaria

This condition is treated with prescription medications that aim to kill the parasite. The length of the treatment period varies on the type of the parasite, the severity of symptoms, and age.  In some cases, prescription drugs may not clear the condition due to the resistance of parasites to certain medications. If this happens, your medical provider will recommend other treatments or change the medications to successfully treat your condition. 

Medication Used for Malaria

Chloroquine. It is the preferred treatment for any parasite that is sensitive to the drug. But in many parts of the world, parasites are resistant to chloroquine, and the drug is no longer an effective treatment. Follow your doctor’s recommendation for successful treatment.

doctor injecting a person in hospital with syringe

How to Prevent Malaria?

If you go somewhere or are traveling to an area where this disease is common, take steps to avoid mosquito bites. Mosquitoes are most active between dusk and dawn. To protect yourself from mosquito bites, you should:

  • Get Vaccinated. The World Health Organization has recommended vaccines for use in children who live in countries with high numbers of cases.
  • Cover your skin. Wear pants and long-sleeved shirts. Tuck in your shirt, and tuck your pant legs into socks, To avoid mosquito bites.
  • Apply insect repellent to the skin. Use an insect repellent registered with the Environmental Protection Agency on any exposed skin.
  • Sleep under a net. Bed nets can protect you from mosquito bites while you are sleeping.
  • Apply repellent to clothing. Sprays containing permethrin are safe to apply to clothing.

Schizophrenia: Symptoms, Risk Factors, Causes, and Treatment

What is Schizophrenia?

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder in which people interpret reality abnormally. It may result in some combination of delusions, hallucinations, and extremely disordered thinking and behavior that weakens daily functioning, and can be disabling. People with this condition require lifelong treatment. Early treatment may help get symptoms under control before serious problems develop and may help improve the long-term outlook.

Signs and Symptoms of Schizophrenia

woman in black and white shouting in anxiety and mental problems

Schizophrenia includes a range of problems with behavior and emotions. These signs and symptoms may differ, but usually involve hallucination, delusion, or disorganized speech, and reflect a weakened ability to function. Other symptoms include:

  1. Delusions. These are false beliefs that are not based on reality. It can also involve certain gestures or comments directed at you or you have exceptional ability or fame. Furthermore, it may also include delusions of having another person in love with you, or a major tragedy is about to occur.
  2. Hallucinations. These usually include seeing or hearing things that do not exist. Yet the person with this condition they have the full force and impact of a normal experience. Hallucinations can be in any of the senses, but hearing voices is the most common hallucination.
  3. Extremely disorganized or abnormal motor behavior. This may show in several ways, from childlike silliness to unpredictable agitation. This behavior can include resistance to instructions, inappropriate or bizarre posture, a complete lack of response, or useless and excessive movement.
  4. Negative symptoms. It refers to a reduced ability to function normally. For example, the person may neglect personal hygiene or appear to lack emotion. As well as the person may lose interest in everyday activities, socially withdraw or lack the ability to experience a pleasure.
  5. Disorganized thinking. Confused thinking is inferred from disorganized speech. Effective communication can be impaired, and answers to questions may be incompletely or completely unrelated. Rarely, speech may include putting together pointless words that cannot be understood, sometimes known as word salad.

Symptoms of Schizophrenia in Teens

  • Lack of motivation
  • A drop in performance at school
  • Withdrawal from friends and family
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Irritability or depressed mood

Compared these symptoms in adults and teens may be:

  • Less likely to have delusions
  • More likely to have visual hallucinations

Risk Factors of Schizophrenia

dna on a dark blue background genetics of human

These several factors may contribute to a person’s risk of developing this condition, including:

  1. Genetics. This condition sometimes runs in families. However, just because one family member has schizophrenia, it does not mean that other members of the family also will have it. Many different genes may increase a person’s chances of developing this condition, but no single gene causes the disorder by itself.
  2. Brain structure and function. People with this condition may be more likely to have changes in the size of certain brain areas and connections between brain areas. Some of these brain differences may develop before birth. 
  3. Environment. A combination of genetic factors and aspects of a person’s environment and life experiences may play a role in the development of this condition. Environmental factors may include living in poverty, stressful or dangerous surroundings, and exposure to viruses.

Causes of Schizophrenia

Research has not identified one single cause of schizophrenia. However, it may be caused by a combination of genes and environmental factors.  There is also evidence that psychosocial factors may play a role in the onset and progression of the condition. Heavy use of cannabis is associated with an elevated risk of the disorder.

Treatment and Management of Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia requires lifelong treatment, even when symptoms have subsided. Treatment with medications and psychosocial therapy can help manage the condition. In some cases, hospitalization may be needed. To coordinate care, the treatment team may also include a psychologist, social worker, psychiatric nurse, and possibly a case manager.

Medication Used for Schizophrenia

Chlorpromazine. It is a prescription medicine used to treat the symptoms of Schizophrenia and psychotic disorders. It is also suggested by doctors to their patients to control agitation and mania in people who have bipolar disorder. It works by helping to restore the balance of certain natural substances in the brain. It can reduce aggressive actions and the desire to hurt yourself or others. It may also help to decrease hallucinations.

Pharyngitis: Symptoms, Stages, Causes and Treatment

What is Pharyngitis?

Pharyngitis is an inflammation of the pharynx, resulting in a sore throat. It is typically a symptom, rather than a condition. It is usually caused by viral or bacterial infections, such as the common cold and flu. Both viral infections or bacterial infections with the Streptococcus bacterium in your strep throat can also occur.

Signs and Symptoms of Pharyngitis

Symptoms of Pharyngitis can vary depending on the cause. It includes:

  • Pain that worsens with swallowing or talking
  • Pain or a scratchy sensation in the throat
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Sore, swollen glands in your neck or jaw
  • Swollen, red tonsils
  • White patches or pus on your tonsils
  • A hoarse or muffled voice
symptoms of Pet Allergy

Infections causing a sore throat might result in other symptoms, including:

Seek help If you or your child, has severe signs and symptoms such as:

  • Difficulty breathing
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Unusual drooling, which might indicate an inability to swallow

Causes of Pharyngitis

Viruses that cause the common cold and the flu also cause sore throats. Less often, bacterial infections cause this condition. Viral illnesses that cause a sore throat include:

Other causes of pharyngitis include:

  1. Irritants. Outdoor air pollution and indoor pollution such as tobacco smoke or chemicals can cause a chronic condition. Drinking alcohol, chewing tobacco, and eating spicy foods also can irritate your throat.
  2. Muscle strain. You can strain muscles in your throat by yelling, talking loudly or talking for long periods without rest.
  3. Gastroesophageal reflux disease or GERD. GERD is a digestive system disorder in which stomach acids back up in the food pipe or esophagus.
  4. HIV infection. A sore throat and other flu-like symptoms sometimes appear early after someone is infected. HIV-positive patients might have a chronic or frequent sore throat due to a fungal infection called oral thrush or a viral infection, which can be serious in people with compromised immune systems.
  5. Allergies. Allergies to pet dander, pollen, dust and molds can cause a sore throat. The problem may be complicated by postnasal drip, which can irritate and inflame the throat.
  6. Dryness. Dry indoor air can make your throat feel rough and scratchy. Breathing through your mouth often because of chronic nasal congestion can cause a dry throat.
  7. Tumors. Cancerous tumors of the tongue, throat or voice box or larynx can cause pharyngitis. Other signs or symptoms may include hoarseness, noisy breathing, difficulty swallowing a lump in the neck, and blood in saliva or phlegm.

Treatment and Management of Pharyngitis

The treatment of this condition depends on its cause and severity. For bacterial causes, doctors often recommend antibiotics. Ensure to take your medications as per directed by doctors for the utmost benefits. Pain relievers are also given to ease pain caused by swelling in the throat. 

Medication Used for Pharyngitis

Clarithromycin. It is used to treat different bacterial infections like a sore throat. works by preventing the growth of infection-causing bacteria and stops the bacteria from growing by interfering with the protein synthesis in bacterial cells.

Drink plenty of water

Lifestyle and Home Remedies for Pharyngitis

  • Rest and drink fluids. Get plenty of sleep. Rest your voice, too. Fluids keep the throat moist and prevent dehydration. However, avoid caffeine and alcohol, which can dehydrate you.
  • Humidify the air. Use a cool-air humidifier to eliminate dry air that may further irritate the affected area. Ensure to clean the humidifier regularly so it doesn’t grow mold or bacteria or sit for several minutes in a steamy bathroom.
  • Consider lozenges. It can soothe a sore throat, but don’t give them to children age 4 and younger because of choking risk.
  • Try comforting foods and beverages. Warm liquids broth, caffeine-free tea or warm water with honey and cold treats such as ice pops can soothe a sore throat. Don’t give honey to children younger than age 1.
  • Gargle with saltwater. A saltwater gargle can help soothe a sore throat. Children older than 6 and adults can gargle the solution and then spit it out.
  • Avoid irritants. Keep your home free from cigarette smoke and cleaning products that can irritate the throat.
  • Stay at home until you are no longer sick. This can help protect others from catching a cold or other virus.

Alzheimer: Symptoms, Stages, Causes, and Treatment

What is Alzheimer’s Disease?

Alzheimer’s disease is a brain illness that slowly destroys thinking and memory skills. Eventually, this condition leads to difficulty in carrying out the simplest tasks. Most people with the sickness or those with the late-onset type symptoms first appear in their mid-60s. Early onset of this condition between a person’s 30s and mid-60s is very rare. It involves parts of the brain that control thought, memory, and language that can seriously affect your ability to carry out daily activities.

Signs and Symptoms of Alzheimer’s Disease 

old man in black and white with magnifying glass

The symptoms of this condition vary from person to person, and may include problems with:

  • Impaired reasoning or judgment, can impact decisions
  • Vision and spatial issues, like awareness of the space around them
  • Word-finding, or having more trouble coming up with words than other people the same age

Other symptoms may be changes in the person’s behavior including:

  • Trouble managing money and paying bills
  • Taking longer to complete normal daily tasks
  • Losing things or forgetting them in odd places
  • Wandering and getting lost
  • Increased anxiety and or violence
  • Mood and personality changes
  • Repeating questions

Stages of Alzheimer’s Disease

This condition can range from minor to severe. The scale ranges from a state of mild impairment to moderate impairment before eventually reaching severe cognitive decline.

  1. Mild stage. People with mild conditions develop memory problems and cognitive difficulties that may include taking longer than usual to perform daily tasks and difficulty managing money or paying bills. You may also experience personality and performance changes.
  2. Moderate stage. In moderate conditions, the parts of the brain responsible for senses, reasoning, consciousness, and language are damaged. This can lead to greater memory loss and confusion, difficulty knowing friends or family, incapability to learn new things, and difficulty performing tasks. You may also experience a struggle to cope with new situations, imprudent behavior, hallucinations, delusions, or fear.
  3. Severe stage. In this condition plaques and tangles are present throughout the brain, causing the brain tissue to shrink greatly. This can lead to an incapable to communicate and dependency on others for care. Being unable to leave bed all or most of the time.

Treatment and Management of Alzheimer’s Disease

Unfortunately, Alzheimer’s disease has no available treatment but some medications can slow down its progress and help with behavioral changes. Doctors often recommend antidepressant drugs to treat anxiety, aggression, depression, and restlessness. Anti-anxiety drugs are also used to treat agitation along with anticonvulsants to treat aggression.

Medication Used for Alzheimer’s Disease

Memantine HCI. It is used to treat moderate to severe dementia related to this condition. It works by decreasing abnormal activity in the brain. Memantine may improve the ability to think and remember or may slow the loss of these abilities in people who have AD. 

losing weight

Lifestyle and Home Remedies for Alzheimer’s Disease

  • Diet. A diet high in healthy fats, whole grains, lean, proteins, fish, fruits, nuts, and vegetables has been shown to fight obesity and diabetes and to improve mental function.
  • Healthy sleep. Sleep is our body’s way of resetting. Proper peaceful sleep allows our body and brain the time needed to restore balance to our systems. This helps decrease the risk of dementia and AD.
  • Improving heart health. Cardiovascular well-being is a major risk factor for AD. Keeping a healthy heart can reduce the risk of developing AD.
  • Social interaction and an active mind. Can lead to happiness, using a positive effect on patients with AD and their families. Learning a new activity, such as dancing, creates new pathways of communication in the brain.
  • Exercise. Small choices today, such as taking the stairs or parking farther away, can make a big change tomorrow. Avoiding AD through increased exercise is a positive choice we can make to improve mental function for years to come.
  • Lowering stress. Mindfulness practices like yoga, meditation, or breathing exercises help reduce stress. Devote more time outside in green spaces. It’s proven to decrease stress, and it encourages exercise. Furthermore, staying inside seems to contribute to the risk of dementia.

HIV: Symptoms, Stages, Causes, and Treatment

HIV is a virus that attacks cells that help the body fight infection, making a person more vulnerable to other infections and diseases. Over decades, the disease slowly spread across Africa and later into other parts of the world. It is spread by contact with certain bodily fluids of a person with the infection, most commonly during unprotected or through sharing injection drug equipment.

Signs and Symptoms of HIV

The signs and symptoms of this condition depend on its severity and phase.

1. Primary infection

Some patients develop symptoms 2 to 4 weeks after the virus enters the body. Signs and symptoms are:

  • Headache and fever
  • Muscle aches and joint pain
  • Rash and swollen lymph glands especially on the neck
  • Sore throat and painful mouth sores
  • Weight loss and diarrhea
  • Night sweats and cough

2. Clinical latent infection

In this stage, the virus is still present in the body and in white blood cells. However, there are no typical symptoms or infections during this time. This stage can also last for many years if you are receiving regular therapy.

3. Symptomatic infection

At this stage, the virus multiplies and destroys your immune cells and triggers chronic symptoms.

  • Fatigue and fever
  • Swollen lymph nodes and diarrhea
  • Weight loss
  • Pneumonia
  • Oral yeast infection
  • Shingles

4. Progression to AIDS

  • Recurring fever and chronic diarrhea
  • Chills and sweats
  • Chronic diarrhea
  • Swollen lymph glands
  • Persistent white spots or unusual lesions on your tongue or mouth 
  • Persistent and unexplained fatigue
  • Weakness and weight loss
  • Skin rashes or bumps

Stages of HIV

close up of a woman in a hospital bed sick

1. Seroconversion illness. Infection can cause a short illness for some people shortly after contracting it. This is known as seroconversion illness or primary or acute condition. 

2. The asymptomatic stage of HIV. Asymptomatic stages can last several years and are commonly called asymptomatic stages. Though you might feel well at this stage, the virus is active, infecting new cells, replicating, and damaging your immune system.

3. Symptomatic stage. Living with this condition without treatment increases your risk of developing infections that your weakened immune system can’t handle, including certain cancers and HIV-related diseases. 

4. Late-stage. Certain opportunistic infections and cancers may develop if it causes a lot of damage to your immune system. These illnesses are also known as AIDS-defining.

What Causes HIV?

It is caused by a virus that spreads through sexual contact, contact with infected blood, illegal injection drug use or sharing needles, or from mother to child during pregnancy, or breastfeeding. The following factors also increase your risk of getting the virus:

  • If you have an STI. Many STIs produce open sores on your genitals. These sores act as doorways for the virus to enter your body.
  • If you are using illicit injection drugs. The use of illicit injection drugs exposes people to blood droplets because they share needles and syringes.
  • If you have unprotected sex. Use a new latex or polyurethane condom every time you have sex. Anal sex is riskier than vaginal sex especially if you have multiple sex partners.
unused condom on a mans palm

Treatment, Prevention, and Management of HIV

Currently, there is no cure for HIV. Infection cannot be cured once it is present in the body. However, many medications can control and prevent complications. These include antiretroviral therapy or ART. Most often, it consists of two or more medications from different drug classes. 

To prevent getting infected, ensure to maintain healthy sexual practices such as avoiding multiple sex partners and maintaining proper hygiene. Protect yourself from getting the infection by using condoms during sex. Use KamaSutra Pink Dotted Condoms, which is made from premium rubber latex with changes in its texture for maximum benefits.

NOTE: Condoms are not used as a treatment for any sexually transmitted disease. Seek immediate help if you have symptoms or if you are exposed to an infected individual.

Lifestyle and Home Remedies for HIV

  • Eat healthy foods and make sure you get enough nourishment to boost your immune system. 
  • Avoid raw meat, eggs, and more because there are foodborne illnesses that can worsen your condition. 
  • Avoid unpasteurized dairy products, raw eggs, and raw seafood such as oysters, sushi, or sashimi.
  • Get the right vaccinations to increase your defense against typical infections. Your healthcare provider may also recommend other vaccinations, including for HPV, hepatitis A, and hepatitis B. 

Dysmenorrhea: Symptoms, Types, Causes, and Treatment

What is Dysmenorrhea?

Dysmenorrhea is the term used to describe painful periods. The primary type refers to recurrent pain, while the second condition results from reproductive system disorders. The pain usually begins one or two days before you get your period or when the bleeding actually starts. You may feel pain ranging from mild to severe in the lower abdomen, back, or thighs.

abdominal pain

Signs and Symptoms of Dysmenorrhea

  • Gripping pain and constant aches
  • Cramping in your pelvic area
  • Pain in your stomach
  • Pain in the lower back and legs
  • Headaches and feeling sick
  • Digestive problems such as constipation or diarrhea
  • premenstrual symptoms including sore breasts and a swollen abdomen
  • Pain that lasts for 3 days 

When Should You Seek Help?

Contact your doctor if the symptoms of dysmenorrhea worsen regardless of taking pain relievers. Keep track of your periods and the days on which pain is the worst and if you notice other symptoms, like headaches or heavy flows, you should keep track of those, too. Your doctor will assess you when you started getting your period, how long they last, and what kinds of treatments you might have tried already.

Types of Dysmenorrhea

  1. Primary type. The pain is not caused by any particular health condition. The pain usually begins when your period comes, but might start slightly before. The main symptom is a cramp or achy pain in your abdomen.  You might also feel it in your lower back or the tops of your legs. You may have other symptoms when you get your period including fatigue and bloatedness.
  2. Secondary type. The period pain is caused by a health condition. Some women can start to experience more painful periods after years of normal period pain. f you experience severe period pain that stops you from doing day-to-day things, or that worries you at all, you should speak to your doctor. Symptoms include a feeling of heaviness in your tummy, heavy or irregular periods, and painful sex.

How Does Secondary Dysmenorrhea Cause Menstrual Cramps?

