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Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that commonly affects the lungs and any organ in the body. This disease may develop once the bacteria spread via droplets in the air. Tuberculosis could be fatal but in many cases, it is treatable and preventable.

This disease began increasing in 1985, relatively because of the rise of HIV. HIV weakens the immune system of a person, so it is not able to fight Tuberculosis germs. In the United States, Tuberculosis starts to drop again in 1993. However, it remains a concern.

Numerous Tuberculosis strains fight back to the medications most used to treat the disease. Several people with this condition need to take many types of medications for months to get rid of the infection and prevent antibiotic resistance.

What Causes Tuberculosis?

Tuberculosis is caused by bacteria that spread from person-to-person microscopic droplets released into the air. This happens if someone with the untreated, active form of Tuberculosis sneezes, coughs, speaks, laughs, spits, or sings.

Even though Tuberculosis is transmittable, it is not easy to catch. You’re much more likely to get the disease from someone you live or work with than from a stranger. Several people with active Tuberculosis who’ve had proper medication treatment for at least two weeks are no longer contagious.

Signs and Symptoms of Tuberculosis

  • Loss of appetite
  • Chills
  • Night sweats
  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Unintentional weight loss
  • Chest pain or pain with coughing or breathing
  • Coughing up mucus or blood
  • Coughing for three or more weeks

Risk Factors of Having Tuberculosis

A healthy immune system often successfully fights Tuberculosis. Conversely, various conditions can weaken your immune system including:

  • Chemotherapy
  • Certain cancers
  • Severe kidney disease
  • Diabetes
  • Very young or advanced age
  • Malnutrition or low body weight
  • Some drugs used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, and psoriasis
  • Drugs to prevent rejection of transplanted organs

Areas with high rates of Tuberculosis include:

  • China
  • South America
  • Russia
  • Africa
  • South Asia such as Indonesia, Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh
  • The western Pacific region including Cambodia, Vietnam, and the Philippines

Safety Precautions

If you have active Tuberculosis, it usually takes a few weeks of treatment with Tuberculosis medications before you’re not infectious anymore. Follow these tips to help keep your family and friends from getting sick:

  • Ventilate the room

The germs of this disease spread easily in small closed places where air does not move. Open the windows and use a fan to blow indoor air outside if it is not too cold outdoors.

  • Stay home

Avoid going to work or school as well as sleeping in a room with other people during the first few weeks of treatment.

  • Wear a face mask

During the first three weeks of treatment wearing a face mask when you are around other people may help lessen the risk of transmission.

  • Cover your mouth

Use a tissue to cover your mouth anytime you cough, laugh, or sneeze. Put the dirty tissue in a bag, seal it and throw it away.

Treating Tuberculosis

If you have active tuberculosis of the lungs, you might infect other people. For this reason, your doctor will recommend you to stay home during the first few weeks of treatment, until you’re no longer infectious. During that time, you must avoid people with weakened immune systems like people with HIV, young children, and the elderly. There is a need for you to wear a special mask if you need to go to the doctor’s office or have visitors.

Your health care provider may also admit you to the hospital until Tuberculosis germs are no longer expelled from your cough. You may be hospitalized for a longer period if you cannot dependably take your medications nor have a multidrug-resistant strain of Tuberculosis. The goal is to prevent the spread of the disease.

Medications for Tuberculosis

The most common medications used to treat Tuberculosis include:


Malaria is a mosquito-borne blood disease. This is a serious tropical disease spread by mosquitoes. If the disease is not diagnosed and cured on time, it can be fatal. Malaria can also cause serious complications such as:

  • Cerebral malaria – the small blood vessels leading to the brain can become blocked which causes brain damage, seizure, or coma.
  • Severe anemia – it is where red blood cells are incapable of carrying enough oxygen around the body which leads to weakness and drowsiness

What causes Malaria?

A single-celled parasite of the genus plasmodium causes Malaria. The parasite is spread to humans most commonly via mosquito bites.

An individual can also catch malaria from exposure to infected blood including:

  • By sharing needles used to inject drugs
  • Through blood transfusions
  • From mother to unborn child

Signs and Symptoms of Malaria

The symptoms of this disease typically develop within 10 days to 4 weeks following the infection. Common signs and symptoms of Malaria include:

  • Diarrhea
  • Abdominal pain
  • Vomiting
  • Nausea
  • Headache
  • Profuse sweating
  • High fever
  • Shaking chills that can range from moderate to severe
  • Anemia
  • Convulsions
  • Bloody stools
  • Muscle pain

Risk Factors of Having Malaria

The following are the listed factors of getting the disease:

Areas affected by the disease:

Malaria is found in more than 100 countries, mostly in tropical regions of the world including:

  • Central and South America
  • Large areas of Africa and Asia
  • Haiti and the Dominican Republic
  • Some Pacific islands
  • Parts of the Middle East

Malaria is not found in the UK. It may be diagnosed in travelers who return to the UK from risk areas.