Dysmenorrhea is a result of problems with the reproductive organs such as:

  • Pelvic inflammatory disease.  Bacterial infection of the uterus may spread to other reproductive organs. PID can cause pain in the stomach or pain during sex.
  • Cervical stenosis. Narrowing of the cervix, or the opening to the uterus.
  • Endometriosis. This condition refers to the presence of uterine lining tissue outside of the uterus. This tissue bleeds during your period, causing swelling, scarring, and pain.
  • Adenomyosis. Abnormal growth of uterine lining into the uterine muscle. Symptoms of this condition include abnormal bleeding and pain, as well as an abnormally large uterus.
  • Fibroids. The uterus can develop growths inside, outside, or inside the walls

Causes of Dysmenorrhea

Dysmenorrhea happens when a chemical called prostaglandin makes the uterus contract. The uterus contracts throughout your menstrual cycle and it is stronger during your menstruation. It can press against nearby blood vessels, cutting off the supply of oxygen to muscle tissue. You feel pain when part of the muscle briefly loses its supply of oxygen.

Period pain can sometimes be caused by intrauterine devices, especially after a few months of insertion. After an IUD insertion, your period might change and become more irregular, or last longer than normal.

Treatment and Management of Dysmenorrhea

Speak to your pharmacist for advice on pain relief for more severe pain, there are other types of medications that are only available from your doctor. There are several things you can do to relieve pain and cramps such as:

Woman taking pills on white table
  • Place a heating pad or hot water bottle on your lower back or abdomen. 
  • Rest when needed and avoid drinking that contains caffeine
  • Avoid smoking and drinking alcohol and massage your lower back and abdomen.
  • Women who exercise regularly often have less menstrual pain. To help prevent cramps, make exercise a part of your weekly routine.
  • Taking Ibuprofen as soon as bleeding or cramping starts. Ibuprofen belongs to a class of drugs called non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that reduces the output of prostaglandins.

Managing GERD During Thanksgiving

Thanksgiving is probably the most anticipated meal of the year, but it can cause discomfort for people who have GERD. To minimize the attacks or this condition, ensure to plan ahead your menu to celebrate thanksgiving with gladness.

What is GERD?

GERD is a disease that can lead to damage and, eventually, complications to the esophagus over time. It occurs when stomach acid repeatedly flows back into the tube connecting your mouth and stomach. It can interfere with daily living, but most people can get relief from it through lifestyle changes, home remedies, and medical treatment.

Symptoms of GERD

A burning sensation in your chest, usually after eating, which might be worse at night or while lying down:

  • Trouble swallowing 
  • The sensation of a lump in your throat
  • The backwash of food or sour liquid
  • Upper abdominal or chest pain

If you have nighttime acid reflux, you might also experience:

  • An ongoing cough
  • Inflammation of the vocal cords 
  • New or worsening asthma
Alcohol or drug abuse

What Not to Eat or Drink If You Have GERD?

  • Chocolate
  • Mint
  • Carbonated drinks
  • Alcohol
  • Fatty foods
  • Spicy foods
  • Tomatoes
  • Coffee
  • Citrus fruits and juices
  • Fried foods

Navigating GERD To Enjoy Thanksgiving

You can also make some strategic decisions about the Thanksgiving meal to prevent symptoms. Experts suggest eating earlier in the day to allow more time to digest the meal. Alcohol is a trigger for many people, so you may want to avoid alcohol or just have a small glass of wine with your early meal. 

Tips to Avoid GERD Attacks on Thanksgiving

  • Consider pre-medicating. If you have been taking medications with lifestyle modifications, ensure that you have OTC medication prepared to reduce the amount of acid your stomach produces as you digest.
  • Maintain a healthy weight. Excess pounds put pressure on your abdomen, pushing up your stomach and causing acid to reflux into your esophagus.
  • Skip the drinks. Both alcohol and caffeinated beverages relax the lower esophageal sphincter, the barrier between your stomach and esophagus that opens and closes to allow food to enter your stomach or acid to creep upward. It increases production and inflames the stomach lining, increasing the likelihood of symptoms.
  • Practice portion control. Avoid overeating because it triggers attacks. Stop eating before you get extra full or eat way too much. 
  • Be cautious with alcohol. It can lower your inhibitions and makes you more likely to have that second helping of stuffing after all.
  • Do not lie down after a meal. Wait at least three hours after eating before lying down or going to bed. Eat food slowly and chew thoroughly. 
  • Take a walk instead of sleeping. Lying down right after a meal perfectly positions your body for acid to sneak into your esophagus. A better plan is to go for a walk to aid your digestion and wait at least three hours after eating before crawling into bed.
  • Identify the risk factors. Certain foods are more likely to worsen acid reflux and heartburn. These include fatty foods, spicy foods, onions, garlic, caffeine, chocolate, citrus fruits and juices, and mints. Avoid these triggers to enjoy the celebration.

Recipe That Doesn’t Trigger GERD

sweet potato with toppings on paper wrapper

Whipped Sweet Potatoes


  • 4 large sweet potatoes
  • 1 cup almond milk
  • 1 tablespoon nutritional yeast
  • 1 tablespoon maple syrup
  • ½ teaspoon cinnamon
  • 1 teaspoon garlic powder
  • Salt and pepper to taste
  • ½  cup of toasted pecans

Cooking Instructions:

  • Heat oven to 395 degrees Fahrenheit.
  • Pierce your sweet potatoes multiple times with a fork and wrap them in foil and bake them for about 30 minutes.
  • Allow the potatoes to cool, then peel and transfer them to a blender or food processor.
  • Add in almond milk, yeast, cinnamon,  maple syrup, garlic powder, salt, and pepper.
  • Blend or process until nicely whipped.
  • Scoop into a serving dish and top with toasted pecans

Medication Used for GERD

Esomeprazole. It is a Proton Pump Inhibitor that reduces gastric secretion. It reduces the amount of acid your stomach makes and treats indigestion, heartburn and acid reflux, and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

Class III Obesity: Symptoms, Risk Factors, Causes, and Treatment

What is Class III Obesity?

Class III obesity, previously known as morbid obesity, is a complex chronic condition that can lead to several serious health issues. When you resort to processed foods, it can increase the fat deposition in your body. Excessive weight is due to fat accumulation that links to health problems. When your BMI is over 30, you are obese. It is due to eating loads of calories and having an inactive lifestyle.  Likewise, it is also due to genetic disorders.


Signs and Symptoms of Class III Obesity

  • Difficulty in sleeping or sleep apnea
  • Daytime drowsiness
  • Woman with knee pain
  • Back and or joint pains
  • Heavy sweating
  • Intolerance to heat
  • Body with skin folds
  • Infections in skin folds
  • Fatigue
  • Depression
  • A feeling of shortness of breath
  • Hyperpigmentation in the skin folds and armpits
  • Stretch due to endocrinological alteration
  • Swelling and varicose veins in the lower limbs.
  • Body Mass Index greater than 30 kg/m2.
  • Waist circumference greater than 94 cm in men and 88 cm in women.
  • High blood pressure

Risk Factors of Class III Obesity

  • Hormone imbalances. Your body makes hundreds of hormones that each have unique and important functions. Many of those hormones can affect how your body signals that you need food and how your body uses energy. Chronic stress can increase cortisol levels, which can lead to weight gain and increase cravings for sweet, fatty, and salty foods. Low thyroid hormone levels can slow down your metabolism and lead to weight gain.
  • Genetic factors. It has been shown that obesity is an inherited trait and that multiple genes are involved in the process.
  • Cultural factors. Increasing portion sizes and marketing of calorie-dense foods can contribute to obesity.
  • Socioeconomic and geographical factors.  Being low in socioeconomic status and having easier access to unhealthy fast foods than healthy whole foods can contribute to obesity. A lack of recreational facilities or parks and few safe or easy walking routes in your neighborhood can also contribute to obesity.

The Many Causes of Class III Obesity

When you eat, your body uses the calories you consume to run your body. The body also needs calories to pump your heart or digest food. If those calories are not used, the body stores them as fat. Your body will build up fat stores if you continue to eat more calories than your body can use during daily activities and exercise. Morbid conditions are due to chronic and uncontrolled weight gain caused by several factors.

losing weight

Treatment and Management of Class III  Obesity

Treatment for excessive weight gain is a combination of therapy and the help of professionals to increase your chances of success. These includes:

  1. Medication. If you are struggling with the desire to eat more than your allotted calories for the day, your doctor may suggest a medication that blocks fat absorption or acts as an appetite suppressant.
  2. Diet and exercise. You may start by eating fewer calories than you burn but do so with the guidance of a medical professional to make sure you’re still getting enough nutrition. You also want to add in physical activity every day but you have to start small to avoid compromising your body.
  3. Behavioral therapy. Sometimes old habits are so deeply set in the mind and are hard to overcome. Behavioral therapy focuses on changing your unhealthy habits and correcting your eating pattern or improving emotional coping mechanisms.
  4. Surgery. If none of these things help sufficiently, you may need surgery to lose enough weight. Bariatric surgery works by sealing off most of your stomach, so you feel fuller faster. However, surgery is expensive and sometimes life-threatening.

Medication Used for Class III  Obesity

Orlistat. It is a drug that is prescribed to people suffering from morbid weight gain conditions. works by inhibiting the lipases that are required to break down the fatty acids, thereby preventing the absorption of fatty acids in the diet. Talk to your doctor about the risk, benefits, and further guidelines when taking orlistat for weight loss.

Peptic Ulcer: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

What is Peptic Ulcer?

Peptic ulcers are open sores that develop on the inside lining of your stomach and the upper portion of your small intestine. It occurs when stomach acid damages the lining of the digestive tract. Common causes include the bacteria H. Pylori and anti-inflammatory pain relievers including aspirin. Two types of the condition are:

  • Gastric. You get this on your stomach lining or also known as the first part of the small intestine
  • Duodenal. This appears at the top end of the small intestine, an organ that digests and absorbs much of the food you eat.

Stomach acid makes the pain worse, as does having an empty stomach. The pain can often be relieved by eating certain foods that control stomach acid or by taking an acid-reducing medication.

abdominal pain

Signs and Symptoms

  • Burning stomach pain
  • Nausea and heartburn
  • Feeling of fullness
  • Bloating or belching
  • Intolerance to fatty foods

Less occurring but severe symptoms include:

  • Vomiting or vomiting blood 
  • Dark blood in stools
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Appetite changes
  • Dark and tarry stools
  • Trouble breathing
  • Fainting 
  • Severe nausea or vomiting

If you have any of the severe symptoms listed above, see your doctor immediately. See your doctor if over-the-counter antacids and acid blockers don’t relieve your pain.

What Causes Peptic Ulcer?

It occurs when acid in the digestive tract eats away at the inner surface of the stomach or small intestine. The acid can create a painful open sore that may bleed. A mucous layer covers the digestive tract and protects it from acid. Ulcers may develop if there is an increase in acid or a decrease in mucus. Other causes include:

  • A bacterium. H. pylori bacteria commonly live in the mucous layer that covers and protects tissues that line the stomach and small intestine. It can cause inflammation of the stomach’s inner layer, producing an ulcer.
  • Use of pain relievers. Taking aspirin, as well as certain over-the-counter and prescription pain medications called NSAIDs can irritate or inflame the lining of your stomach and small intestine.
  • Other medications. Taking NSAIDs along with steroids, SSRIs, and anticoagulants can also cause or trigger your stomach acid to cause the condition.
Blood tests

How to Diagnose Peptic Ulcer?

To determine the diagnosis, your doctor will ask about your medical history and perform physical and diagnostic tests such as:

  1. Endoscopy. Your doctor may use a scope to examine your upper digestive system to look for ulcers. Endoscopies are more likely to be recommended if you are older, have bleeding issues, have lost weight recently, or have trouble swallowing and eating.
  2. Upper gastrointestinal series. The upper digestive system is scanned with X-rays to create images of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine.
  3. Laboratory tests for H. pylori. Your doctor may recommend tests to determine whether the bacterium H. pylori is present in your body. This is determined using a blood, stool, or breath test. The breath test is the most accurate. If you are taking an antacid before the testing for H. pylori, make sure to let your doctor know. 

Treatment and Management of Peptic Ulcer

The treatment for this condition focuses on dealing with the cause such as the H.pylori bacteria and reducing discomfort using pain relievers. Antibiotic medications are used to kill the bacteria along with medications that block the production of stomach acids.

Medication Used for Peptic Ulcer

Cimetidine. It is used to treat ulcers of the stomach and intestines and prevent them from coming back after they have healed. It works by reducing the amount of acid in your stomach. This medication is also available without a prescription.

smoking cigarettes

Lifestyle and Home Remedies for Peptic Ulcer

  • Consider switching pain relievers if you use pain relievers regularly. Opt for Tylenol than NSAIDs. 
  • Control stress because it can worsen the signs and symptoms of your condition. 
  • Don’t smoke because it can interfere with the protective lining of the stomach, making your stomach more susceptible to the development of inflammation.
  • Limit or avoid alcohol because it can irritate and wear down the mucous lining in your stomach and intestines which leads to bleeding. 

Pseudomonas: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

What is Pseudomonas?

A pseudomonas infection is caused by a bacterium of the Genus Pseudomonas. The bacteria are found widely in the environment, such as in soil, water, and plants. They usually do not cause infections in healthy people. It is more likely that people will contract a severe infection if they are already hospitalized with another illness or condition, or if they have a weak immune system. These are fairly common microorganisms involved in infections acquired in a hospital setting. 

gardening Man hands covered in soil

How Does Pseudomonas Infection Spread?

It lives in the environment and can be spread to people in healthcare settings when they are exposed to water or soil that is contaminated with these microorganisms. Resistant strains of the bacteria can also spread in healthcare settings from one person to another through contaminated hands, equipment, or surfaces.

Signs and Symptoms?

Specific symptoms depend on where the infection occurs. Watch out for the following:


A blood infection is one of the most severe infections caused by this condition. Symptoms may include:


Infection of the lungs is called pneumonia. Symptoms include:

  • Fever and chills
  • Cough with or without sputum production
  • Difficulty breathing


When this bacterium infects the skin, it most often affects the hair follicles. Symptoms may include:

  • Abscess formation in the skin
  • Redness of the skin
  • Draining wounds


An external ear canal infection may sometimes be caused by this condition. Symptoms may include:

  • Ear pain
  • Itching inside the air
  • Difficulty hearing
  • Discharge from the ear
  • Swelling


Symptoms of an eye infection may include:

  • Inflammation
  • Pus and pain
  • Swelling and redness
  • Impaired vision

What Causes Pseudomonas? 

These infections are caused by a free-living bacterium from the Genus Pseudomonas. They are commonly found in moist areas such as soil and water. The bacteria can be spread in hospitals via the hands of healthcare workers, or by clinic equipment that is not properly cleaned. These infections are considered opportunistic infections as it affects a person’s immune system that is already impaired. Your risks of getting the condition increase if you:

  • Have burn wounds
  • Are receiving chemotherapy for cancer
  • Have cystic fibrosis
  • Have HIV or AIDS
  • You are using a mechanical ventilator or catheter
  • Are undergoing an invasive procedure, like a surgery

Treatment and Management of Pseudomonas

These infections are treated with antibiotics. Unfortunately, many infections are becoming more difficult to treat. Antibiotics are no match for these bacteria, as they have developed the ability to adapt to their environment and overcome them. This is called antibiotic resistance.

The increase in antibiotic resistance has made treating infections much more challenging. Oftentimes, it develops resistance to multiple types of antibiotics and can even develop resistance during treatment. Your medical provider must select the right antibiotic and other medications for you. To do this, your doctor may recommend further laboratory testing to determine which medications work best.

Diagnosis for Hypersexuality

How to Diagnose Pseudomonas?

A doctor might ask about recent activities that might help diagnose the infection, like swimming or using a hot tub. They will also carry out a physical examination or take samples of blood or fluid from the affected area to confirm a diagnosis. It may also be necessary to conduct laboratory tests to determine the best course of treatment since there are different types of bacteria.

Medications Used for Pseudomonas Infection

Ciprofloxacin Dexamethasone Otic. It has high potency and rapid bactericidal activity and a long post-antibiotic effect on certain bacterial infections. It exhibits a low frequency of mutational resistance. Ciprofloxacin is in a class of medications called quinolone antibiotics. Dexamethasone is in a class of medications called corticosteroids.

The combination of ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone works by killing the bacteria that cause infection and reducing swelling. Before using this medication ensure to tell your doctor about your allergies and other conditions. Inform your doctor about the prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take.

Use Desloratadine to Fight Allergies

What is Desloratadine?

Desloratadine is an antihistamine used to relieve allergy symptoms. It is also used to treat skin hives and itching in people with chronic skin reactions. Ingestion of this medication does not cause drowsiness like other drugs in the same category. You can easily buy desloratadine online or through your local pharmacy. It belongs to a group of medications called antihistamines that stops the effects of histamine, a chemical that causes allergy symptoms. Talk to your doctor about the benefits and other recommendations of this drug. 

How Does Desloratidine Works?

It works by preventing the effects of a substance called histamine, which is produced by the body. Histamine can cause itching, sneezing, runny nose, and watery eyes. Also, in some cases, histamine can close up the air passages of the lungs and make breathing difficult. Histamine can also cause some persons to have hives, with severe itching of the skin.

Usage, Dosage, and Storage

It is an antihistamine used to relieve symptoms of hives in the skin and hay fever. Take this medication by mouth with a glass of water. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully. Take it as exactly as directed avoid having more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.

If you are using the rapidly-dissolving tablet, allow the tablet to dissolve on the tongue and then swallow, with or without water. If you are using the liquid form of this medication, carefully measure the dose using a special measuring device or spoon.

If you miss a dose, take the medicine as soon as you can, but skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next dose. Do not take two doses at one time. Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed.

Storage Instructions of Desloratadine

  • Keep out of reach and sight of children.
  • Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.
  • Avoid direct exposure to sunlight.
  • Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.
  • ​Keep this medicine in its original container until use. ​
  • To protect young children from poisoning, always lock safety caps and immediately place the medication in a safe location.
abdominal pain

What are the Side Effects of Desloratadine?

  • Sore throat
  • Nausea and tiredness
  • Stomach upset
  • Muscle pain may also occur
  • Fever and loss of appetite
  • Diarrhea or trouble 

Get medical help if you experience symptoms of drug allergies such as:

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

When to Seek Immediate Medical Attention?