People who are at risk:

People at increased risk of serious disease include:

  • Young children and infants
  • Travelers coming from areas with no malaria
  • Older adults
  • Pregnant women and their unborn children

In several countries with high malaria rates, the problem is worsened by a lack of access to information, preventive measures, and medical care.

Safety Precautions

Various cases of malaria can be prevented.

  • Be aware of your risk – before traveling find out whether you are at risk of getting malaria.
  • Bite prevention – prevent mosquito bites by covering your arms and legs, using insect repellent, or using an insecticide-treated mosquito net.
  • Diagnosis – search for immediate medical guidance if you develop malaria symptoms, providing up to a year after you return from traveling.
  • Check whether you need to take malaria prevention medications – if you do be sure to take the right antimalarial medications at the right dose and finish the course.
  • Speak to your doctor if you’re planning to visit a place where there’s a malaria risk. It may be recommended that you take antimalarial medications to prevent infection.

Treating Malaria

If malaria is diagnosed and treated quickly, it will be easy for someone makes a full recovery. Treatment must be started as soon as the diagnosis has been confirmed.

Antimalarial medication is used to both prevent and treat malaria. The length of treatment will depend on:

  • The severity of your symptoms
  • The type of malaria
  • Whether you’re pregnant
  • Whether you took an antimalarial to prevent malaria
  • Where you caught malaria

In several cases, you might be given emergency reserve treatment for malaria before you travel. This is frequently if there is a risk of being infected with the disease while traveling in a remote area with little or no access to medical care.

Medications for Malaria

Treatment For Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a central nervous system disorder that is classified as recurrent, unprovoked seizures. This disorder affects both males and females of all ages and races. This is usually a lifelong condition disorder but several individuals can have normal lives if their condition is well controlled. Most children with epilepsy can take part in most sports and activities, or get a job when they are older.

What Causes Epilepsy?

The electric signals in the brain become twisted and there are at times abrupt bursts of electrical activity. In most cases, it is possible that it could be partly caused by your genes that affect how the brain works. Occasionally, epilepsy can be caused by damage to the brain such as damage from:

  • A lack of oxygen during birth
  • Brain infection or tumor
  • A drug abuse
  • A severe head injury
  • A stroke
  • An alcohol misuse

Signs and Symptoms of Epilepsy

The main symptom of Epilepsy is recurring seizures. However, if an individual experience one or more of the following symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention:

  • Short blackouts
  • A convulsion with no fever
  • Sudden stiffness or falling for no apparent reason
  • Temporary unresponsiveness to questions or instructions
  • Sudden bouts of chewing without any clear reason
  • Sudden attacks of blinking without apparent stimuli
  • Repetitive movements that seem involuntary
  • Temporarily seeming dazed and unable to communicate
  • Anger or panic
  • Fearfulness for no apparent reason
  • Strange changes in senses such as touch, smell, and sound
  • Recurrent fainting spells, during which they lose bowel, frequently followed by extreme tiredness

Risk Factors of Having Epilepsy

Certain factors may increase your risk of Epilepsy:

  • Age: The start of this condition is most common in children and older adults, but the condition may befall at any age.
  • Head injuries:Head injuries are accountable for various cases of Epilepsy.
  • Family history:If you have a family history of Epilepsy, you might be at an increased risk of developing this condition.
  • Stroke and other vascular diseases: Stroke and other blood vessel diseases can lead to brain damage that may cause Epilepsy.
  • Brain infections: Infections that cause inflammation in your spinal cord or brain can increase your risk.
  • Dementia: Dementia can increase the risk of Epilepsy in older adults.
  • Seizures in childhood:High temperatures in childhood may occasionally be linked with seizures. Children who have seizures because of high fevers usually won’t develop Epilepsy. The risk of this condition rises if a child has another nervous system condition or a family history of epilepsy.