In case of allergic reactions or serious side effects such as fast or irregular heartbeat, inability to sleep, muscle pain, hallucinations, seizures, or restlessness with increased body movements. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if any of the side effects become serious, or if you notice any that are not listed in this leaflet. Consult a doctor if the condition worsens or does not improve after 14 days of use.


Warnings Before Taking Desloratadine

Before taking desloratadine:

  • Inform your doctor if you are allergic to its ingredients. 
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take.
  • Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects if you are taking other prescriptions.
  • Tell your doctor if you have or have ever had kidney or liver disease.
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding. 
  • Be sure to inform your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking, have recently taken, or plan to take other medications, nutritional supplements, or herbal products.

Use Cyproheptadine to Fight Allergies

What is Cyproheptadine?

Cyproheptadine is an antihistamine that reduces the effects of the natural chemical histamine in the body. It is used to treat a variety of allergic conditions. This medication comes in both tablet and syrup forms and can be used in people ages 2 and older. However, this is not commonly used because it causes more drowsiness and other side effects compared to other allergy medications. 

symptoms of Pet Allergy

Common Types of Allergies

  1. Pollen allergy. It is an airborne allergy caused by changes in season. It is one of the most common types of aversion.
  2. Pet allergy. It is an allergic reaction to proteins found in an animal’s skin cells, saliva, or urine.
  3. Food allergy. It is an immune system reaction that occurs soon after eating a certain food.
  4. Drug allergy. It is the reaction of the immune system to a medicine regardless if it is a prescription or non-prescription drug.

Usage, Dosage, and Storage

Cyproheptadine is used to treat sneezing, runny nose, itching, red or watery eyes, and other symptoms of seasonal allergies. This is also prescribed to treat other conditions such as eczema or skin reactions to insect bites and is sometimes used to treat certain types of headaches, including migraines.

The dosage of this medication depends on your condition or age. Your doctor may change your dosage to get the best results. Avoid taking this medication in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. To get the proper amount for a liquid prescription, use the syringe provided, or a special dose-measuring spoon or medicine cup. 

If you miss a dose, take the missed dose as soon as you remember but skip it if is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up for the missed dose. Avoid drinking alcohol with this medicine because it can interfere with recovery and may cause other health risks.

Storage  of Cyproheptadine

Store Cyproheptadine in a cool dry place or away from direct sunlight and moisture. Avoid putting this in the freezer or hot temperature to prevent the solution from spoiling. Keep away from the reach of children and pets.

Dosage Instructions for Children and Adults

  • Age 7 to 14 years. The usual dose is 4 mg two or three times a day, adjusted as necessary to the size and response of the patient. The dose is not to exceed 16 mg a day.
  • Age 2 to 6 years. The usual dose is 2 mg two or three times a day, adjusted as necessary to the size and response of the patient. The dose is not to exceed 12 mg a day.
  • Adults. The total daily dose for adults should not exceed 0.5 mg. The therapeutic range is 4 to 20 mg a day, with the majority of patients requiring 12 to 16 mg a day.

Side Effects of Cyproheptadine

  • Drowsiness or dizziness
  • Dry mouth, throat, nose, or mouth
  • Blurry vision or constipation
  • Restlessness in children

Rare side effects  of Cyproheptadine that may need medical attention include:

  • A light-headed feeling
  • Seizure and convulsions
  • Little or no urination
  • Fast or pounding heartbeats
  • A feeling of passing out
  • Easy bruising or bleeding
  • Ringing in your ears
  • Pale or yellowed skin
  • Dark colored urine
  • Fever and weakness

Warnings and Precautions When Taking Cyproheptadine

  • You should inform your doctor if you have narrow-angle glaucoma, a stomach ulcer or obstruction, an enlarged prostate, urination problems, or if you are having an asthma attack as this medication is not advisable for these conditions.
  • This medication is not permissible if you are breastfeeding a baby, if you are elderly, or if you have a debilitating disease unless given by a doctor for emergency reasons.
  • This medicine can cause you to have a false positive drug screening test. If you provide a urine sample for drug screening, tell the laboratory staff that you are taking this medicine.
  • You should not use antihistamine medication to make a child sleepy.
  • Tell your doctor if you have changes in weight caused by the prescription.
  • Ensure to complete the treatment period noted by your doctor. Avoid stopping abruptly.

Bacterial Infection Gone With Amoxicillin

What is Amoxicillin?

Amoxicillin is a penicillin antibiotic that fights bacteria. It is used to treat many different types of infections caused by bacteria. It is also sometimes used together with another medication called clarithromycin to treat stomach ulcers caused by H.pylori infection

Examples of Bacterial Infections

strep throat
  • Tonsillitis. It is an inflammation of the tonsils caused by a viral infection and or bacterial infection. Tonsillitis is a common condition in children, teenagers, and young adults. 
  • Urinary tract infection. UTI is an infection in any part of the urinary system such as the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Most infections involve the bladder and the urethra.
  • Bronchitis. It is an infection of the main airways of the lungs causing them to become irritated and inflamed. Symptoms include cough, which may bring up yellow-grey mucus. 
  • Pneumonia. It is an infection that inflames the air sacs in the lungs. The air sacs may fill with fluid or pus that causes cough with phlegm, fever, and chills. A variety of organisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi, can cause pneumonia.

Other bacterial infections that occur in the ear, nose, throat, and skin are also treated with this medication along with other prescriptions given by doctors.

Usage, Dosage, and Storage

You can take it by mouth with a glass of water. It is permissible either before or after a meal. Avoid chewing or breaking the tablet. If you forget to take a dose, take it as soon as you remember unless it’s nearly time for your next dose. In this case, just leave out the missed dose and take your next dose at the usual time. Avoid taking two tablets at the same time as it leads to overdoing and other risks.

The dose of this medicine varies from person to person depending on your condition. Follow your doctor’s orders or the directions on the label that includes information on the average doses of this medicine. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.

For the treatment of gonorrhea, the quantity is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 50 milligrams per kilogram of body weight per day, combined with other single-dose medication.

Storage of Amoxicillin

  • Ask your healthcare professional how you should dispose of any medicine you do not use.
  • Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light, and keep from freezing.
  • Keep out of the reach of children.
  • You may store the oral liquid in the refrigerator. Throw away any unused medicine after 14 days. Do not freeze.
  • Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.
  • To protect young children from poisoning, always lock safety caps and immediately place the medication in a safe location
itchy skin

Side Effects of Amoxicillin?

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea and changes in taste
  • Headache and rashes
  • Itching and skin blisters
  • Peeling and hives
  • Wheezing and difficulty swallowing or breathing
  • Swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, and eyes

Seek immediate help if you or your child experience any severe symptoms such as:

  • Cloudy or bloody urine
  • Decreased urination
  • Swelling of any part of the body
  • Confusion
  • Severe nausea and vomiting
  • Severe diarrhea that may occur with or without fever and stomach cramps 

How to Cope With the Side Effects of Amoxicillin?

Stick to simple meals if you feel nauseous and do not eat rich or spicy food. It might help to take your medicine after a meal or snack. For diarrhea, drink plenty of fluids, such as water to avoid dehydration. Signs of dehydration include peeing less than usual or having dark, strong-smelling pee.

Precautions When Taking Amoxicillin

  • If your or your child’s symptoms do not improve within a few days check with your doctor.
  • This medicine may cause a serious allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. Call your doctor right away if you have a skin rash, shortness of breath, and trouble breathing.
  • It may cause diarrhea, and in some cases, it can be severe. Do not take any medicine or give medicine to your child to treat diarrhea without first checking with your doctor. 
  • In some young patients, tooth discoloration may occur while using this medicine. 
  • Birth control pills may not work while you are using this medicine. 
  • Do not take other medicines unless they have been discussed with your doctor. 

Hives: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Hives are a skin reaction that causes itchy welts. It often starts as itchy patches that turn into swollen welts that vary in size. These swellings appear and fade at random as the reaction runs its course. Chronic hives can be very uncomfortable and interfere with sleep and daily activities. 

symptoms of food allergy

Signs and Symptoms?

  • Batches of swellings can arise anywhere on the body
  • Ridges that might be red, purple or skin-coloured
  • Swellings that vary in size
  • Welts that appear and fade repeatedly
  • Itchiness which can be intense
  • Painful swelling around the lips, cheeks, and eyes
  • Flares triggered by heat, exercise or stress
  • Symptoms that persist for more than six weeks and recur often 

See your healthcare provider if you have severe conditions  that last for more than a few days. Seek emergency medical care if:

  • Chronic rashes do not put you at sudden risk of a serious allergic reaction
  • If you get this condition as part of a severe allergic reaction
  • You experience dizziness, trouble breathing
  • You experience severe swelling of the tongue, lips, mouth or throat

What Causes Hives?

The swellings that come with this reaction are caused by the release of immune system chemicals, such as histamine, into your bloodstream. The specific cause of this condition depends on their type such as:

  1. Physical urticaria. These are caused by something that stimulates the skin such as cold, heat, vibration, pressure, sun exposure, sweating, or exercise. It usually occurs right where the skin was stimulated and rarely appears elsewhere. 
  2. Dermatographism. This is a common form of physical urticaria where swelling or rashes form after firmly stroking or scratching the skin. It can also occur along with other forms of urticaria.
  3. Acute urticaria. These are rashes that last less than 6 weeks. The most common causes are foods, medications, and infections. The most common foods that cause rash are nuts, chocolate, fish, tomatoes, eggs, fresh berries, and milk. 
  4. Chronic urticaria. These are conditions that last more than 6 weeks. The cause is usually harder to identify than those causing acute urticaria. In some cases, the cause may be thyroid disease, hepatitis, infection, or cancer.

Are Hives contagious?

Unlike some other skin conditions, these are not contagious. But if you develop rashes because your skin is exposed to secretions from a plant like poison ivy, you can spread the allergenic product to others until you wash it off.

Blood tests

How to Diagnose Hives?

  • Skin tests. Your doctor will run tests for different allergens on your skin. If your skin turns red or swells, it means you’re allergic to that substance. 
  • Blood tests. It checks for specific antibodies in your blood. Your body makes antibodies to fight off allergens. If your body makes too many antibodies, you can develop rashes and swelling.

Your healthcare provider will likely talk with you about your symptoms and look at your skin. One of the effective features of this condition is that the welts come and go at random. You might be asked to keep a diary to keep track of:

  • What you eat and drink
  • Where hives appear and how long it takes a welt to fade
  • Your activities
  • Any medications including herbal remedies or supplements 
  • Whether your hives come with painful swelling

Treatment and Management of Hives

Treatment for chronic conditions often starts with nonprescription antihistamines. If these do not help, your doctor might suggest that you try one or more medications.

Medication Used for Hives

Loratadine. It is a medication used to treat various skin allergies. works by selectively antagonizing peripheral H1 histamine receptors. It works effectively, with the results showing immediately after taking the pill.

Lifestyle and Home Remedies for Hives

  • Soothe the skin by covering the itchy area with a cold washcloth or rubbing an ice cube over it for a few minutes.
  • Apply an anti-itch cream or lotion with menthol for a soothing effect.
  • Avoid wearing clothing that’s rough, tight, scratchy or made from wool.
  • If you think a medication caused your welts, stop using it and contact your primary care provider. 
  • Use a nonprescription anti-itch drug to avoid drowsiness and may help ease itching. 
  • Protect your skin from the sun and apply sunscreen about a half hour before going outdoors. 
  • Avoid triggers that include foods, medications, pollen, pet dander, latex and insect stings.

Tonsillitis: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

What is Tonsillitis?

Tonsillitis is inflammation of the tonsils or the two oval-shaped pads of tissue at the back of the throat. Most cases of tonsillitis are caused by infection with a common virus. Bacterial infections may also cause inflammation of the tonsils.

Signs and Symptoms?

migraine with aura

This condition is common in children between preschool ages and the mid-teenage years. Symptoms include:

  • Red, swollen tonsils
  • Fever and bad breath
  • Enlarged, tender glands in the neck
  • White or yellow coating or patches on the tonsils
  • Sore throat
  • Difficult or painful swallowing
  • Neck pain or stiff neck
  • A scratchy, muffled, or throaty voice
  • Stomachache and headache

In young children signs may include:

  • Drooling due to difficult or painful swallowing
  • Refusal to eat
  • Unusual fussiness
  • Fever 

Call your doctor if your child is experiencing:

  • A sore throat with a fever
  • Extreme difficulty swallowing
  • Painful or difficult swallowing
  • Excessive drooling
  • Extreme fussiness, weakness, and fatigue
  • Difficulty breathing

What Causes Tonsillitis?

It is caused by common viruses, but bacterial infections also can be the cause. The most common bacterium causing tonsillitis is Streptococcus Pyogenes which also causes strep throat. Other strains of strep and other bacteria also may cause this condition.

The tonsils are the immune system’s first line of defense against bacteria and viruses that enter your mouth. This function may make the tonsils particularly susceptible to infection and inflammation. However, the tonsil’s immune system function declines after puberty which becomes a factor that may cause such a condition in adults. 

Risk Factors of Tonsilitis

  • Age. It is most common at a young age or in children, and tonsillitis caused by bacteria is most common in children ages 5 to 15.
  • Frequent contact with germs. School-age children who are in close contact with their peers are more likely to get this condition.
Blood tests

How to Diagnose Tonsilitis?

A throat swab is a common method to diagnose the condition. Your doctor will rub a sterile swab over the back of your throat to get a sample of secretions. The sample will be checked in the clinic or a lab for streptococcal bacteria. 

A Complete blood cell count also helps with the diagnosis. Doctors will recommend this to determine what’s elevated, what’s normal, or what’s below normal can indicate whether an infection is more likely caused by a bacterial or viral agent. 

Treatment and Management of Tonsillitis

Treatment of this condition depends on the causes and severity. If it is caused by a bacterial infection, your doctor will prescribe a course of antibiotics. Failure to take all of the medication as directed may result in the infection worsening or spreading to other parts of the body. Not completing the full course of antibiotics can, in particular, increase your child’s risk of rheumatic fever.

Medication Used for Tonsilitis

Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium. It is an antibiotic in the class of drugs called penicillins that fights bacteria in your body to treat many different types of infections. It acts as a beta-lactase inhibitor that prevents the bacteria from developing resistance to Amoxicillin. The combination of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium is very powerful and protects against a wide range of bacterial infections.

Home Remedies for Tonsilitis

At-home care remedies to use during the recovery time include the following:

  • Keep your home free from cigarette smoke and cleaning products that can irritate the throat.
  • Encourage your child to get plenty of sleep.
  • Provide adequate fluids to keep the throat moist and prevent dehydration.
  • Use a cool-air humidifier to eliminate dry air that may further irritate a sore throat.
  • Sit with your child for several minutes in a steamy bathroom.
  • Providing comforting foods and liquids such as broth, caffeine-free tea or warm water can help.  Cold treats like ice pops can soothe a sore throat and other symptoms.
  • If your child can gargle, a saltwater gargle can help soothe a sore throat. Have your child gargle the solution and then spit it out.
  • Talk to your doctor about using ibuprofen to minimize throat pain and control fever. Low fevers without pain do not require treatment.

Hay Fever: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

What is Hay Fever?

Hay fever is an allergic reaction to pollen when it comes into contact with your mouth, throat, or nose, and throat. Pollen is a fine powder from plants. The proper name for this condition is allergic rhinitis, which means inflammation inside your nose.

stuffy nose

Signs and Symptoms?

  • Runny nose and nasal stuffiness 
  • Allergic conjunctivitis
  • Watery, itchy, red eyes 
  • Sneezing and coughing
  • Itchy nose including the roof of mouth or throat
  • Mucus that runs down the back of your throat
  • Allergic shiners or swollen and bruised-appearing under the eyes
  • Extreme tiredness due to poor sleep

What Causes Hay Fever?

When you have hay fever, your immune system mistakenly identifies a harmless airborne substance as being harmful. It causes your immune system to protect protects itself, so it produces immunoglobulin E antibodies to protect against this allergen. The next time you come in contact with the allergen, these antibodies signal your immune system to release chemicals such as histamine into your bloodstream. This causes a reaction that leads to the symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Other causes and risk factors include:

  • Having other allergies or asthma
  • Living or working in a setting that constantly exposes you to allergens
  • Exposure to animal dander or dust mites
  • Being exposed to smoke and strong odors 
  • Having a condition called atopic dermatitis or eczema, which makes your skin irritated and itchy
  • Having a blood relative, such as a parent or sibling, with allergies or asthma
  • Other triggers that irritate the lining of the nose
Blood tests 

Diagnosing Hay Fever

  • Skin prick test. Small amounts of material that can trigger allergies are pricked into patches of skin on your arm or upper back. If you are allergic, you develop a hive at the site of that allergen. This typically takes about 15 to 20 minutes. 
  • Allergy blood test. A blood sample will help measure your immune system’s response to a specific allergen. This test measures the amount of allergy-causing antibodies in your bloodstream, known as immunoglobulin E antibodies.

Treatment and Management of Hay Fever

The best treatment is to limit your exposure to substances that cause your condition. If your hay fever is not severe, your doctor may recommend medications. You can also buy without a prescription may be enough to relieve symptoms. For worse symptoms, you may need prescription medications.

Recommended Medications for Hay Fever

  1. Budesonide Nasal Spray. It is used to treat allergies and other nasal symptoms. In hay fever, inflammation is a notable symptom. The nasal passages are affected and cause trouble breathing. Budesonide Nasal Spray acts on multiple sites of the inflammatory cascade and helps in reducing the irritation.
  2. Cetirizine HCL. It treats symptoms such as sneezing, itching, and rashes produced during an allergic reaction due to the histamine released by the body. Due to the efficacy of the drug, it has become very popular the world over and is one of the most widely used drugs for the treatment of allergies.

Immunotherapy for Hay Fever

Immunotherapy might be especially effective if you’re allergic to animal dander, dust mites, or pollen. In children, immunotherapy may help prevent asthma.  Doctors will recommend allergy shots to change the way the immune system reacts to allergens. Aside from allergy shots, some physician also recommends taking tiny amounts of allergen in pill form that dissolves in your mouth. Pills are usually taken daily. 

Lifestyle and Home Remedies

Reduce your symptoms by limiting your exposure to the typical triggers by knowing what you are allergic to. For pollen or mold, aversion ensure avoiding outdoor activity in the early morning, when pollen counts are highest, and also on high pollen-count days.

Consider removing carpeting, especially where you sleep, if you are highly sensitive to dust mites. Keep pets out of your home or bathe them regularly to avoid attacks caused by pet danders. Talk to your doctor if you are considering taking alternative or herbal medications.

Asthma: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

What is Asthma?

Asthma is a disease that affects your lungs and is one of the most common long-term conditions in children. It causes wheezing, coughing, and chest tightness. If you have asthma, you have it all the time, but you will have attacks only when something troubles your lungs.

Chest pain

Signs and Symptoms?

  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest tightness or pain
  • Wheezing when exhaling especially in children
  • Trouble sleeping 
  • Coughing or wheezing attacks that are worsened by a respiratory virus

Signs of worsening condition:

  • More frequent and bothersome symptoms
  • Increasing difficulty breathing
  • The need to use an inhaler more often

What Causes Asthma?

There is no specific cause of this condition but there are typical triggers that can kickstart its attack. Some causes are due to a combination of environmental and inherited factors. Other trigger includes:

  • Exposure to several irritants and substances that trigger allergies 
  • Airborne allergens, such as pet dander, pollen, dust mites, mold spores, and waste particles.
  • Respiratory infections, such as the common cold
  • Cold air and physical activity
  • Smoke and other air pollutants
  • Strong emotions and stress
  • Sulfites and preservatives added to some types of foods and beverages, including shrimp
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease 

Watch out for these factors that increase your risk of developing or triggering an attack. They include:

  • Genetic factors
  • Obesity or overweight
  • Smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke
  • Exposure to exhaust fumes or other types of pollution
  • Exposure to occupational triggers, such as chemicals used in farming, hairdressing, and manufacturing

Treatment and Management of Asthma

Attacks can be prevented and controlled long-term. Symptoms are usually controlled by learning your triggers, avoiding triggers, and tracking your breathing to ensure your medications are working. In case of an asthma flare-up, you may need to use a quick-relief inhaler.

The right medications for you depend on your age, symptoms, triggers, and what works best to keep your condition under control. Inflammation of your airways leads to symptoms when you take preventative, long-term control medications. Quick-relief inhalers quickly open swollen airways that are limiting breathing. In some cases, allergy medications are necessary.

Medication Used for Asthma

Albuterol relieves bronchospasm associated with asthma and chronic pulmonary diseases. It works by dilating the bronchial muscles and acts upon the airways by opening the breathing passages. It also relaxes the muscles of the breathing passages, thereby allowing a smooth flow of air and relieving the difficulties in breathing.

losing weight

Lifestyle and Home Remedies for Asthma

Taking steps to reduce your exposure to its triggers is a key part of the control. You can prevent its attack through lifestyle and home remedies, especially for patients who have a chronic condition.

  • Maintain optimal humidity. If you live in a damp climate, talk to your doctor about using a dehumidifier.
  • Prevent mold spores. Clean damp areas in the bathroom, kitchen, and around the house to keep mold spores from developing. Get rid of moldy leaves or damp firewood in the yard.
  • Use air filters or filtered air conditioner. To reduce your exposure, you should use your air conditioner to reduce the amount of airborne pollen from trees, grasses, and weeds that find their way indoors. 
  • Decontaminate your decor. By replacing certain items in your bedroom, you can minimize the dust that may worsen nighttime symptoms. 
  • Get regular exercise. You can relieve symptoms by exercising regularly, which strengthens your heart and lungs. If you exercise in cold temperatures, wear a face mask to warm the air you breathe.
  • Maintain a healthy weight. Being overweight can worsen its symptoms, and it puts you at a higher risk of other health problems.
  • Reduce pet dander. Avoid pets with fur or feathers if you are allergic to dander. Having pets regularly bathed or groomed may also reduce the amount of dander in your surroundings.
  • Cover your nose and mouth if it’s cold out. If your condition is worsened by cold or dry air, wearing a face mask can help.
  • Control heartburn and GERD. If you have frequent or constant heartburn, talk to your doctor about treatment options. You may need treatment for GERD before your symptoms improve.

Depression: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

What is Depression?

Clinical depression is a serious condition that negatively affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. It is persistent and often with a person’s ability to experience or anticipate pleasure. If inadequately treated, depression can lead to significant impairment, other health-related issues, and in rare cases, suicide. 

Anxiety and stress

Signs and Symptoms?

  • Feelings of sadness, tearfulness, emptiness, or hopelessness
  • Angry upsurges, irritability, or frustration, even over small matters
  • Loss of attentiveness or pleasure in most or all usual activities and sports
  • Trouble thinking, concentrating, making decisions, and remembering things
  • Reduced appetite and weight loss or increased cravings for food and weight gain
  • Anxiety, agitation, and restlessness
  • Sleep disturbances, including insomnia or sleeping too much
  • Tiredness and lack of energy
  • Slowed thinking, body movements, and speaking
  • Feelings of worthlessness or guilt, fixating on past failures or self-blame
  • Frequent or recurring thoughts of death, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, or  worst suicide
  • Unexplained physical problems, such as back pain or headaches

Depression symptoms in children and teens

  • It can cause sadness, irritability, clinginess, worry, aches, pains, refusal to go to school, or being underweight in children.
  • Teenagers may experience sadness, irritability, feelings of negative and worthlessness, anger, poor school performance or poor attendance, feeling misunderstood and extremely sensitive, using recreational drugs or alcohol, eating or sleeping too much, self-harm, loss of interest in normal activities, and avoidance of social interactions.

Depression symptoms in older adults

man with ear rings sad by the glass

Despair is not a normal part of growing older, and it should never be taken lightly. Unfortunately, this condition often goes undiagnosed and untreated in older adults. Symptoms of this condition may be different or less obvious in older adults, such as:

  • Physical aches or pain
  • Suicidal thinking or feelings, especially in older men
  • Fatigue, loss of appetite, sleep problems, or loss of interest in sex 
  • Memory difficulties or personality changes
  • Often wanting to stay at home, rather than go out to socialize or do new things

What Causes Depression?

  • Life events. It can be caused by stress, the death of a loved one, upsetting events, isolation, and a lack of support.
  • Medication. Recreational drugs and alcohol can also cause depression or make it worse.
  • Brain chemistry. It may be caused by abnormal brain chemical levels.
  • Genetics. If you have a relative with depression, you may be more likely to become depressed.
  • Personality. An individual who has trouble coping or is easily overwhelmed may be prone to depression.
  • Medical conditions. Depression and diabetes are common, as are cancer and Parkinson’s disease.

Treatment and Management of Depression

Medications and psychotherapy are effective for most people with depression. However, many people with this condition also benefit from seeing a psychiatrist, psychologist, or other mental health professional. Other treatments are Electroconvulsive therapy and transcranial magnetic stimulation. In ECT, electrical currents are passed through the brain to impact the function and effect of neurotransmitters in your brain to relieve the condition. TMS, on the other hand, can be an option for those who haven’t responded to antidepressants. 

Medication Used for Depression

Citalopram is an effective drug to treat major depression associated with mood disorders. This is also used as a medication for panic disorders and anxiety. This prescription belongs to Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors which work by restoring the balance of those neurotransmitters that are responsible for producing anxiety and mood changes.

Lifestyle and Home Remedies for Depression

  • Pay attention to warning signs. Work with your doctor or therapist to learn what might trigger your depression symptoms. Make a plan so that you know what to do if your symptoms get worse. 
  • Avoid alcohol and recreational drugs. Even though alcohol and drugs seem to lessen the symptoms, in the long run, they worsen them. 
  • Stick to your treatment plan. Don’t skip psychotherapy sessions or appointments.
  • Learn about your condition. Education about your condition can empower you and motivate you to stick to your treatment plan.
  • Take care of yourself. Eat healthily, be physically active and get plenty of sleep. Walk, jog, swim, garden or do something else you enjoy.

Dementia: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Dementia is a term used to describe a group of symptoms that affects memory, thinking, and social abilities severely enough to interfere with your daily life. Though dementia generally involves memory loss, memory loss has different causes. Having memory loss alone doesn’t mean you have dementia, although it’s often one of the early signs of the condition.

What is Dementia?

Dementia is currently the seventh leading cause of death among all diseases and one of the major causes of disability and dependency among older people worldwide. The condition has physical, psychological, social, and economic impacts, not only for people living with dementia but also for their carers, families, and society at large. 

Dementia is a syndrome, usually of a chronic or progressive nature that leads to deterioration in cognitive function beyond what might be expected from the usual consequences of biological aging. It affects thinking, memory, comprehension, orientation, calculation, language, learning capacity, and judgment. 

Signs and Symptoms

Old woman in a wheelchair sitting by a Christmas tree

Dementia affects each person differently, depending upon the underlying causes, other health conditions, and the person’s cognitive functioning before becoming ill. The signs and symptoms can be understood in three stages.

Early stage: Dementia is often overlooked because the onset is gradual. Common symptoms may include:

  • Forgetfulness
  • Losing track of the time
  • Becoming lost in familiar places.

Middle stage: The signs and symptoms become clearer and may include:

  • Having increasing difficulty with communication
  • Needing help with personal care
  • Becoming forgetful of recent events and people’s names
  • Becoming confused while at home
  • Experiencing behavior changes, including wandering and repeated questioning

Late stage: The late stage of dementia is one of near total dependence and inactivity. Memory disturbances are serious and the physical signs and symptoms become more obvious and may include:

  • Experiencing behavior changes that may escalate and include aggression.
  • Becoming unaware of the time and place
  • Having difficulty recognizing relatives and friends
  • Having difficulty walking
  • Having an increasing need for assisted self-care

Stages and Causes of Dementia

Dementia is caused by damage to brain cells. This damage interferes with the ability of brain cells to communicate with each other. When brain cells cannot communicate normally, thinking, behavior, and feelings can be affected. The brain has many distinct regions, each of which is responsible for different functions. When cells in a particular region are damaged, that region cannot carry out its functions normally.

Usually, dementia goes through these stages. But it may vary depending on the area of the brain that’s affected.

1. No impairment. Someone at this stage will show no symptoms, but tests may reveal a problem.

2. Very mild decline. You may notice slight changes in behavior, but still independent.

3. Mild decline. You’ll notice more changes in their thinking and reasoning. They may have trouble making plans and may repeat themselves a lot. They may also have a hard time remembering recent events.

4. Moderate decline. They’ll have more problems with making plans and remembering recent events. 

5. Moderately severe decline. They may not remember their phone number or their grandchildren’s names. They may be confused about the time of day or day of the week. At this point, they’ll need assistance with some basic day-to-day functions. 

6. Severe decline. They’ll begin to forget the name of their spouse. They’ll need help going to the restroom and eating. You may also see changes in their personality and emotions. 

7. Very severe decline. They can no longer speak their thoughts. They can’t walk and will spend most of their time in bed.

Treatment and Management of Dementia

To treat dementia, doctors will treat whatever is causing it. If the cause of a person’s dementia is not reversible, treatment will focus on managing symptoms, particularly agitation and other emotional concerns.

If your loved one is in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease, the most common form of dementia, their doctor may prescribe this monthly infusion. It’s a monoclonal antibody that lessens the build-up of things called amyloid plaques in your brain. These plaques are part of what leads to the memory loss associated with Alzheimer’s disease.

Medicines such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can sometimes help to slow the progression of cognitive changes, but quite often the effects of medicines are only modest and cannot prevent the eventual worsening of the underlying condition.

Recommended medicine:

  • Memantine HCI – this drug works by blocking the action of a certain natural substance in the brain that is believed to be linked to symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. 

Parkinson’s Disease: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Parkinson’s disease is a progressive disorder that affects the nervous system and the parts of the body controlled by the nerves. Symptoms start slowly. In the early stages of Parkinson’s disease, your face may show little or no expression. Your arms may not swing when you walk. The disease may be improved with medications. 

What is Parkinson’s disease?

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a type of movement disorder that can affect the ability to perform daily activities. It is characterized by its most common motor symptoms, tremors, stiffness or rigidity of the muscles, and slowness of movement. Also, it manifests in non-motor symptoms including sleep problems, constipation, anxiety, depression, and fatigue.

mans hand showing his palms

Signs and Symptoms

The known symptoms of Parkinson’s disease involve loss of muscle control. However, experts now know that muscle control-related issues aren’t the only possible symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.

Motor-related symptoms:

  • Slowed movements (bradykinesia)
  • A tremor
  • Rigidity or stiffness
  • Unstable posture or walking gait

Additional motor symptoms can include:

  • Blinking less often than usual
  • Cramped or small handwriting
  • Drooling
  • Mask-like facial expression
  • Trouble swallowing (dysphagia)
  • Unusually soft speaking voice (hypophonia)

Non-motor symptoms:

  • Autonomic nervous system symptoms
  • Depression
  • Loss of sense of smell 
  • Sleep problems such as periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), rapid eye movement (REM) behavior disorder, and restless legs syndrome.
  • Trouble thinking and focusing 

What causes Parkinson’s disease?

Parkinson’s disease is caused by a loss of nerve cells in a part of the brain called the substantia nigra. This leads to a reduction in a chemical called dopamine in the brain. Dopamine plays a vital role in regulating the movement of the body. A reduction in dopamine is responsible for many of the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.

Exactly what causes the loss of nerve cells is unclear. Most experts think that a combination of genetic and environmental factors is responsible.

Treatment and Management of Parkinson’s disease

There are currently no blood or laboratory tests to diagnose non-genetic cases of Parkinson’s. Doctors usually diagnose the disease by taking a person’s medical history and performing a neurological examination. If symptoms improve after starting to take medication, it’s another indicator that the person has Parkinson’s.

Several disorders can cause symptoms similar to those of Parkinson’s disease. People with Parkinson’s-like symptoms that result from other causes, such as multiple system atrophy and dementia with Lewy bodies are sometimes said to have Parkinsonism. While these disorders initially may be misdiagnosed as Parkinson’s, certain medical tests, as well as responses to drug treatment, may help to better evaluate the cause. Many other diseases have similar features but require different treatments, so it is important to get an accurate diagnosis as soon as possible.

While there is no cure for Parkinson’s at this time, there are several treatments that can ease symptoms. The medications are the mainstay of treatment, but modalities are often used in combination. Physical, occupational, and speech therapy can be critical to the treatment plan. Surgical options also have an important role for a subset of patients with the disease. Lastly, complementary therapies can be used to treat some Parkinson’s disease symptoms. Your physician and other healthcare professionals can help you determine the best treatment plan for your symptoms.

Medications Used For Kidney Infection

Recommended medication that can be used to manage Parkinson’s disease:

  • Ropinirole Hydrochloride – this medication can be used alone or in combination with other medications to treat the disease. The drug helps improve symptoms of the disease such as the ability to move and decrease shakiness, stiffness, slowed movement, and unsteadiness. It may also decrease the number of episodes of not being able to move. 

The doctor may prescribe other medicines to treat Parkinson’s symptoms, including:

  • Dopamine agonists stimulate the production of dopamine in the brain
  • Enzyme inhibitors increase the amount of dopamine by slowing down the enzymes that break down dopamine in the brain
  • Amantadine to help reduce involuntary movements
  • Anticholinergic drugs to reduce tremors and muscle rigidity

Obesity: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Obesity is a complex disease involving an excessive amount of body fat. It isn’t just a cosmetic concern. It’s a medical problem that increases the risk of other diseases and health problems such as heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure. There are many reasons why some people have difficulty losing weight. Usually, obesity results from inherited, physiological and environmental factors, combined with diet, physical activity, and exercise choices. 

What is Obesity?

Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a health risk. A body mass index (BMI) over 25 is considered overweight, and over 30 is obese. The issue has grown to epidemic proportions, with over 4 million people dying each year as a result of being obese in 2017 according to the global burden of disease. 

Obesity is one side of the double burden of malnutrition and today more people are obese than underweight. Once considered a problem only in high-income countries, overweight and obesity are now dramatically on the rise in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings. The vast majority of overweight or obese children live in developing countries, where the rate of increase has been more than 30% higher than that of developed countries. 

woman depressed in dark room

Signs and Symptoms

The most obvious symptom is the increase in weight therefore the symptoms that may be presented arise from this increase in weight that, among others, other symptoms may include:

  • Difficulty in sleeping
  • Back and joint pains
  • Excessive sweating
  • Intolerance to heat
  • Infections in skin folds
  • Fatigue
  • Depression 
  • The feeling of shortness of breath

The main signs also derive from the magnitude of the excess weight, the most common:

  • Acanthosis nigricans is a skin disorder characterized by the presence of hyperkeratosis and hyperpigmentation in the skin folds and armpits.
  • Stretch marks due to distension and rupture of the elastic fibers of the skin or vinous in the case of obesity due to endocrinological alteration.
  • Swelling and varicose veins in the lower limbs.
  • Waist circumference greater than 94 cm in men and 88 cm in women.
  • High blood pressure level > 140/90 mmHg.
  • Body Mass Index (BMI) greater than 30 kg/m2.

What Causes Obesity?

Several factors can play a role in gaining and retaining excess weight. These include diet, lack of exercise, environmental factors, and genetics.

  • Food and Activity. People gain weight when they eat more calories than they burn through activity. This imbalance is the greatest contributor to weight gain.
  • Genetics. Research shows that genetics plays a role in obesity. Genes can directly cause obesity in such disorders as Prader-Willi syndrome.
  • Health Conditions and Medications. Some hormone problems may cause overweight and obesity, such as underactive thyroid, Cushing syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome. Certain medicines also may cause weight gain, including some corticosteroids, antidepressants, and seizure medicines.
  • Stress, Emotional Factors, and Poor Sleep. Some people eat more than usual when they are bored, angry, upset, or stressed.
losing weight

Treatment and Management of Obesity

The best way to treat obesity is to eat a healthy, reduced-calorie diet, and exercise regularly. To do this you should:

  • Eat slowly and avoid situations where you know you could be tempted to overeat
  • Eat a balanced, calorie-controlled diet as recommended by your GP or weight loss management health professional 
  • Take up activities such as fast walking, jogging, swimming, or tennis for 150 to 300 minutes a week
  • Join a local weight loss group

You may also benefit from receiving psychological support from a trained healthcare professional to help change the way you think about food and eating. If lifestyle changes alone don’t help you lose weight, a medication called orlistat may be recommended. If taken correctly, this medication works by reducing the amount of fat you absorb during digestion. Your GP will know whether Orlistat is suitable for you. 

The drug is used with an individualized low-calorie, low-fat diet, and exercise program to help people lose weight. Orlistat is in a class of medications called lipase inhibitors. It works by preventing some of the fat in foods eaten from being absorbed in the intestines.

In rare cases, weight loss surgery may be recommended.

Genital Warts: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Genital warts are one of the most common types of sexually transmitted infections. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), HPV is the most common of all STIs. Everyone who is sexually active is vulnerable to complications of HPV, including genital warts.