Safety Precautions

You can learn how to manage your Epilepsy to feel better and have a more active and full life. Practice these self-management plans to better control your condition and overall health:

  • Know about your condition
  • Take your seizure medicines as prescribed
  • Follow a well-balanced diet and keep a healthy weight
  • Keep a record of your triggers to track patterns and learn how to avoid triggers
  • Exercise regularly and safely each day
  • Get at least 7 to 8 hours of sleep each night
  • Don’t drink alcohol too much, use tobacco, or abuse other substances
  • Practice ways to lower stress
  • Talk to your doctor about health concerns
  • Keep in touch with friends and family for support
  • Keep other health conditions in check
  • Use memory strategies to help with memory problems
  • Get help for emotional problems

Treating Epilepsy

Treatment can help most people with Epilepsy:

  • Medicines
  • Surgery to eliminate a small portion of the brain that’s causing the seizures
  • A special diet that can help control seizures
  • A process to put a small electrical device inside the body that can help control seizures

Several people need treatment for life. However, you might be able to stop treatment if your condition disappears over time.

Medications for Epilepsy

Cervical Cancer

Cervical Cancer remains one of the most common causes of death for women globally. Women 35 to 44 years of age are most likely to get it. This condition begins in the cervix which connects the vagina to the upper part of the uterus. The uterus is where a baby grows when a woman is pregnant. The cervix is made of two parts and is covered with two different types of cells:

  • The endocervix is covered with glandular cells. It is the opening of the cervix that leads into the uterus.
  • The ectocervix is covered in squamous cells. During a speculum exam, it can be seen by the doctor because it is the outer part of the cervix.

The transformation zone is the place where these two cell types meet in the cervix. Its exact location changes if you give birth and as you get older. Most cervical cancers begin in the cells in the transformation zone

What Causes Cervical Cancer?

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) certainly play a role in causing Cervical Cancer. HPV has two certain proteins which turn off some tumor suppressor genes. It allows the cells lining the cervix to grow too much and to develop changes in additional genes which in some it may lead to cancer. Being infected with HPV does not mean you will develop Cervical Cancer. Your immune system removes the massive majority of HPV infections within two years.

Signs and Symptoms of Cervical Cancer

Cervical Cancer at an early stage produces no signs or symptoms. More-advanced cervical cancer signs and symptoms include:

  • Pain during intercourse or pelvic pain
  • Bloody or watery vaginal discharge that may be heavy and have a foul odor
  • Vaginal bleeding between periods, after intercourse, or after menopause

After it has spread, cancer may cause:

  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Lack of appetite
  • Bone pain
  • Kidney failure
  • Swollen legs
  • Trouble peeing
  • Pelvic pain

Risk Factors of Having Cervical Cancer

You may be at a high risk of having Cervical Cancer if you:

  • Have multiple sexual partners
  • Started having sex before age of 16 or within a year of starting your period
  • Smoke cigarettes
  • Take birth control pills especially for longer than 5 years
  • Have a weakened immune system or STD

Safety Precautions

To lessen your risk of Cervical Cancer:

  • Inquire your doctor about the HPV vaccine

Getting a vaccination to avoid HPV infection may decrease your risk of cervical cancer and other HPV-related cancers. You may ask your physician if an HPV vaccine is suitable for you.

  • A routine Pap tests

Pap tests may notice precancerous illnesses of the cervix. They can be checked or treated to avoid cervical cancer. Most medical organizations recommend beginning routine Pap tests at age 21 and repeating them each few years.

  • Practice safe sex

Lessen your risk of cervical cancer by taking action to avoid sexually transmitted infections. You can use a condom each time you have sex and regulating the number of sexual partners you have.

  • Do not smoke

If you do smoke, discuss with your doctor strategies to help you quit.

Treating Cervical Cancer

Cervical Cancer is very treatable if you catch it early. The treatments for this cancer are:

  • Targeted therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation therapy
  • Surgery

Sometimes these treatments are combined to make them more effective. However, there are other ways you can do to help your condition get better especially at home. Certain things can ease the mental and physical stresses of Cervical Cancer treatment.

  • Get mild physical activity to keep up your energy level. Make sure it does not wear you out.
  • Get enough rest at night. Take naps if you need.
  • Do not drink alcohol. You may not be able to drink alcohol while having medications.

Medications for Cervical Cancer

Skin Cancer

Skin Cancer is an abnormal growth of skin cells that often develop on skin being exposed to the sun. This is a common type of cancer that also occurs on areas of skin that are not usually exposed to sunlight. There are three major types of skin cancer:

  1. Basal Cell Carcinoma

Basal Cell Carcinoma begins in the basal cells which is a type of cell within the skin that makes new skin cells as old ones die off.  It frequently looks like a little transparent bump on the skin. Basal Cell Carcinoma often befalls on parts of the skin that are exposed to the sun such as the neck and head.