What are Genital Warts?

Genital warts are similar to common warts but are usually found around or in the vagina, cervix, penis, scrotum, rectum, or the area between the vagina and rectum. They are soft, fleshy, small growths on the skin.

This condition is more contagious, or more easily spread, than other warts. They are spread by skin-to-skin contact. They may spread to other nearby parts of the body and they may be passed from person to person by sexual activity. The warts are usually first seen 1 to 6 months after you have been infected with HPV. However, you can be infected with HPV without having any visible warts.

Signs and Symptoms

Genital warts around the penis of a man

Genital warts are transmitted through sexual activity including oral, vaginal, and anal sex. You may not start to develop warts for several weeks or months after infection. It isn’t always visible to the human eye. They may be very small and the color of the skin or slightly darker. The top of the growths may resemble a cauliflower and may feel smooth or slightly bumpy to the touch. They may occur as a cluster of warts, or just one wart.

For people assigned male at birth, genital warts may appear in the following areas:

  • Groin
  • Thighs
  • Penis
  • Scrotum
  • Inside or around the anus

For people assigned female at birth, these warts may appear:

  • Outside of the vagina or anus
  • On the cervix
  • Inside of the vagina or anus

Genital warts may also appear on the lips, mouth, tongue, or throat of a person who has had oral sexual contact with a person who has HPV.

Even if you can’t see genital warts, they may still cause symptoms, such as:

  • Vaginal discharge
  • Itching
  • Bleeding
  • Burning

If genital warts spread or become enlarged, the condition can be uncomfortable or even painful.

What causes Genital Warts?

A genital wart appears on the skin around your genitals and anus. Certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause them. Some types of HPV can cause cancer, but those aren’t the same ones that result in genital warts.

HPV can be a challenging STD to understand. Most of the time, it will fade away on its own, but it is one of the most common STDs. Untreated high-risk HPV can sometimes develop into cancer. It is also possible to get warts on your vulva, vagina, cervix, rectum, anus, penis, or scrotum from other low-risk types of HPV. Genital warts are common. About 360,000 people get them each year.

Treatment and Management of Genital Warts

doctor holding laser to treat skin diseases

Depending on the severity, genital warts may disappear on their own, grow larger, or multiply. Genital warts can be removed in different ways. Getting rid of warts may require several treatments. Generally, an anesthetic will be administered first to numb the area being treated. Sexual contact should be avoided during treatment. Your healthcare provider may use one of these methods to treat genital warts:

  • Freezing: During cryotherapy, your provider applies the liquid nitrogen to freeze and destroy warts.
  • Electrocautery: An electric current burns away warts.
  • Laser treatment: A laser light destroys tiny blood vessels inside warts, cutting off their blood supply.
  • Topical medicine: Once a week for several weeks, you apply a prescription chemical solution to warts. The chemical causes blisters to form under warts, stopping blood flow. In some cases, your provider may apply the solution.
  • Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP): Your provider uses an electrically charged wire loop to remove warts. A provider may use this method to remove warts on a woman’s cervix.
  • Topical TCA solution: Your provider may also provide a prescription for a topical medical when appropriate that patient self-administers at home for some weeks as directed.
  • Surgery: Your provider may surgically cut out warts that are large or don’t respond to other treatments.

The recommended medicine for genital warts:

  • Imiquimod Cream – this is a drug that is topically administered. Imiquimod is in a class of medications called immune response modifiers. It treats genital and anal warts by increasing the activity of the body’s immune system.

Estradiol Valerate: Uses and Side Effects

What is Estradiol Valerate?

Estradiol valerate is a hormone replacement therapy used to treat the symptoms of osteoporosis, menopause, hypoestrogenism, and advanced androgen-dependent prostate carcinoma. Buy Estradiol Valerate online at a reasonable price.

How Does Estradiol Valerate Works?

Estradiol valerate works by enhancing the lowered levels of sex hormones in women who undergo peri and post-menopausal periods. Menopause is stopping a woman’s period after an entire span of 12 months without menstruation. This medication is rapidly oxidized in the liver to estrone, which is hydroxylated to form estriol.

All these three forms are found in the blood. It is the most potent of the three. Secreted in menstruating women under the influence of FSH and concentration of Estradiol Valeratein blood increases during the follicular phase. After ovulation corpus luteum continues to secrete estrogens till about 2 days before menstruation.

 It helps in combating several symptoms of menopause such as:

  • Weak bones
  • Hot flashes
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Hot sensation in the face, neck, and chest

Uses Estradiol Valerate

Doctors often prescribe this medication for:

  • Patients who have hot flashes caused by menopause 
  • Night sweats, vaginal dryness, and burning caused by menopause
  • Low estrogen caused by female hypogonadism
  • Pain caused by advanced prostate cancer
  • Low estrogen caused by primary ovarian failure
  • Low estrogen caused by castration
doctor injecting a person in hospital with syringe

Administering Estradiol Valerate?

  • Read the information or ask your pharmacist before you start using this medication or each time you get a refill. To administer successfully, follow these guides:
  • This medication is injected through the muscle or as directed by your doctor. The dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment.
  • Obtain one dose of injectable, needle, and syringe. For each injection use a disposable auto-disable syringe and needle from a new sealed package. 
  • Wash hands with soap and water, if possible. You also have to clean the injection site. 
  • Pierce the top of the vial with a sterile needle and fill the syringe with the proper dose.
  • Administer the needle through your muscle in the desired area of your body. 
  • Dispose of disposable syringes and needles in a puncture-proof container.

Typical Dosing Guide for Estradiol Valerate

  1. For Menopausal symptoms. Administer 10 mg to 20 mg into the muscle every 4 weeks. 
  2. Prostate cancer: Inject at least 30 mg into the gluteal muscle every 1 to 2 weeks depending on the prescription of your doctor. 
  3. Low estrogen conditions. Administer 10 mg to 20 mg into the buttocks every four weeks.
migraine with aura

What are the Side Effects of Estradiol Valerate?

If any of these side effects persist, ensure to seek immediate help. Some serious side effects may also occur however, most patients have zero to minimal effects. These includes:

  • Mental and mood changes 
  • Depression and memory loss
  • Breast lumps and unusual vaginal bleeding
  • Increase instances of vaginal infection or irritation
  • Increased thirst and urination

Serious but less likely to occur symptoms includes:

Warnings and precautions When Using Estradiol Valerate

  • If you are using this medication at home, ensure that you are knowledgeable in self-administering the injections.
  • Read the instructions and proper dosing in the product leaflet or ask your health care professional.
  • Before using, check this product visually for particles or discoloration. If either is present, do not use the liquid. 
  • Avoid storing in hot temperatures to avoid spoiling the solution.
  • If crystals are forming, dissolve them by warming the product to room temperature before administering.
  • To monitor your progress and check for side effects, keep all regular medical and laboratory appointments.
  • Follow your doctor’s instructions for examining your own breasts, and report any lumps right away. Consult your doctor for more details.
  • Preventing or controlling high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes can help to reduce your chances of heart disease and stroke. 
  • Stress reduction, eating low-fat and salt diets, exercising regularly, and quitting smoking can all help control or prevent these diseases.        
  • Use this medication regularly to get the most benefit from it. 

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

What is Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease?

Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a condition caused when stomach acid repeatedly flows back into the tube connecting your mouth and esophagus. Repeated backwash can irritate the lining of your esophagus. Most people can manage the discomfort of GERD with lifestyle changes and medications.

Chest pain

Signs and Symptoms?

  • Burning sensation in our chest
  • Heartburn after eating and may worsen when lying down
  • A backwash of food or sour liquid
  • Chest pain
  • Upper abdominal pain
  • Trouble swallowing
  • A sensation of a lump in your throat
  • A sensation of a lump in your throat

If you have nighttime acid reflux, you might also experience:

  • Ongoing cough
  • New worsening asthma
  • Larngytis of inflammation of the vocal cords

Seek immediate help if you experience these symptoms:

  • Frequent chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Pain in the jaw or arm (warning signs of a heart attack)
  • Experience severe or frequent GERD symptoms

What Causes Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease?

Though there is no single and specific cause of GERD, there is a mechanism in your body that can increase the possibility of it. Acid reflux happens when your lower esophageal sphincter does not tighten or close properly. This allows digestive juices and other contents from your stomach to rise up into your esophagus. Other possible causes include:

  1. Hiatal hernia. It occurs when a part of the stomach moves above the diaphragm towards the chest. If the diaphragm is compromised, it can increase the likelihood that your LES can’t do its job correctly.
  2. Lying down too soon after large meals. As a result, the LES may not receive the required amount of pressure to function as it should.
  3. Frequently eating large meals. This can cause the distension of the upper part of the stomach. A distended LES may indicate that there isn’t enough pressure on it, and it doesn’t close properly.

GERD is also common or more likely to occur in people:

  • Obesity or people who are overweight because of increased pressure on the abdomen
  • Who are pregnant, affecting around 40–85% of people during pregnancy
  • People who take certain medications, such as asthma medications, calcium channel blockers, antihistamines, sedatives, and antidepressants
  • Who smoke and those with exposure to secondhand smoke

Ways to Diagnose Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

  • Upper endoscopy. It helps your doctor see inside your esophagus and stomach. Test results may not show problems when reflux is present, but an endoscopy may detect inflammation of the esophagus or other complications.
  • Esophageal manometry. In addition to measuring your esophageal muscles’ coordination and force, esophageal manometry measures your esophagus’s muscles’ coordination and force. This is typically done in people who have trouble swallowing.
  • Ambulatory acid probe test. When stomach acid regurgitates into your esophagus, a monitor is placed there to determine how long it lasts.
  • X-ray of the upper digestive system. A silhouette of your esophagus and stomach can be seen by your doctor because of the coating. This is particularly useful for people who are having trouble swallowing.
  • Transnasal esophagoscopy. Through your nose, an esophageal tube is passed with a video camera attached.

Treatment and Management of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

Your doctor is likely to recommend that you first try lifestyle changes and nonprescription medications. During the first few weeks of treatment, your doctor may prescribe prescription medication and recommend additional testing if you do not experience relief.

Medication Used for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

Omeprazole is inactive in neutral pH. Prilosec is a Proton Pump Inhibitor that reduces gastric secretion. It works by decreasing the amount of acid produced by the stomach. This medicine is available both over-the-counter and with your doctor’s prescription.

Depressed girl smoking
Depressed girl smoking

Prevention Tips for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

  • Eat small meals frequently.
  • Finish eating 2 to 3 hours before going to bed.
  • Avoid eating very large meals.
  • Quit or avoid smoking.
  • Avoid strenuous activities after eating.
  • Lose weight if overweight.
  • Stay upright after eating.
  • Minimize wearing tight clothing around the abdomen.
  • Sleep at a slight angle with the head slightly elevated.

Osteoarthritis: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

What is Osteoarthritis?

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis which affects millions of people worldwide. It occurs when the protective cartilage that wears down.  Although it can damage any joint, the disorder most commonly affects joints in your hips, hands, and spine.  Staying active, maintaining a healthy weight and regular treatments helps slow down the progression of the disease and help improve pain and joint function.

Signs and Symptoms of Osteoarthritis

  • Pain. Affected joints might hurt during or after movement.
  • Swelling. An inflammatory condition around the joint could be responsible for this.
  • Tenderness. Your joint might feel tender when you apply light pressure to or near it.
  • Loss of flexibility. You might not be able to move your joint through its full range of motion.
  • Stiffness. After waking up or being inactive, joint stiffness may be most evident.
  • Bone spurs. These extra bits of bone, which feel like hard lumps, can form around the affected joint.
  • Grating sensation. Use of the joint may cause a grating sensation and a popping or crackling sound.
  • Limited range of motion that may go away after movement.
  • Swelling and muscle weakness around the joint.
  • Joint instability or buckling

What Causes Osteoarthritis?

Osteoarthritis is caused by damage or breakdown of joint cartilage between bones. Eventually, if the cartilage wears down completely, the bone will rub on the bone. Besides the breakdown of cartilage, OA affects the entire joint. It causes changes in the bone and deterioration of the connective tissues that hold the joint together and attach muscle to bone. Several risk factors may cause the disease such as:

  • Joint injury or overuse. Knee bending and repetitive stress on a joint, can damage a joint and increase the risk of OA in that joint.
  • Age and gender. The risk of developing this condition increases as you age. Women are more likely to develop this condition than men, especially after age 50.
  • Obesity. Extra weight puts more stress on joints, mostly weight-bearing joints like the hips and knees. This stress increases the risk of affecting the joint. Weight gain also causes metabolic effects that increase your risk. 
  • Genetics. People who have family members with this condition are more likely to develop especially on the knee. 

How to Diagnose Osteoarthritis?

During the physical exam, your doctor will check your affected joint for tenderness, swelling, redness, and flexibility through imaging tests, MRI, x-ray, blood test, joint fluid analysis, and other laboratory examinations to determine the diagnosis.

Treatment and Management of Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis has no cure but you can treat and slows down the production through prescribed medications and therapy. Medications and therapy for this condition include:

  • Acetaminophen. Acetaminophen has been shown to help some people with osteoarthritis who have mild to moderate pain. 
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Over-the-counter NSAIDs can be taken at the recommended doses, and typically relieve osteoarthritis pain. Stronger NSAIDs are available by prescription.
  • Physical therapy. A professional therapist may recommend some exercise to strengthen the muscles around your joint and increase your flexibility and reduce pain. Regular gentle exercise that you do on your own, such as swimming or walking, can be equally effective.
  • Occupational therapy. An occupational therapist can help you discover ways to do everyday tasks without putting extra stress on your already painful joint

Medication Used for Osteoarthritis

Sodium Hyaluronate is indicated for the treatment of pain in patients who have failed to respond to conservative nonpharmacologic therapy and to simple analgesics like acetaminophen. It works by improving the joint fluid that helps the knee to move smoothly and thereby reduces the pain in joints.

Guidelines Before Using Sodium Hyaluronate

  • A strict aseptic administration technique must be followed when using this medication.
  • Follow the dosing instruction on the label or as per your doctor’s advice.
  • Store it in a room condition and avoid direct exposure to sunlight. 
  • Avoid strenuous activities or prolonged weight-bearing activities within 48 hours following the treatment.
  • Ensure to finish the recommended treatment period to get the utmost benefit from the prescription drug.

Strongyloidiasis: Symptoms and Treatment

What is Strongyloidiasis?

Strongyloidiasis is a disease caused by a nematode, or a roundworm, in the genus Strongyloides. Strongyloides stercoralis is one of over 40 species within this genus that may cause disease in birds, reptiles, amphibians, livestock, and other primates. The virus sometimes infects primates, dogs, and cats, and some strains infecting dogs and primates can infect humans as well.

abdominal pain

Signs and Symptoms?

  • Upper abdominal burning or pain
  • Alternating diarrhea and constipation
  • Rash
  • Diarrhea and vomiting
  • Weight loss
  • Cough
  • Intermittent episodes of constipation
  • Red hives near the anus

Severe symptoms may include:

  • Hoarseness
  • Inflammation of the lungs
  • Respiratory failure
  • Coughing up blood

It can be severe and life-threatening in persons who:

  • Are taking corticosteroids for asthma
  • Have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 
  • Exacerbations, lupus, and gout
  • Have conditions requiring steroids for immunosuppression or symptomatic relief
  • Are infected with the virus HTLV-1
  • Have leukemia or lymphoma or are transplant recipients.

In case of severe side effects, ensure to seek immediate medical help from the nearest medical facility.

Causes of Strongyloidiasis

It is caused by a nematode, or a roundworm, in the genus Strongyloides. Once they are in your small intestine, they lay their eggs. Adult females can lay up to 40 eggs per day. Either these eggs are passed out in the stool and continue to contaminate the soil, or they remain inside of you and cause autoinfection. When the worms burrow back into your intestines or the skin around your anus, they re-infect you. 

The Risk Factors of Strongyloidiasis

Risk Factors of Strongyloidiasis

This is often found in wet, moist areas, including South America, Africa, and the Southeastern United States. Your risks increase if you travel in those areas for a longer period. This condition  is found more often in the following people:‌

  • Living in institutions
  • Who are socioeconomically disadvantaged
  • Those living in rural areas
  • Those working in agriculture 
  • Contact with contaminated soil
  • Walking barefoot 
  • Contact with sewage or human waste

Diagnosis and Treatment of Strongyloidiasis

Strongyloidiasis can be challenging to diagnose because examining the stool under a microscope does not always show the infection. Doctors may recommend stool tests for five sessions to ensure the diagnosis. It can also sometimes be diagnosed with a blood test and some cases may diagnose by testing fluid from your lungs or small intestine.

Treatment is recommended for all persons found to be infected, whether symptomatic or not, due to the risk of developing hyperinfection syndrome. Additionally, it is suggested that patients be considered for testing before being initiated on any immunosuppressive therapy, particularly corticosteroids.

A sputum or stool culture should be negative for 2 weeks for people with a weakened immune system or hyperinfection syndrome. In some cases, antibiotics are required to treat bacterial infections as well.

How Fast Do Symptoms After Exposure?

Most people do not know when their exposure happened. For those who do, a local rash can occur immediately. Coughing usually occurs several days later and the abdominal symptoms typically occur approximately 2 weeks later, and larvae can be found in the stool about 3 to 4 weeks later.

How to Prevent Strongyloidiasis?

In countries where sanitation and human waste disposal have improved, strongyloidiasis has been mostly eliminated. Additional strategies to prevent strongyloidiasis include the following: ‌

  • Wearing shoes when you walk on the soil
  • Cleaning up after dogs
  • Managing sewage and feces properly 
  • Avoiding contact with sewage and feces

Medication Used for Strongyloidiasis

Ivermectin is a recommended treatment for this condition. It is a disease caused by a roundworm. This drug is effective in treating this kind of condition. It works by paralyzing and inactivating the gut of parasites in humans. It stops the adult one from producing larvae. It kills the newly developed parasite and works to treat the infection.

What are the Side Effects of Ivermectin?

Inform your doctor right away if you experience this symptom. If you develop other side effects it’s better to visit your doctor. Seek medical attention.

Rheumatoid Arthritis: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

What is Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune and inflammatory disease that causes your immune system to attack the healthy cells in your body by mistake. It leads to inflammation in the affected parts of the body.  RA mainly attacks the joints, usually many joints commonly in the hands, wrists, and knees. This damage can cause long-lasting or chronic pain, unsteadiness, and deformity.

Symptoms of polio

Signs and Symptoms?

  • Pain, stiffness, swelling, and tenderness in more than one joint.
  • Stiffness especially in the morning 
  • Pain and stiffness after sitting for long periods.
  • Pain and stiffness in the same joints on both sides of your body.
  • Fatigue 
  • Fever
  • Weakness

As the disease progresses the symptoms spread and affect the wrists, shoulders, elbows, hips, and ankles. About 40% of people who have this condition also experience signs and symptoms that don’t involve the joints. Areas that may be affected include:

  • Eyes
  • Skin
  • Lungs
  • Heart
  • Kidneys
  • Blood vessels
  • Salivary glands
  • Nerve tissue
  • Bone marrow
smoking cigarettes

What Causes Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease caused by your immune system that attacks healthy tissue in your joints. It can also cause medical problems with your heart, lungs, eyes, skin, and nerves. There is no specific cause of the condition but in some cases reacts to environmental factors. Here are several risk factors of RA that you should watch out for:

  • Gender and age. Women are more likely than men to develop this condition. It can occur at any age, but it most commonly begins in middle age.
  • Family history. You may be at greater risk of developing this condition and some of its symptoms if a member of your family has it.
  • Smoking. A genetic predisposition for developing RA increases your risk of developing the disease if you smoke cigarettes. Smoking also appears to be associated with greater disease severity.
  • Excess weight. This condition appears to be somewhat more likely to develop in overweight people.

Diagnosing Rheumatoid Arthritis

  • People with RA often have an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein level, which may indicate the presence of an inflammatory process in the body.
  • Other common blood tests look for some risk factors and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies.
  • Your doctor may recommend X-rays to help track the progression of RA in your joints over time.
  • MRI and ultrasound tests can help your doctor judge the severity of the disease in your body.

Treatment and Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis has no cure however, clinical studies indicate that remission of symptoms is more likely when treatment begins early with medications. Typical medications are NSAIDs, biological agents, steroids, targeted, and conventional DMARDS. Your doctor may also recommend a physical or occupational therapist to teach you to exercise and keep your joints flexible. Surgery is also permitted for patients if medication and therapy don’t work. 

Medication Used for Rheumatoid Arthritis

Nabumetone is effective in the treatment of RA and soft tissue injuries. works well to relieve symptoms such as joint pain, swelling, and stiffness. Compared to similar medications, it has lower risks for stomach-related side effects. It usually starts working within a week, but in severe cases, it may take up to two weeks or longer before you start feeling better. Furthermore, it may take several weeks before you feel the full effects of nabumetone.

Lifestyle and Home Remedies for Rheumatoid Arthritis

  • Gentle exercise can help strengthen the muscles around your joints, and it can help reduce the fatigue you might feel.
  • Apply heat or cold to ease your pain and relax tense, painful muscles. Cold may dull the sensation of pain and has a numbing effect and can reduce swelling.
  • Regular check also helps manage the symptoms especially before you plan to incorporate exercise activities. 
  • Avoid exercising tender, injured, or severely inflamed joints.
  • Find ways to cope with pain by reducing stress in your life. Techniques such as guided imagery, deep breathing, and muscle relaxation can all be used to control pain.

Do Probiotics Reduce Cholesterol Levels?

What Are Probiotics?

Probiotics are live microbes that provide specific health benefits. It contains beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria. Though they can have different effects on your body, they still play an important role in your overall being. Healthy gut bacteria can also affect your blood sugar, brain health, and heart health by reducing cholesterol levels, blood pressure, and inflammation. It can help restore healthy gut bacteria, which may improve your heart condition.


Probiotics Reduce Cholesterol Levels

Several studies specified certain probiotics are potent in reducing blood cholesterol. There are two main types of cholesterol: high-density lipoprotein (HDL) or good cholesterol and LDL or low-density lipoprotein, which is harmful. Lactobacillus , L. Plantarum and L. Reuteri were particularly effective in reducing cholesterol levels.

This increases their efficacy in people with high cholesterol when taken for a longer period. They can bind with cholesterol in the intestines to stop it from being absorbed. They also help produce certain bile acids, which help metabolize fat and cholesterol in your body.

Probiotics Improve Heart Health?

Heart disease is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Thus, it is important to look after your heart, especially as you get older. Many foods benefit heart health and recent studies have shown that taking probiotics improves heart health. 

Probiotics Manage Blood Pressure

High blood pressure is another leading risk factor for heart disease but it can be lowered through supplementation. Several studies have shown that certain strains can significantly reduce blood pressure. One of these large studies found a decrease in blood pressure, especially under the following conditions:

  • When blood pressure was chronically high 
  • When your dosage is high
  • When multiple types of probiotics were taken at the same time
  • When the probiotics were taken for more than 8 weeks

Probiotics Reduce Triglycerides

It may help reduce blood triglycerides that contribute to heart disease when their levels are too high. Lactobacillus curvatus and Lactobacillus Plantarum strains knowingly reduced blood triglycerides.

Probiotics Reduce Inflammation

Inflammation occurs when your body’s immune system fights infection or heals a wound. These conditions can also happen as a result of a bad diet, smoking, or an unhealthy lifestyle. If left untreated, these will lead to heart disease. Taking Lactobacillus reuteri strains for nine weeks significantly reduced the inflammatory chemicals. 

Can Adults Take Probiotics Daily?

It is essential to understand that probiotics are not a replacement for all your medications. Probiotics for adults are permissible for daily intake rather than a quick-fix option. Talk to your doctor to determine the risk and benefits of taking supplements along with your daily medications.

Food Sources that Contains Probiotics

  1. Yogurt. Yogurt is made from milk that has been fermented by probiotics, mainly lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. It is beneficial for people with hypertension.
  2. Tempeh.  It is a fermented soybean product that contains a decent amount of vitamin B12, a nutrient found mainly in animal products.
  3. Kimchi. It is a well-known Korean dish containing lactic acid bacteria that may benefit digestive health.
  4. Miso. It is a popular Japanese seasoning rich in several vital nutrients and may reduce the risk of cancer and stroke.
  5. Kefir. It is a fermented milk drink made by adding kefir grains to cow’s milk. It may improve bone health, help with some digestive problems, and protect against infections.
  6. Sauerkraut. It is a traditional food made from finely shredded cabbage that has been fermented by lactic acid bacteria.
  7. Kombucha. It is a tea drink that contains a wide range of health benefits. 
  8. Pickles. This is a preserved cucumber that is left to ferment for some time, using its own naturally present lactic acid bacteria.

In Conclusion

Probiotics for adults are live microbes that have certain health benefits. Several studies show that healthy strains reduce cholesterol, blood pressure, and inflammation. Nevertheless, most of the study participants already had high blood pressure or cholesterol.

Moreover, not all strains are the same and only some may benefit heart health. Overall, if you have high cholesterol or blood pressure, it may be useful to have supplementation along with medicines, diet, and lifestyle changes.

Epilepsy: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

What is Epilepsy?

Epilepsy is a chronic disease of the brain that affects around 50 million people worldwide. It is characterized by recurrent seizures, which are brief episodes of involuntary movement that may involve a part of the part or the entire body. It is sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness and control of bowel or bladder function.

Types of Epilepsy

1. Generalized 

It usually starts during childhood. However, it can also affect adults. This affects both the left and right sides of the brain. Additionally, these may be either motor, which involves physical movement, or non-motor, which does not. Symptoms involve:

  • Jerking movements
  • Weakness or limp limbs
  • Muscle twitching
  • A rigid and tense muscle
  • Full-body epileptic spasms

These may include these symptoms:

  • A sudden stop in movement
  • Staring into space
  • Fluttering eyelids
  • Brief twitches

2. Focal epilepsy

This can feel like an uneasy feeling in the stomach, similar to the feeling of riding a rollercoaster. They can start in one area and move to others. As the seizure progresses, a person can experience motor and non-motor symptoms such as:

  • Spasms
  • Jerking
  • Muscle twitching
  • Repeated movements, like clapping or chewing

Some non-motor symptoms of focal seizures include:

  • Waves of hot or cold
  • Lack of movement
  • Changes in emotions and thoughts
  • Goosebumps

3. Combined generalized and focal 

Someone with combination epilepsy has both generalized and focal seizures. The symptoms described above can therefore be mixed together.

4. Unknown epilepsy

Symptoms of non-motor and motor epilepsy can be present in people with this type. Motor seizures often present as tonic-clonic. These can have the following symptoms:

  • Rapid, convulsing, and rhythmic jerking
  • Loss of consciousness and stiffening
  • Bluish face from lack of oxygen
  • Loss of bowel and bladder control

Non-motor symptoms include:

  • Vacant starring
  • Stillness
  • Sudden and stopped movement

Signs and Symptoms? 

Patients tend to have the same type of seizure each time, so the symptoms will be similar.

  • Temporary confusion
  • Stiff muscles
  • Uncontrollable jerking movements of the legs and arms
  • Loss of consciousness or awareness
  • Psychological symptoms such as fear, anxiety, or déjà vu

Causes of Epilepsy

The causes may vary for each person, and some people have no identifiable cause. Some cases are linked directly to genetics, trauma, autoimmune disorders, metabolic abnormalities, or infectious diseases. Causes include:

  • Genetic causes. Some types run in families passed down from one generation to the next. Occasionally, it can occur due to genetic changes that were inherited and are occurring for the first time.
  • Metabolic causes. Your body processes the food you eat with enzymes. A problem with one of these enzymes can make your body unable to break down food or produce energy.
  • Infections. Infection is probably the most common cause worldwide. Attacks that occur as a result of an infection in the brain are considered infectious epilepsy.
  • Autoimmune epilepsy. Your body’s immune system protects you from foreign substances and other things that could harm it. It is caused by a change in your body’s immune function.
  • Structural causes. Certain abnormal structures in the brain can increase the risk of seizures. This might be something you are born with or develop later in life. Most structural causes can be seen in imaging of the brain with an MRI.
Blood tests

Diagnosis and Treatment of Epilepsy

To diagnose your condition, your doctor will review your symptoms and medical history. Your evaluation may include:

  • A neurological exam. To diagnose your condition and determine its type, your doctor may assess your behavior, motor abilities, mental function, and other attributes.
  • Computerized tomography (CT) scan. An MRI can reveal abnormalities in the structure of your brain, such as tumors, bleeding, or cysts, that may be causing your seizures.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Your doctor may detect lesions or abnormalities in your brain that could be causing your seizures.
  • Blood tests. An infection, genetic condition, or other condition that triggers the condition may be detected through a blood sample taken by your doctor.
  • Electroencephalogram (EEG). This is the most common test used to diagnose epilepsy. The electrodes record the electrical activity of your brain.

Treatment or Medication for Epilepsy

Doctors may recommend you take one anti-seizure medication to decrease the frequency and intensity of their attacks by taking a combination of medications. Gabapentin is very effective in treating and managing the condition. It reduces abnormal excitement in the brain and relieves pain by changing the way the body senses discomfort.

Hypothyroidism: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

What is Hypothyroidism?

Hypothyroidism is a common disorder that is also known as an underactive thyroid. This condition causes your thyroid gland to produce less hormone. The role of the thyroid is to control how your body’s cells use energy from food or also known as metabolism. With an underproduction of thyroid hormone, your body’s processes slow down. 

Signs and Symptoms?

Hypersensitivity Syndrome
Dry skin
  • Constipation
  • Heavier than normal or irregular menstrual periods
  • Depression
  • Impaired memory
  • Thinning hair
  • Slowed heart rate
  • Dry skin
  • Weight gain
  • Puffy face
  • Hoarseness of voice
  • Muscle weakness
  • Elevated blood cholesterol level
  • Muscle aches, tenderness, and stiffness
  • Enlarged thyroid gland 
  • Fatigue
  • Increased sensitivity to cold

Symptoms of hypothyroidism in infants

Although it most often affects middle-aged and older women, anyone can develop the condition, including infants. When newborns do have problems with this condition, the signs and symptoms may include:

  • Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes
  • A large or protruding tongue.
  • Difficulty breathing.
  • Poor muscle tone
  • Excessive sleepiness
  • Hoarse crying.
  • An umbilical hernia.
  • Constipation

Symptoms of Hypothyroidism in children and teens

Hypothyroidism in children

Children and teens who develop this condition generally experience the same symptoms as adults, but they may also experience:

  • Delayed development of permanent teeth
  • Delayed puberty
  • Poor growth, resulting in short stature
  • Poor mental development

What Causes Hypothyroidism?

It is caused by insufficient production of thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism may be due to several factors, including:

  1. Autoimmune disease. The most common cause of this condition is an autoimmune disorder known as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. An autoimmune disorder occurs when your immune system produces antibodies that attack your own tissues. Sometimes this process involves your thyroid gland.
  2. Over-response to hyperthyroidism treatment. Radioactive iodine or anti-thyroid medications are often prescribed for people who produce too much thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism). The goal of these treatments is to get thyroid function back to normal. The treatment of hyperthyroidism can, however, result in permanent hypothyroidism if it lowers thyroid hormone production too much.
  3. Thyroid surgery. The removal of all or part of your thyroid gland can diminish or halt hormone production. In that case, you’ll need to take thyroid hormone for life.
  4. Radiation therapy. Radiation used to treat cancers of the head and neck can affect your thyroid gland and may lead to an underactive thyroid.
  5. Medications. Several medications can contribute to the low production of thyroid hormones. Among these medications is lithium, which is used to treat psychiatric disorders. If you are taking medication, ask your doctor about its effect on your thyroid gland.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Hypothyroidism

An underactive thyroid can be diagnosed if you feel increasingly tired, have dry skin, constipation, and weight gain, or if you have previously experienced thyroid problems or goiter. It is diagnosed based on your symptoms and the results of blood tests that measure the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and sometimes thyroxine. 

A low level of thyroxine and a high level indicates an underactive thyroid. The TSH test can also be used to diagnose a condition called subclinical hypothyroidism, which usually causes no outward symptoms. In this condition, you have normal blood levels of triiodothyronine and thyroxine, but higher than normal levels of TSH.

Treatment involves the daily use of synthetic thyroid hormone to restore adequate hormone levels, reversing the signs and symptoms of underactive thyroid. The medication gradually lowers cholesterol levels elevated by the disease and may reverse any weight gain.

Subclinical Hypothyroidism

If you have subclinical hypothyroidism, discuss treatment with your doctor. If your TSH is relatively mild, thyroid hormone therapy is unlikely to be helpful, and treatment may even be harmful. Conversely, thyroid hormones may improve your cholesterol levels, heart pumping ability, and energy level if you have a higher TSH level.

Medication for Hypothyroidism

Thyroxine Sodium is a synthetic thyroid hormone that is prescribed for the treatment of this condition. Thyroxine is an important hormone released by the thyroid gland into the bloodstream. It plays an important role in the functioning of the heart, digestion, muscles, and brain development.

Hypertension: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

What is Hypertension?

Hypertension is blood pressure that is higher than normal. Note that the blood pressure changes throughout the day based on your activities. Having blood pressure measures consistently above normal may result in a diagnosis of hypertension.

Blood pressure is written as two numbers. The systolic or the first number that represents the pressure in blood vessels when the heart contracts or beats. The diastolic or second number represents the pressure in the vessels when the heart rests between beats.

migraine with aura

Signs and Symptoms

Severe high blood pressure causes these symptoms:

  • Severe headaches
  • Fatigue or confusion
  • Vision problems
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Nosebleed
  • Chest pain
  • Blood spots in the eye
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Blood in the urine
  • Pounding n your neck, ears, and chest

Typical signs and symptoms of hypertension include:

  • Dizziness
  • Sweating
  • Nervousness
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Facial flushing

For severe conditions, seek immediate help or call your doctor. Health screening is essential, especially for people with a higher risk of strokes and heart disease.

What Causes Hypertension?

For most adults, there is no specific cause of hypertension. However, it has two categories that may help you determine the typical triggers of the condition. The first one is known as primary hypertension. It develop gradually over many years. It is caused by the buildup of plaques in the arteries. 

Secondary hypertension, on the other hand, is caused by an underlying condition. It tends to appear suddenly and cause higher blood pressure than primary hypertension. Conditions and medicines that can lead this category are:

  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • Adrenal gland tumors
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Kidney disease
  • Thyroid problems 
  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • Cough and cold medications
  • Birth control pills
  • Pain relievers
  • Illegal drugs

For some patients, ensure to be watchful of the triggers and risk factors such as:

  • Age. Until about age 64, men are more likely to have high blood pressure. Women are more likely to develop after age 65.
  • Family history. You are more likely to develop high blood pressure if you have a parent or sibling with the condition.
  • Drinking too much alcohol. Alcohol use has been linked with increased blood pressure, particularly in men.
  • Stress. High levels of stress can lead to a temporary increase in blood pressure. 
  • Obesity or being overweight. Excess weight causes changes in the blood vessels, the kidneys, and other parts of the body. 
  • Too much salt. A lot of salt in the body can cause the body to retain fluid and increases blood pressure.
  • Low potassium levels. A proper balance of potassium is important for good heart health. 
  • Lack of exercise. Blood pressure is higher when you are overweight. Inactive people also tend to have higher heart rates.
  • Tobacco use or vaping. Smoking, chewing tobacco, or vaping immediately raises blood pressure for a short while because they injure blood vessel walls and speed up the process of hardening the arteries. 
  • Certain chronic conditions. High blood pressure can be caused by kidney disease, diabetes, and sleep apnea.

Treatment and Management of Hypertension

Along with medications, doctors may also recommend changing your lifestyle to control and manage hypertension. These include eating a healthy diet with less salt and proper exercise. Avoiding smoking and limiting alcohol also helps maintains healthy BP levels. 

Dealing with cholesterol also reduces your risk of hypertension caused by fats. Using Ezetimibe lowers the level of total cholesterol in your blood and alleviates related signs and symptoms of hypertension. You can take this along with other prescription medications.

Sometimes lifestyle changes are not enough to treat high blood pressure. If they don’t help, your provider may recommend medicine to lower your blood pressure such as water pills, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, and Angiotensin II receptor blockers. 

Recommended Medication for Hypertension

Enalapril Maleate is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used in the treatment of hypertension and some types of chronic heart failure. It works by blocking a substance in the body that causes the blood vessels to tighten. This lowers blood pressure and increases the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart.

What are The Types of Stroke?