  1. Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Squamous Cell Carcinoma is a common type of skin cancer that progresses in the squamous cells that make up the middle and outer layers of the skin. It is not a life-threatening condition but can be aggressive. Squamous Cell Carcinoma can grow large or may spread to other areas of the body that can cause serious complications if left untreated.

  1. Melanoma

Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer that develops in the cells that makes melanin. This can form in your eyes and rarely in your body such as throat or nose. Melanoma usually affects people under 40 especially women.

What Causes Skin Cancer?

Skin Cancer begins in the top layer of the skin called the epidermis. It is a thin layer that provides a protective cover of skin cells that your body sheds continually. This type of cancer happens when alterations happen in the DNA of skin cells. The changes cause the cells to develop uncontrolled and form a mass of cancer cells.

Having lots of damage to DNA in skin cells results from UV radiation found in sunlight. Being exposed to the sun does not explain skin cancers that mature on skin not normally exposed to sunlight. This means that other factors might contribute to your risk of skin cancer such as having a condition that weakens your immune system or being exposed to toxic substances.

Signs and Symptoms of Skin Cancer

Basal Cell Carcinoma seems like a change in the skin such as a sore that won’t heal. These changes usually have one of the following characteristics:

  • A blue, brown, or black lesion
  • A pearly white, pink, or skin-colored bump that is translucent
  • A waxy, scar-like lesion without a clearly defined border
  • A flat, reddish patch with a raised edge is more common on the chest or back.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma signs and symptoms include:

  • A new sore on an old scar
  • A firm, red nodule
  • A wart-like sore on or on your genitals or in the anus
  • A red sore inside your mouth

The main Melanoma symptoms frequently are:

  • The progress of an unusual-looking or a new pigmented growth on your skin
  • A change in an existing mole

Melanoma does not always begin as a mole. It may also occur on otherwise normal-appearing skin.

Risk Factors of Having Skin Cancer

These are the lists of factors that may increase your risk of developing Skin Cancer:

  • A history of sunburns
  • A weakened immune system
  • A personal history of skin cancer
  • A family history of skin cancer
  • Moles
  • Fair skin
  • Excessive sun exposure
  • Precancerous skin lesions
  • Sunny or high-altitude climates
  • Exposure to arsenic
  • Exposure to radiation

Safety Precautions

Most skin cancers are preventable. To protect yourself, here are some prevention tips:

  • Wear protective clothing
  • Wear sunscreen year-round
  • Avoid the sun during the middle of the day
  • Avoid tanning beds
  • Be mindful of sun-sensitizing medicines. Some of these can make your skin more sensitive to sunlight.
  • Check your skin regularly and report changes to your doctor.

Treating Skin Cancer

Skin cancer treatment depends on what type of skin cancer you are treating. Small skin cancer limited to the outward of the skin might not need treatment beyond a first skin biopsy that eliminates the full growth. If additional treatment is needed, options may include:

  • Freezing early skin cancer with liquid nitrogen
  • Curettage and cryotherapy or electrodesiccation
  • Excisional surgery cuts out the cancerous tissue and a surrounding margin of healthy skin
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation therapy
  • Biological therapy
  • Photodynamic therapy

Medications for Skin Cancer

For Basal Cell Carcinoma:

  • Imiquimod
  • Vismodegib
  • Fluorouracil Cream
  • Sonidegib

For Squamous Cell Carcinoma:

  • Pembrolizumab
  • Cemiplimab-rwlc

For Melanoma:

  • Ipilimumab
  • Dacarbazine
  • Dabrafenib
  • Cobimetinib
  • Aldesleukin
  • Trametinib Dimethyl Sulfoxide
  • Vemurafenib


Bronchitis is an infection of the main airways of the lungs which becomes inflamed and irritated. Most cases of this infection occur when an infection irritates and inflames the airways that cause them to make more mucus than usual.  Bronchitis can be defined as being either acute or chronic bronchitis.

  • Acute bronchitis is common in winter and often comes on after common flu, sore throat, or cold. This affects mostly children under the age of 5 which lasts up to 3 weeks.
  • Chronic bronchitis affects adults over 40 years old. This is a daily productive cough due to smoking. For this reason, you must stop smoking if you have bronchitis.


What Causes Bronchitis?

Bronchitis can be caused by bacteria or viruses. In most cases, this infection is caused by the same virus that causes flu or the common cold. Bronchitis can also be triggered by breathing in irritant substances such as chemicals in household products, smog, or tobacco smoke. Smoking can be the main cause of chronic bronchitis that may affect people who inhale second-hand smoke and smokers themselves.