A stroke occurs when something blocks the blood supply to part of the brain or when a blood vessel in the brain bursts. It can cause lasting brain damage, long-term disability, or even death. There are several types of stroke that you should be aware of to respond immediately to medical emergencies.

animated old man holding chest due to stroke

The warning signs of stroke are recognized through the FAST method. Call 911 if you spot these:

  • Face loose.  One side of the face sags or is numb which is determined by an uneven smile.
  • Arm weakness. One arm is weak or numb and the other arm drifts downward when you try to raise both arms.
  • Speech difficulty.  Speech is slurred or the patient is unable to speak or hard to understand.
  • Time to call 911. If you or a patient have any of these signs, even if they subside, call 911 and get to a hospital immediately.

What are the Types of Stroke?

1. Ischemic stroke

This typically happens when a blood vessel supplying blood to your brain gets blocked by a blood clot. One of the causes of this condition is the buildup of unhealthy cholesterol that collects and narrows the arteries. Symptoms include:

  • Sudden numbness or weakness of your face, arm, or leg, or on one side of the body
  • Double vision or vision loss
  • Confusion and slurred speech
  • Dizziness, loss of balance or coordination, or trouble walking

Typical causes include:

  • Atrial fibrillation
  • Heart attack
  • Problem with your heart valves caused by high cholesterol
  • Injury to blood vessels in your neck
  • Blood clotting problem
migraine with aura

2. Hemorrhagic stroke

This happens when an artery in the brain leaks blood or ruptures. The leaked blood puts too much pressure on brain cells, which damages them. The common causes and risk factors are:

  • You are over 65 years old
  • Have high cholesterol or uncontrolled diabetes
  • Obesity or a history of stroke in the past
  • Eating unhealthy foods

Symptoms of this condition are:

  • Intense headache 
  • Vision problems
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Confusion
  • Nausea or throwing up
  • Passing out

3. Transient ischemic attack.

This is known as a mini-stroke. TIA is caused by a temporary blockage in blood flow to your brain. The symptoms usually last for just a few minutes or may go away in 24 hours.  Symptoms include:

The causes and risk factors of TIA are the same as in an ischemic stroke. A TIA can sometimes be a warning sign that you have an attack soon. Seek immediate help or go to the nearest medical facility for emergency response.

smoking cigarettes

4. Brain stem stroke

This can affect both sides of the body. This may occur without the hallmark sign of weakness on one side of the body. Causes and risk factors include:

Symptoms are as follows:

  • Locked in syndrome
  • Vertigo, loss of balance, and dizziness
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Double vision
  • Passing out
  • Slurred speech
  • The trouble with blood pressure and breathing

5. Cryptogenic stroke

This is also known as a stroke of unknown cause. The possible causes or risk factors are:

  • Irregular heartbeat caused by high cholesterol
  • Heart structure problem
  • Hardening of the arteries
  • Blood clotting disorder

Symptoms are:

  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Thumping or pounding heartbeat
  • Racing or pounding heart rhythm
  • Chest discomfort
  • Fatigue
  • Lightheadedness
  • Fainting

Most of the causes and risk factors of this condition are high cholesterol levels. If your doctor recommends maintenance medications, ensure that you take your prescriptions every day to reduce your risk of an attack. A typical prescription drug to maintain your cholesterol level is Lovastatin. It works by lowering the cholesterol and triglyceride levels in your blood and treating other conditions as determined by your doctor. 

What Age Does Prostate Enlargement Start?

The prostate is a small gland in men that produces semen. It is located below the bladder in front of the rectum, and it wraps around the tube that carries urine and semen out of the body. The prostate tends to grow larger as you get older. But, if your prostate gets too large, it can cause several health issues including prostate enlargement.

Urinal for men on a mall

Symptoms of Prostate Problems

  • Frequent urge to urinate
  • Blood in urine or semen
  • Pain or burning sensation during urination
  • Painful ejaculation request urge to urinate at night
  • Frequent pain or stiffness in the lower back
  • Pain or stiffness in the hips, rectal, or pelvic area
  • Dribbling of urine

Less common signs and symptoms include:

  • Urinary tract infection
  • Inability to urinate
  • Blood in the urine

Age When Prostate Enlargement Start

Prostate growth is a normal part of aging. At the age of 25, the adult prostate begins to enlarge slowly. The condition is called benign prostatic hyperplasia, but it has nothing to do with cancer. Around the age of 50, many men begin to have uncomfortable symptoms as a result of prostate enlargement.

The signs and symptoms of prostate enlargelemt are accompanied by frequent urination at night or often difficulty getting a strong stream started or emptying the bladder. This happened because the prostate gland surrounds the tube that carries urine from the bladder and out through the penis. As the prostate grows, it compresses that tube, and that makes urination tough.

Can Men in Their 20’s Develop an Enlarged Prostate?

Studies show that men can develop microscopic signs of benign prostatic hyperplasia as early as in their 20s and 30s.  In contrast, BPH or enlarged prostate is very rare in men in their 20s.  Typically, urinary symptoms in men during their 20s are caused by other problems.   Prostate enlargement may cause symptoms but it’s usually from infection rather than from growth.

The prevalence of symptomatic BPH is low in men aged 30-39, but there are a significant number of men starting to exhibit symptoms of an enlarged prostate at this age.  In most cases, symptoms are mild, but they can also be moderate or severe enough to require treatment.

old guy in blue head swirling confusion

Risk Factors

Most men have continued prostate growth throughout life. Prostate enlargement can cause urinary symptoms or substantially block urine flow in many men as a result of this continued growth. Risk factors for prostate gland enlargement include:

  • Aging. In men younger than 40, prostate gland enlargement rarely causes symptoms. About one-third of men experience moderate to severe symptoms by age 60, and about half do so by age 80.
  • Family history. Prostate problems are more likely to affect you if you have a blood relative with prostate issues, such as your father or brother.
  • Diabetes and heart disease. BPH is associated with diabetes, heart disease, and beta blockers.

Medications for Enlarged Prostate

Dutasteride is a recommended medication for prostate enlargement. This is used to treat a disorder known as benign prostatic hyperplasia found in men. It inhibits and lowers the amount of the hormone that causes prostate growth. Discuss with your doctor the benefits and risks of taking this medication to ensure a successful treatment. 

Other Recommended Prescriptions for Enlarged Prostate

  • Alpha-blockers. These medications relax the bladder neck muscles and muscle fibers in the prostate, making urination easier. 
  • 5-alpha reductase inhibitors. These medications shrink your prostate by preventing hormonal changes that cause prostate growth
  • Combination drug therapy. Alpha-blockers and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors may be prescribed together if either medication alone is ineffective.
  • Tadalafil. Prostate enlargement may also be treated with this medication, which is commonly used to treat erectile dysfunction.
losing weight

Lifestyle and Home Remedies to Manage Enlarged Prostate

  • Limit beverages to avoid middle-of-the-night trips to the toilet.
  • Pee when you first feel the urge. Waiting too long might overstretch the bladder muscle and cause damage.
  • Limit caffeine and alcohol as they can increase urine production, irritate the bladder and worsen symptoms.
  • Stay active. Inactivity contributes to urine retention. Even a small amount of exercise can help reduce urinary problems caused by an enlarged prostate.
  • Keep warm because colder temperatures can cause urine retention. 

Medication for ADHD

Medications play a vital role in managing and treating ADHD. Doctors will work together to figure out which medication works for you along with the proper schedule and dosage. ADHD treatment requires a combination of medication, therapy, behavior changes, and skills training. 

The Most Popular ADHD Medications

Choosing the best ADHD medication for you or your child, or deciding whether to medicate at all, is an incredibly personal decision. The ADHD medications prescribed to both children and adults are broadly categorized as follows:

  • Stimulants. These are the first-line treatment for ADHD which includes amphetamine and methylphenidate, the most widely used treatment for ADHD, and their derivatives.
  • Non stimulants. These are given to patients who don’t respond to stimulants. Non-stimulant medications include atomoxetine, guanfacine, and clonidine. Non-stimulants may also be prescribed for use alongside stimulants to treat symptoms that the latter does not alleviate.

Antidepressants are also used but the FDA has not specifically approved antidepressants for the treatment of hyperactivity disorder. However, healthcare providers sometimes prescribe them alone or in combination with a stimulant. The antidepressants providers typically prescribe for ADHD work on the dopamine and norepinephrine levels in your brain. 

Medications Used For Kidney Infection

Other popular prescriptions are:

  • Adderall XR (amphetamine)
  • Concerta (methylphenidate)
  • Dexedrine (amphetamine)
  • Evekeo (amphetamine)
  • Focalin XR (dexmethylphenidate)
  • Quillivant XR (methylphenidate)
  • Ritalin (methylphenidate)
  • Strattera (atomoxetine hydrochloride)
  • Vyvanse (lisdexamfetamine dimesylate)

How Do Medications Work for ADHD?

Prescriptions work in various ways depending on the type and severity of your condition. However, all medications regardless of the category increase the levels of important chemicals in your brain and improve the symptoms of ADHD, including increasing attention span and reducing hyperactivity. Both stimulants and non-stimulant drug also controls impulsive behavior and manage other executive dysfunction.

abdominal pain

What are the Typical Side Effects of ADHD Prescriptions?

  • Reduced appetite
  • Stomach pain
  • Headaches
  • Sleep disturbances

Some side effects associated with non-stimulants include:

How Do Stimulant Medications Treat ADHD?

ADHD is a neurological disorder, resulting from the deficiency of neurotransmitters in specific areas of the brain. Stimulant medications used to treat ADHD stimulate specific cells within the brain to produce more of this deficient neurotransmitter. 

Anxiety and stress

Who Should Not Take a Stimulant Drug?

Younger patients under the age of 12 and pregnant patients should avoid using stimulants. Patients who are susceptible to stimulants should either avoid using or minimize their dose depending on doctors’ recommendations. Stimulants are also not permissible to patients who have:

  • Underlying heart problems
  • Glaucoma
  • Severe anxiety, nervousness, and agitation
  • Tourette’s syndrome
  • A history of psychosis or are psychotic

How Do Nonstimulants Work to Treat ADHD?

Non stimulant is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor that works by increasing concentrations of norepinephrine and dopamine in the prefrontal cortex. It regulates behavior and thus helps with ADHD symptoms.

An example drug for this condition is Atomoxetine. It is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). It works by causing a selective inhibition of the pre-synaptic norepinephrine transporter. The dose of this prescription should be reduced in patients with hepatic or renal dysfunction.

The recommended starting dosage of Atomoxetine should be initiated at a total daily dose of 0.5 mg/kg and increased after a minimum of 3 days.  It should be administered either as a single daily dose in the morning or as evenly divided doses in the morning and late afternoon or early evening. Seek immediate help in cases of unexpected side effects.

How is ADHD Medication Dosed?

  • Dosage form or route of administration. Each unit of liquid medication is stated on the patient information sheet inside the medication’s box or packaging.
  • Dose quantity and Strength. Over a given period, a specific amount of medication is released into the blood. This includes the number value for each product represents the total amount of the medication in the tablet, liquid, or patch.  
  • The release mechanism or duration of Administration.  An indication of how long a medication will remain active and available. The release of medication from stimulants can occur over a time frame as short as an hour, as long as four hours, or as long as eight or twelve hours.

What Food Should Be Avoided and Eaten If you Have Thyroid Issues?

The thyroid gland is a small organ that’s located in the front of the neck, wrapped around the trachea. It creates and produces hormones that play a role in many different systems throughout the body. When there is too much or less production of essential hormones, it is known as thyroid disease or thyroid issues.

Foods to Avoid If You Have Thyroid Issues

Aside from gluten, soy, and caffeine, people with hyperthyroidism should avoid eating excessive amounts of iodine-rich foods, such as:

Shellfish meal on plate

·       Fish and shellfish

·       Seaweed or kelp

·       Iodized salt

·       Dairy products

·       Food products containing red dye

·       Egg yolks

·       Blackstrap molasses

·       Baked goods with iodate dough conditioners

Foods that are Good for the Thyroid Gland

These foods show evidence that aids in thyroid function. If you have hypothyroidism, you can eat:

·       Roasted seaweed such as nori and wakame

·       Salted nuts such as macadamia, hazelnuts, and brazil nuts

·       Baked fish such as sea bass, cod, salmon, and perch

·       Dairy products such as milk and yogurt

·       Fresh eggs

Early Warning Signs of Thyroid Issues

Thyroid issues can be difficult to diagnose since they can be mistaken for other health issues. Nonetheless, there are early warning signs of thyroid issues that you should be aware of.


1.    Fatigue. It can be easy to use fatigued interchangeably, but the fatigue experienced by those with thyroid disorders is significantly different, and complete sleep cannot fix it.

2.    Weight gain. The thyroid helps in regulating your metabolism. Having thyroid issues may reduce your metabolic rate and may lead to weight gain.

3.    Weight loss. For some people, thyroid problems may lead to excessive weight loss. In these cases, your BMR results would be much higher than usual.

4.    Slower heart rate. Hypothyroidism results in insufficient thyroid hormone, leading to a slower heart rate. Over time, insufficient thyroid hormone can also cause your arteries to lose elasticity, which can result in high blood pressure due to it taking more work for blood to circulate.

5.    Rapid heart rate. Hyperthyroidism causes the overproduction of hormones that causes faster heartbeats, and harder, and occur at irregular rhythms. Rapid heart rate may cause irregular beats to occur in the upper chambers of the heart and palpitations.

6.    Sensitivity to heat. Sensitivity to heat is a common symptom of an overactive thyroid. This can cause people with hyperthyroidism to experience abnormal sweating and even anxiety due to feeling hot.

7.    Sensitivity to cold. People with hypothyroidism often experience cold hands and feet. This can even occur in rooms where everyone else feels hot. This happens due to your body not producing enough hormones causing your metabolism to slow down.

How to Diagnose Hypothyroidism?

Your doctor may test for an underactive thyroid if you feel increasingly tired, have dry skin, constipation, and weight gain, or have had previous thyroid problems. Blood tests measure TSH and sometimes the thyroid hormone thyroxine is used to diagnose hypothyroidism based on your symptoms and the results of blood tests. Underactive thyroid is indicated by low thyroxine levels and high TSH levels.

Maintaining a Healthy Thyroid

  • Go for a Mediterranean diet. One of the most important things you can do to maintain a healthy thyroid is to eat a well-balanced diet.
  • Be cautious of certain foods. Avoid processed foods packed with sugar and preservatives, dyes, or fat- and sugar-free substitutes.
  • Consider supplements. Speak to your doctor about taking selenium or vitamin D, both of which can improve thyroid health.  Taking probiotics also offers a whole host of health benefits.
  • Avoid environmental toxins. Long-term exposure to chemicals may trigger endocrine problems.

Treatment for Thyroid

Standard treatment for hypothyroidism involves daily use of the synthetic thyroid hormone Thyroxine Sodium.  It restores adequate hormone levels, reversing the signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism. Treatment with levothyroxine will likely be lifelong, but because the dosage you need may change, your doctor is likely to check your TSH level every year. For subclinical hypothyroidism discuss treatment with your doctor. 

Does Ocular Hypertension Always Cause Glaucoma?

A feeling of pressure behind your eyes doesn’t always stem from a problem inside your eyes. It usually starts in another part of your head. Although eye conditions can cause pain and vision problems, they rarely cause pressure. Pressure does not accompany glaucoma, caused by a buildup of pressure in the eye.

symptoms of a Lazy Eye

What is the Difference  Between Ocular Hypertension and Glaucoma?

This condition usually refers to any situation in which the pressure inside the eye, called intraocular pressure, is higher than average. Glaucoma, on the other hand, is a severe disease that causes vision loss and can lead to blindness if left untreated.

Does Occular Hypertension Always Lead to Glaucoma?

Not all people with ocular hypertension will develop glaucoma. However, people with this condition have an increased risk of glaucoma. Therefore, regular examination of your eyes is imperative if you have ocular hypertension.

How Fast Can Ocular Hypertension Develop Into Glaucoma?

9.5 percent of condition have patients develop glaucoma in 5 years, and 22% build glaucoma at 13 years. However, proper treatment reduces 50% of your risk of glaucoma.

Diagnosis of Lazy Eye

How is Ocular Hypertension Diagnosed?

An eye examination is a primary method to diagnose ocular hypertension. Since condition have significantly increases the risk of glaucoma, your doctor will also check the optic nerves for damage. The optic nerve is monitored using various imaging techniques, such as a nerve fiber analyzer or optical coherence tomography.  

Glaucoma may affect peripheral vision, which may go unnoticed in its early stages, so it is essential to have your doctor check your peripheral vision. A gonioscopy can also be performed as part of an eye examination to examine the eye’s internal drainage system.

Treatment for Ocular Hypertension

Ocular hypertension is treated with prescription eye drops that can help aqueous humor drain from your eye or lower the amount of aqueous humor your eye produces. Latanoprost is an eye drop used as a long-term aid for open-angle glaucoma and condition have. Eye surgery is also recommended for eye conditions that do not respond to medications.

How Can I Reduce High Cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a fatty substance known as a lipid. It is vital for the normal functioning of the body. However, having an excessively high level of lipids in your blood can affect your health. High cholesterol increases your risk of heart disease, hypertension, and stroke.

animated man brain that will get stroke

Why Should I Lower My Cholesterol?

Evidence strongly indicates that high cholesterol can increase the risk of life-threatening diseases. Reducing your cholesterol level may also prevent you from health risks such as stroke and heart attack. Healthy cholesterol levels lower your risk of atherosclerosis, mini-stroke, and peripheral arterial disease.

High-fat levels can build up in the artery wall, restricting the blood flow to your heart, brain, and the rest of your body. It also increases the risk of a blood clot developing somewhere in your body. Lowering HDL reduces pain in your chest or arm during stress or physical activity.

Ways to Lower Your Cholesterol

  • Eat less fatty foods, incredibly saturated fats. Increase your intake of healthy fats such as nuts, seeds, salmon, and mackerel. Opt for brown rice than white rice, bread, and pasta.
  • Exercise more and aim to do at least 150  minutes of exercise a week. Try to incorporate walking and cycling. Light exercise burns excess calories.
  • Stop smoking because cigarette makes you more likely to have severe problems like heart attacks, strokes, and cancer.
  • Cut down on alcohol to reduce the rapid deposition of unhealthy fats in the body.
losing weight

Best Exercises for Lowering Cholesterol

  1. Running or jogging helps manage weight. An easy jog for a few miles may be better for lowering cholesterol than a fast sprint around the block.
  2. Take a brisk walk every morning as part of your cardio exercise. Walking can often be a much better exercise to protect joint health.
  3. Try cycling. Bike to work or just for fun to expend the same energy as jogging. It also helps you to be less likely to develop high cholesterol than those who don’t.
  4. Lift a few weights. It is the type of exercise most commonly recommended to reduce heart disease risk.