Signs and Symptoms of Bronchitis

  • A blocked nose and sinuses
  • Headache
  • Breathlessness
  • Body aches
  • Sore throat
  • Feeling of tightness in the chest
  • Low fever and chills
  • Wheezing
  • A persistent cough that produces mucus

Risk Factors of Having Bronchitis

The following are the risk factors that increase your risk of having bronchitis:

  1. Exposure to irritants on the job

If you are exposed to chemical fumes or work around certain lung irritants like textiles or grains your risk of developing bronchitis is greater.

  1. Cigarette smoke

Persons who smoke or who are living with a smoker have a higher risk of developing acute and chronic bronchitis.

  1. Low resistance

This may cause a chronic illness that compromises your immune system or from another acute illness such as a cold. Infants and young children, as well as older adults, have a greater susceptibility to infection.

  1. Gastric reflux

Repeated attacks of severe heartburn can irritate your throat and make you more likely to develop bronchitis.

Safety Precautions

  • Wash your hands: To lessen your risk of having a viral infection, wash your hands often and get into a habit of using alcohol-based hand sanitizers.
  • Avoid cigarettes: Cigarette smoke increases your risk of chronic bronchitis.
  • Get vaccinated: Several cases of acute bronchitis can be caused by a virus. Getting a yearly flu vaccine helps be protected from getting the flu. You can also consider getting a vaccination that protects against some type of pneumonia.
  • Wear a surgical mask: If you have bronchitis, consider wearing face masks if being exposed to fumes or dust. You may also consider wearing it when you are going to be among crowds especially when traveling.

Treating Bronchitis

There is no specific cure for bronchitis but some lifestyle changes can help ease your symptoms such as:

  • Regular moderate exercise
  • Avoiding smoking
  • Eating a healthy diet

In most cases, acute bronchitis clears up by itself within a few weeks without the need for treatment. In the meantime, you need to drink lots of fluid and get plenty of rest.

If you developed chronic bronchitis, you might benefit from pulmonary therapy. It is a breathing exercise program wherein a respiratory analyst demonstrates to you how to breathe more without difficulty. It also helps you to increase your capability to exercise.

Medications for Bronchitis

Most circumstances of bronchitis are caused by viral infections, antibiotics are not effective. Conversely, if you are suspected to have bacterial infections, your doctor may prescribe you a dose of antibiotic. In some cases, your doctor may recommend other medicines such as:

  • Cough medicine
  • If you have allergies, COPD, or asthma, your doctor may recommend an inhaler and other medications to open narrowed passages in your lungs and lessen inflammation.

Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral Palsy is a neurological illness caused by brain damage. It is the most common movement and motor disability of childhood. Cerebral palsy refers to a group of symptoms and disabilities. They are all related but each child will have a unique and individual experience of cerebral palsy. This neurological illness affects over 500,000 people in the U.S. There is no cure, but treatments and therapies can make a big difference.   


What Causes Cerebral Palsy? 

Brain damage is the cause of Cerebral Palsy, but many different things can trigger damage such as: 

  • Genetic conditions 
  • Poor brain development in the womb 
  • Disruption of blood flow to the developing brain 
  • Maternal infections or medical conditions 
  • Ingestion of toxins or drugs during pregnancy 
  • Complications related to premature delivery 
  • Damage to the head or skull during delivery 


Signs and Symptoms of Cerebral Palsy 

Some of the signs of Cerebral Palsy are: 

  • Scooting on the bottom instead of crawling 
  • Delays in movements and motor skills, such as walking, holding head up, sitting, rolling over, or crawling 
  • Favoring one side of the body 
  • Body parts that are too stiff or floppy 
  • Inability to stand, even with support 

Always consult the pediatrician if your child if notices unusual symptoms, even if you are not sure they are caused by cerebral palsy.  


Risk Factors of Having Cerebral Palsy 

It is very significant to understand that risk factors are not signs or symptoms of cerebral palsy. The more risk factors a baby has the greater their chances of developing the condition. Conversely, not every baby that develops this condition has many or all risk factors. Some risk factors like prematurity seem to be more vital than others. 

  • Birth Complications 

Complications throughout the delivery process that interrupts oxygen supply can increase a baby’s risk of developing cerebral palsy. Previously, birth complications were thought to be the only cause of cerebral palsy, but as science progressed, various other factors were discovered. 

  • Infections 

Certain maternal and fetal infections can increase the risk of an infant developing this type of condition, especially if not treated promptly.  

Rh Incompatibility and Blood type 

Rh incompatibility and Blood type occur when the blood type of a mother is different and not compatible with her infant’s. Rh or blood incompatibility does not always mean that a baby will progress cerebral palsy, but a risk factor. A blood compatibility test must be carried out during early pregnancy or after childbirth if your baby develops jaundice. 

  • Multiple Births 

Carrying twins or multiples have been related to a higher chance of infants developing this condition because of various complications that tend to surface when carrying more than one infant, including: 

  • Breech birth position 
  • Premature delivery 
  • Low birth weight 


Safety Precautions  

There are steps you can take to lower the risk of having this condition: 

  • Before pregnancy, eat well and have any pre-existing medical problems under control. 
  • While pregnant, continue with these healthy habits and take recommended prenatal vitamins. 
  • See your obstetrician for regular check-ups throughout pregnancy. 
  • Get screened for potential complications. 


Treating Cerebral Palsy  

  • Surgery 

This is a serious part of treatment for several children. Surgical procedures may manage pain or improve mobility. Common procedures include the repair of hip dislocations, tendon or muscle release, and scoliosis surgery.  

  • Therapies 

There are different categories of therapies are used for babies and children with cerebral palsy. They may improve social, mental, physical, and learning deficits. If started early, therapies for this condition can lessen impairment and the risk of developing other associated conditions. 

Common types of therapy used to help children with cerebral palsy are: 

  • Speech/Language 
  • Physical 
  • Behavioral 
  • Feeding 
  • Occupational 
  • Aqua 
  • Music 
  • Horse and animal 
  • Play 
  • Bowel program 


Medications for Cerebral Palsy 

Several medications help control seizures, spastic movements, relieve pain, and manage other symptoms and related conditions: 

  • Anticonvulsants 
  • Antacids 
  • Anticholinergics 
  • Baclofen or other muscle relaxants 
  • Diazepam 
  • Sleep aids 
  • Stool softeners/laxatives 

Blood Clot

A Blood Clot is a gel-like clump of blood. It can be beneficial if they form in response to a cut or an injury, plugging the injured blood vessel that stops the bleeding. 

Several blood clots form inside your veins without a good reason and don’t dissolve as expected. These may need medical attention, especially if they are in your legs or are in more dangerous locations, such as your brain or lungs.  


What Causes Blood Clot? 

Blood clots form when certain parts of your blood thicken that form a semisolid mass. This may be caused by an injury or at times it occurs inside blood vessels that don’t have an obvious injury. 

When these clots are formed, it travels to other parts of your body which may cause harm. Conditions and factors that can cause harmful blood clots and serious disorders that are related to blood clots include:  

  • Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) 
  • Surgery 
  • Heart attack 
  • COVID-19 
  • Peripheral artery disease (PAD) 
  • Smoking 
  • Certain medications such as oral contraceptives and hormone therapy drugs 
  • Arteriosclerosis or atherosclerosis 
  • Heart failure 
  • Pulmonary embolism (blood clot in an artery in the lung) 
  • Antiphospholipid syndrome 
  • Obesity 
  • Heart arrhythmia (heart rhythm problems) 
  • Stroke 
  • Family history of blood clots 
  • Pregnancy 
  • Factor V Leiden 
  • Prolonged sitting or bed rest 


Signs and Symptoms of Blood Clot 

There are various essential signs and symptoms of blood clots. If you can distinguish these signs and symptoms, you can save your life or the life of a family member or a friend. 

  • Redness or discoloration of the skin 
  • Swelling 
  • Skin that is warm to the touch 
  • Pain or tenderness not caused by injury 
  • If you know you have or know someone to have these signs or symptoms, contact your doctor as soon as possible.   


Risk Factors of Having Blood Clot 

Blood clots are rare in young and healthy people. You’re more likely to get them if you: 

  • Are overweight 
  • Are staying in or recently left hospital especially if you cannot move around much 
  • Have just had a baby or pregnant  
  • Have an inflammatory condition such as Crohn’s disease or rheumatoid arthritis 
  • Have had a blood clot before 
  • Smoke 


Safety Precautions  

Blood clots are inevitable and can be safely treated. You can decrease your risk by learning some of the best ways to protect yourself from life-threatening blood clots. 

  • Before any surgery, talk with your doctor about blood clots. 
  • Recognize the signs and symptoms of blood clots. 
  • Know your risk for blood clots. 
  • Tell your doctor if you have risk factors for blood clots. 
  • Maintain a healthy weight. 
  • Don’t smoke or take steps to quit smoking 
  • See your doctor as soon as possible if you do have any symptoms of a blood clot. Blood clots can be safely treated. 
  • Get up and move if you are traveling for a long time by car, plane, or train or sitting for a long period. Stand up, walk around, and stretch your legs every two to three hours. 