Medication to Reduce High Cholesterol

Atorvastatin is a recommended medication to reduce high cholesterol in the blood. It works by blocking an enzyme needed by the body to make cholesterol, thereby reducing the amount of cholesterol in the blood. 

How Serious Is Obstructive Sleep Apnea?

Obstructive sleep apnea is the most common sleep-related breathing disorder. It causes you to repeatedly stop and start breathing while you sleep. It occurs when your throat muscles irregularly relax and block your airway during sleep. 

Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Symptoms

  • Excessive daytime sleepiness
  • Loud snoring
  • Some episodes of stopped breathing during sleep
  • Mood changes
  • Depression or irritability
  • High blood pressure
  • Abrupt awakenings accompanied 
  • Difficulty concentrating during the day
  • Decreased libido
  • Gasping or choking
  • Awakening with a dry mouth or sore throat
  • Morning headache

What Causes Obstructive Sleep Apnea?

These conditions are associated with this condition:

  • Obesity hypoventilation syndrome
  • Hypothyroidism, PCOS, and other endocrine conditions
  • Chronic lung diseases
  • COPD, asthma, and pulmonary fibrosis
  • Neuromuscular disorders such as a stroke
  • Heart or kidney failure 
  • Fluid build-up in your neck
  • Pregnancy
woman depressed in dark room

Health Problems You Might Face If You Have Obstructive Sleep Apnea

  1. Hypertension. Sleeping problems worsen your high blood pressure if you already have it. It is due to the stress that your body gets if you are often fully awake at night time. It causes your hormone systems to go into overdrive, which boosts your blood pressure levels. 
  2. Heart disease. People with OSA are more likely to have heart attacks due to low oxygen and fast fluttering heartbeat linked with the condition. OSA disrupts how your body takes in oxygen, which makes it hard for your brain to control how blood flows in your arteries and the brain itself.
  3. Type 2 diabetes. Sleep apnea is common among people with this condition. Obesity raises your risk for both disorders. Not getting enough rest can prevent your body from using insulin, leading to diabetes.
  4. Weight gain or obesity. Extra pounds raise your chances of getting sleep apnea, and the condition also makes it harder to slim down. The fatty deposits in your neck cause blockage of breathing when sleeping. Conversely, sleep apnea can cause your body to release more hormones that trigger your cravings for sweets and carbs. 
  5. Daytime sleepiness. Constant fatigue during the daytime can take a toll on your health and daily productivity. Getting proper treatment helps you maintain an appropriate sleep schedule and reduces fatigue during the day.
  6. Memory problems. Some older people have more memory slips or thinking problems than other folks their age. The symptoms are not as severe as dementia. Getting treatment for OSA might delay memory troubles from getting worse. 
  7. Depression. Poor sleep might make you more likely to get depressed. And depression may raise your chances of getting worse shut-eye. Talk to your doctor to get treatments that lift your mood and improve your sleep.
  8. Metabolic syndrome. This is a group of health conditions that have been linked with OSA. It is when you have at least three of these conditions:
  • High blood sugar
  • Low levels of HDL cholesterol
  • High levels of triglycerides
  • Too much fat around your waist
  • High blood pressure

Treatment for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

For milder cases of obstructive sleep apnea, your doctor might recommend lifestyle changes which includes losing weight, exercising, and quitting smoking. Other treatment method includes therapy and surgery. Modafinil is also a medication used for obstructive sleep apnea.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Child

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental disorder. It typically appears in early childhood before a child turns seven. ADHD makes it difficult for children to inhibit their spontaneous responses from movement to speech to attentiveness.

Signs and Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children

While many children are naturally quite active, kids with attention deficit disorder hyperactive symptoms are always moving. They may try to do several things simultaneously, bouncing around from one activity to the next. Other common signs and symptoms include:

Little boy playing with his feet
  • Tapping of foot 
  • Shaking of legs
  • Fingers are drumming
  • Constantly fidget and squirm
  • Have difficulty sitting still, playing quietly, or relaxing.
  • Move around frequently
  • Often running or climbing inappropriately
  • Talk excessively

Impulsive Signs and Symptoms of ADHD in Children

  • Act without thinking
  • Often interrupt others
  • Say the wrong thing at the wrong time.
  • Be unable to keep powerful emotions in check
  • Guess, rather than taking time to solve a problem
  • Blurt out answers in class without waiting to be called on or hear the whole question.
  • Intrude in other people’s conversations or games
  • Angry outbursts or temper tantrums
Alcohol or drug abuse

Causes of ADHD

In addition to genetics, other possible causes and risk factors also include:

  • Low birth weight
  • Brain injury
  • Exposure to environmental risks at a young age or during pregnancy
  • Alcohol and tobacco use of mother during pregnancy
  • Premature delivery

How to Diagnose ADHD?

Anxiety, depression, sleep problems, and learning disabilities can all have symptoms similar to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and there is no single test to diagnose these. One step involves having a medical exam, including hearing and vision tests, to rule out other problems with symptoms like ADHD. ADHD is diagnosed by rating symptoms and taking a history of the child from the parents, teachers, and sometimes, the child himself.

Treatments for ADHD in Children

Standard treatments for ADHD in children include medications, behavior therapy, counseling, and education services. These treatments can relieve many Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms but do not cure them. Doctors may also recommend Atomoxetine to reduce impulsiveness and hyperactivity in children and adults with ADHD. It is crucial to make sure your child takes the right amount of the prescribed medication.

Vegetarian Diet Can Lower Your Risk of Heart Disease

According to a meta-analysis published in the American Journal of Preventive Cardiology, vegetarians reduce the risk of death from ischemic heart disease. Vegetarian diets, including vegan eating patterns, were associated with a 30% reduced risk of death from ischemic heart disease compared to non-vegetarian diets.

nutritious fruits

How Does Vegetarianism Protect the Heart?

A plant-based diet is more healthful for the heart than a meat-heavy one. Vegetables are rich in fiber and phytonutrients, which reduce inflammation and oxidative stress. Fiber fights high cholesterol. The vegetarian diet is high in fiber from fruits, vegetables, beans, and grains, which is suitable for managing cholesterol.

Vegetables have fewer calories for a healthy weight and are extra antioxidants. A vegetarian diet eliminates fats from animal products and replaces them with high-fiber foods, which fill you up more so you eat less, lowering your risk of obesity. Eating more fruits and vegetables means you are getting more of the nutrients, like antioxidants, that protect against heart disease.

Vegetables that Reduce Your Risk of Heart Disease

  1. Kale. The trendy superfood contains essential heart-healthy nutrients which improve blood flow.
  2. Spinach. A serving of spinach contains more potassium that, helps ease stress on the blood-vessel walls and it helps the body remove excess sodium
  3. Swiss chard. Just one serving of the vegetable contains more than three times your daily value of vitamin K, an essential nutrient for brain, bone, and heart health.
  4. Broccoli. This vegetable has antioxidant effects that reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease. 
  5. Brussels sprouts. Folate is an essential nutrient for healthy cell growth and plays an active role in heart health.
  6. Collard greens. Collard greens have magnesium that helps lower blood pressure in patients with hypertension. It helps blood vessels relax, increasing blood flow through the body and easing pressure on the heart. 
  7. Green Beans. The little pod within the green beans is a starchy legume full of fiber and folate, which have many benefits for heart health. It fights inflammation and may help prevent hypertension through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Medications Used For Kidney Infection

Medications for the Types of Heart Disease

Aside from healthy eating, taking your medications for hypertension, cholesterol, and heart health is also essential in managing heart disease. Take your maintenance pills to ensure healthy and improved heart health. The typical prescription drugs for heart and blood pressure-related conditions are:

What Bacteria Causes Pityriasis Versicolor?

What Is Pityriasis Versicolor?

Pityriasis Versicolor is a common fungal skin infection. The fungus interferes with the normal pigmentation of the skin, resulting in small, discolored patches. These patches may be lighter or darker in color than the surrounding skin and most commonly affect the trunk and shoulders.

Bacteria That Causes Pityriasis Versicolor

Pityriasis Versicolor results from a type of yeast that naturally lives on your skin. When the yeast grows out of control, the skin disease appears as a rash. Malassezia’s yeast that causes tinea versicolor grows on normal, healthy skin. This condition is not contagious but may affect people of any skin color. 

Skin fungi on a boy

Where is Pityriasis Versicolor Found?

The fungus that causes Pityriasis Versicolor can be found on healthy skin. It only starts causing problems when the fungus overgrows or is triggered by humid weather, hormonal changes, and oily skin. The patches most often occur on the chest or back. They also stop the skin from tanning evenly and often appear as lighter spots on tan skin. 

How to Prevent Pityriasis Versicolor?

To help prevent the condition from returning, your doctor can prescribe a skin or oral treatment that you use once or twice a month. You may need to use these just during warm and humid months or when you are at high risk of the condition.

Clotrimazole Cream


You can apply an over-the-counter antifungal lotion, cream, ointment, or shampoo for a mild condition. Wash and dry the affected area when using creams, ointments, or lotions. Then apply a thin product layer once or twice a day for at least two weeks. If you’re using shampoo, rinse it off after waiting five to ten minutes. Some products that are typically recommended for treatment are:

Foods To Eat And Avoid With Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is an impairment in how the body regulates and uses sugar as a fuel. It is a chronic condition that results in too much sugar circulating in the bloodstream. Eventually, high blood sugar levels can lead to circulatory, nervous, and immune disorders.

Facts You Should Know About Type 2 Diabetes

  • The vast majority of people with diabetes have Type 2 diabetes.
  • Diabetes is a leading cause of death in the world. Type 2 diabetes is preventable through proper diet and exercise.
  • Diabetes is the leading cause of blindness, kidney failure, amputation, and other conditions.
  • Type 2 diabetes is more common in older adults, but the increase in children with obesity has led to more cases of type 2 diabetes in younger people.

Foods to Eat With Type 2 Diabetes

Here are some examples of nutritious foods that your diet should include:

Woman cutting zucchini on chopping board
  • Fruits such as oranges, berries, apples, peaches, and pears.
  • Whole grains include quinoa, faro, brown rice, and sugar-free oats. 
  • Vegetables such as broccoli, spinach, zucchini, cucumber, and cauliflower. 
  • Lentils, chickpeas, and beans
  • Nuts and seeds such as almonds, walnuts, chia seeds, and pumpkin seeds
  • Protein-rich foods such as seafood, lean cuts of red meat, and tofu
  • Heart-healthy fats such as olive oil, avocados, canola oil, sesame oil
  • Beverages such as water, black coffee, unsweetened tea, and vegetable juice

Foods to Avoid With Type 2 Diabetes

  • High-fat meat
  • Full-fat dairy
  • Sweeteners such as brown sugar and honey
  • Sugar-sweetened beverages
  • Desserts, ice cream, candies, cookies, and baked goods
  • Processed foods such as chips, convenience meals, and processed meat
  • Trans fats such as vegetable shortening, fried foods, and hydrogenated oils

The Worst Drinks for Type 2 Diabetes

  1. Regular soda. Soda takes the top spot on the list of drinks to avoid, as one can of soda already contains 40 grams of sugar and 150 calories. 
  2. Energy drinks. Energy drinks can be high in caffeine and carbohydrates, which can cause a spike in blood sugar.
  3. Sweetened or unsweetened fruit juices. Bottled or canned fruit juices can add a high amount of carbohydrates to your diet and are pure sugar. This combination can wreak havoc on your blood sugar and increase your risk for weight gain.

Best Exercises If You Have Diabetes

  • Walking 
  • Dancing
  • Swimming 
  • Cycling
  • Aerobic dance
  • Weightlifting
  • Pilates
  • Calisthenics
  • Strength training 
  • Yoga 

Medication for Type 2 Diabetes

Aside from a healthy diet and exercise, you can also manage type 2 diabetes through recommended medications. The goal of the treatment is to maintain healthy blood sugar and reduce the effects of its symptoms. Monitoring your blood sugar and taking Metformin to utilize glucose and enhance insulin-mediated glucose disposal in muscle and fat. 

How to Stop Restless leg syndrome Immediately?

Restless leg syndrome is a disorder in the nervous system that causes an overpowering urge to move your legs. It comes along with an uncomfortable sensation at nighttime or when lying down.


What Triggers Restless Leg Syndrome?

The specific trigger of restless leg syndrome is not known yet. However, several factors cause the condition and may trigger its attack. Aside from genetic risk factors, restless leg syndrome is also triggered by the following factors:

Home Remedies to Stop the Restlessness Immediately

  1. Rule out the potential causes. Addressing or determining the potential causes of restless leg syndrome to help you decide the next step of treatment. Assess your habits, medications, or if whether or not you are pregnant.
  2. Ensure to have healthy sleep habits. Having good sleep habits could help you offset the sleep loss you suffer from your condition. Make your sleep restful and restorative by having a proper sleep schedule. 
  3. Vitamin and iron supplements. Iron deficiency is thought to be one of the main causes of RLS. Addressing iron deficiency may alleviate restless leg syndrome caused by iron deficiency.
  4. Exercise. Aerobic exercise and lower body resistance training ease mild symptoms of restless leg . But, ensure to avoid working out to the point of aches and pains, as this could make your RLS symptoms worse. You can also incorporate yoga and stretching.
  5. Massage. Massaging your leg muscles could help ease restless leg syndrome symptoms. Massage and direct pressure on leg muscles improve circulation and relaxation.
  6. Prescription medications. Medication is a key treatment for moderate to severe RLS. Dopaminergic drugs are typical prescription that relieves symptoms of restless leg . 
Alcohol or drug abuse

Tips for Better Sleep for People with Restless Leg Syndrome 

  • Take a hot bath with two cups of Epsom salts, which contain magnesium. 
  • Eat a protein-rich meal for dinner to stabilize your blood sugar. Avoid carbohydrates or sweets before bedtime.
  • Drink a lot of water and eat bananas to avoid dehydration and low potassium.
  • Elevate your legs, keep the temperature cool in the room, and do deep breathing exercises. 
  • Avoid alcohol and caffeine.

Treatment for Restless Leg Syndrome

The first line of defense against restless legs syndrome is to avoid substances or foods that may aggravate or worsen the problem. Your doctor will determine the medication for restless leg syndrome after a careful medical assessment.

Treatment of High Prolactin Levels

What is Prolactin?

Prolactin is a hormone made by the pituitary gland that the breasts to grow and make milk during pregnancy and after birth. Prolactin levels are normally high for pregnant women and new mothers. Levels are normally low for nonpregnant women and for men. If prolactin levels are higher than normal, it often means there is a type of tumor of the pituitary gland, known as prolactinoma.

The Difference Between Hyperprolactinemia and Prolactinoma

Hyperprolactinemia means you have higher-than-normal levels of prolactin in your blood. This is typically caused by a benign tumor in your pituitary gland known as a prolactinoma. Prolactinoma also reduces the level of sex hormones.

High Prolactin Levels

Symptoms of High Prolactin Levels

High prolactin levels in women cause the following:

  • Irregular menstrual periods or no menstrual periods
  • Milky discharge from the breasts even if not pregnant
  • Vaginal dryness which causes pain during sex
  • Acne and excessive body and facial hair growth

High prolactin levels in men cause:

  • Reduced facial and body hair
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Enlarged breast
  • Smaller muscles
  • Infertility and loss of sexual interest

What Causes High Prolactin Levels in Women?

There are no specific causes of high prolactin levels in women. But, several factors contribute to your risk of this condition. Some causes include:

  • Medication
  • Kidney disease
  • Underactive thyroid gland
  • Other types of pituitary tumors
  • Pregnancy and breastfeeding
Blood tests

How is High Prolactin Diagnosed?

If you experience the signs and symptoms of prolactinoma, your doctor will recommend the following diagnostic method:

  1. Blood tests. It shows the production or levels of prolactin your body produces. It determines whether levels of other hormones controlled by the pituitary gland are within the standard range. 
  2. Brain imaging. Your provider may be able to detect a prolactinoma using a magnetic resonance imaging scan of your brain.
  3. Vision tests. These can determine if a prolactinoma is affecting your sight.

Treatment of High Prolactin Levels

The goal of treating prolactinoma is to return the production of prolactin to within the standard range and reduce the size of the prolactinoma. Oral medications known as dopamine agonists are generally used to treat prolactinoma. Cabergoline is a recommended medication for this condition. It is considered the most effective dopamine agonist that lowers prolactin levels in approximately 90 percent of people who have prolactinomas.

What is Erectile Dysfunction, And How Can It Affect Relationships?

What is ED?

ED or Erectile Dysfunction is the inability to achieve and keep a firm erection enough for sex. Having erection trouble is not a major concern but, it causes stress, affects your self-confidence, and contributes to relationship problems.

How Does Erectile Dysfunction Affect Relationships?

  • Sexual intimacy can be an important part of a marriage or long-term relationship. ED changes the level of intimacy and may anxiety or a feeling of loss for both partners. 
  • Depending on the severity of the symptoms, they may not be able to have sexual intercourse as frequently as before.
  • Most ED patients may not be able to have sexual intercourse at all.
  • ED also affects the mental health of a person’s partner. It causes confusion, anxiety, lack of desire, and worries that their partner may be unfaithful.
  • These feelings can place strain on a relationship. ED can also be difficult to talk about due to shame or stigma. It holds back partners from communicating openly about it.

How to Deal With Erectile Dysfunction in a Relationship?

Erectile Dysfunction

Some approaches that people can try include:

  • Open communication to reduce the strain of erectile dysfunction. Communication can also clear up misunderstandings and reduce stress. 
  • Counseling mental health could be a factor in a person’s ED, they may suggest counseling. It can give someone a nonjudgmental space to talk about difficulties in coping with ED. 
  • Other forms of intimacy such as cuddling, kissing, and touching can make someone with ED feel accepted and comforted. 
  • Lifestyle changes can also make a big difference. It is important to stop smoking and reduce alcohol intake to see changes. Exercising and reducing weight are also beneficial.

Treatment for ED

If you have erectile dysfunction, your doctor will make sure you are receiving the right treatment for any underlying health conditions. There may be a variety of treatment options available to you depending on the cause and severity of your erectile dysfunction and any underlying health conditions.

Each treatment is explained to you by your doctor, who will consider your preferences and explain the risks and benefits. Sildenafil Suhagra is a potent medication for erectile dysfunction. It allows the muscles to relax and allow blood supply, thereby resulting in an erection.