Treating Blood Clot 

The treatment of this condition primarily involves the use of blood thinners which they are commonly referred to. Blood thinners do not thin the blood but slow down the body’s capability to form new clots. It also keeps the existing clots from getting bigger.  


Medications for Blood Clot 

Alzheimer’s Disease: Its Causes, Treatment, and Medications

Alzheimer’s disease is a neurologic disorder that affects the brain. One of the main features of this disease is the presence of plaques and tangles in the brain. Another feature is a loss of connection between neurons or nerve cells in the brain. This disease is one of the most common causes of dementia.  

Several things that are thought to increase your risk of developing the disease may be: 

  • An increasing age 
  • A family history of the disease 
  • Lifestyle factors and diseases associated with cardiovascular disease 
  • Untreated depression can also be one of the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease 


What causes Alzheimer’s Disease? 

Alzheimer’s disease is understood to be caused by an unusual build-up of proteins around and inside the brain cells. Some of the proteins involved are amyloid that deposits of which makes plaques around brain cells. Tau is also another protein that deposits of which form tangles within brain cells. As the brain cells become affected, there is also a decrease in chemical messengers involved in sending messages between brain cells.   

The level of one neurotransmitter called acetylcholine is particularly low in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease. Different areas of the brain shrink over time. The leading parts commonly affected are accountable for memories.  


Signs and Symptoms of Alzheimer’s Disease 

Alzheimer’s disease is not a normal part of aging. Memory problems are usually one of the first warning signs of the diseaseIn addition, people with Alzheimer’s disease may also experience: 

  • Trouble completing familiar tasks at home, at work, or leisure 
  • Changes in behavior, mood, or personality 
  • Trouble handling money and paying bills 
  • Decreased or poor judgment 
  • Misplacing things and being unable to retrace steps to find them 
  • Memory loss that disrupts daily life such as repeating questions or getting lost in a familiar place  


Risk Factors Of Having Alzheimer’s Disease 

The following are the listed factors of getting the disease: 

Areas affected by the condition: 

  • Finland 
  • United States 
  • Canada 
  • Iceland 
  • Sweden 
  • Switzerland  
  • Norway 
  • Denmark 
  • Netherlands  
  • Belgium  


People who are at risk: 

Alzheimer’s disease is most common in people aged 65 years and older. The risk of this disease and other types of dementia increases with age that affects an estimated 1 in 14 individuals over the age of 65 and 1 in every 6 individuals 80 years of age and older. However, around 1 in every 20 cases of the disease affects people from 40 to 65 years of age. It is called an early or young-onset Alzheimer’s disease.  


Safety Precautions  

To prevent stressful and harmful situations, consider these safety tips: 

  • Prepare for emergencies. You need to have an emergency contact number in case something came up.  
  • Have a monitoring device to help you in case you need something or an unexpected situation to occur.  
  • Take caution when using heating device.  
  • Avoid potentially harmful appliances.  
  • Be careful when using a heating device.  


Treating Alzheimer’s Disease 

Alzheimer’s disease is not an avoidable condition. Converselythere are various lifestyle risk factors for the disease that can be modified. The changes in diet, habits, and exercise help = to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease which may as well lower your risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Change lifestyle choices that may reduce the risk of the disease include the following: 

  • Eating a diet of healthy oils, fresh produce, and foods low in saturated fat  
  • Exercising regularly 
  • Following treatment guidelines to manage high cholesterolhigh blood pressure, and diabetes 
  • Asking your doctor for help to quit smoking if you smoke 

Studies have made known that preserved thinking skills later in life and a low risk of having the disease are associated with participating in: 

  • Reading 
  • Creating art 
  • Dancing 
  • Playing an instrument 
  • Playing board games 
  • Social events 
  • Other activities that require social and mental engagement 


Medications for Alzheimer’s Disease 

Various medications may be prescribed in people with Alzheimer’s disease to help improve some symptoms temporarily. These medications may include: 

  1. Acetylcholinesteraseinhibitors 

These medications increase levels of acetylcholine which is a substance in the brain that helps nerve cells connect. Certain drugs that can be prescribed for people with early- to mid-stage Alzheimer’s disease are: 

  1. Memantine

This drug works by blocking the effects of an excessive amount of a chemical in the brain called glutamate. 

  1. Risperidone

This should be used at the lowest dose and for the shortest time possible as it has serious side effects. 

  1. Haloperidol

This should only be used if other treatments have not helped. 


Anxiety is a type of psychological health condition that mostly affects women. If you have this condition, you may respond to certain things and situations with fear. You also experience physical signs of anxiety such as sweating and a pounding heart. It is normal to have some anxiety and may feel anxious if you have to tackle certain problems or make an important decision. Conversely, anxiety can also be beneficial as it helps individuals notice dangerous situations and focuses attention on staying safe.

This psychological health condition goes beyond the usual nervousness and slight fear you may feel from time to time. Anxiety occurs when:

  • You can’t control your responses to situations
  • You often overreact when something triggers your emotions
  • It interferes with your ability to function

What Causes Anxiety?

Life experiences such as traumatic happenings appear to trigger anxiety in people who are already at risk for anxiety. Inherited behaviors also can be a reason. For several people, this condition may be linked to an underlying health issue. In various cases, the signs and symptoms of anxiety are the first indicators of a medical disorder. Some of the medical complications that can be linked to anxiety include:

  • Diabetes
  • Heart disease
  • COPD
  • Asthma
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Drug misuse or withdrawal
  • Rare tumors that produce certain fight-or-flight hormones
  • Chronic pain or irritable bowel syndrome

Your anxiety may be due to an underlying medical condition if:

  • You didn’t have an anxiety disorder as a child or didn’t have a previous history of anxiety
  • You don’t avoid certain things or situations because of anxiety
  • You don’t have any blood relatives with an anxiety disorder
  • You have a sudden incidence of anxiety that seems unrelated to life events

Signs and Symptoms of Anxiety

  • Feeling weak or tired
  • Trembling
  • Sweating
  • Breathing rapidly
  • Having an increased heart rate
  • Having a sense of coming danger or panic
  • Feeling nervous, restless, or tense
  • Having difficulty controlling worry
  • Having trouble sleeping
  • Trouble concentrating or thinking about anything other than the present worry

Risk Factors of Having Anxiety

Below are some factors that may increase the risk of developing an anxiety disorder:

  • Stress build-up: A build-up of stressful life circumstances may trigger anxiety such as work stress, death in the family, or ongoing worry about finances.
  • Trauma: Children who suffered abuse or witnessed traumatic happenings are at higher risk of developing an anxiety disorder. Adults who experience a traumatic event also can develop anxiety disorders.
  • Stress because of an illness: Having a health condition or serious disease can cause significant concern about issues such as your treatment and your future.
  • Alcohol or drugs: Alcohol or drug use or misuse as well as withdrawal can cause or worsen anxiety.
  • Having blood relatives with an anxiety disorder: Anxiety disorders can also run in families.
  • Other mental health disorders: People with other mental health conditions such as depression have a high risk of having an anxiety disorder.

Safety Precautions

There are no ways to predict for a certain cause to develop an anxiety disorder. However, you can take steps to lessen the impact of symptoms if you are anxious:

  • Stay active: Participate in activities that you enjoy and make you feel good about yourself. Enjoy social interaction and caring relationships that help you lessen your worries.
  • Get help early: This type of disorder is harder to treat if you wait.
  • Avoid drug or alcohol use: The use of alcohol and drugs can cause or may worsen your anxiety. You can see a doctor or find a support group to help you stop.

Treating Anxiety

Several individuals with anxiety disorders need medications or psychotherapy to get anxiety under control. A lifestyle change also can make a difference.

  • Be physically active:Develop a routine. Exercise is a powerful stress reducer. It may improve your mood and help you stay healthy. Start slowly and gradually increase the amount and intensity of your activities.
  • Prioritize sleep: Do what you can to make sure you’re getting enough sleep to feel rested.
  • Healthy eating: Focus on eating fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fish.
  • Psychotherapy: This involves working with a therapist to lessen your anxiety symptoms. It can be an effective treatment for anxiety.

Medications for Anxiety

Kleptomania: Its Causes, Treatment, and Medications

Kleptomania is a mental illness that has the characteristic of an irresistible longing to steal stuff. This is psychological condition is not due to any flaw in the character of the person. 

Kleptomaniacs are not the same as shoplifters. Kleptomania involves the failure to resist impulses to act in a way that may be dangerous to self or other people. Kleptomaniac has a symptom of stealing something which they do as an act without any intentionThe shoplifters steal things intentionally.   

What causes Kleptomania? 

The following factors may be responsible for the disorder: 

  • Obsessive-compulsive disorders 
  • Stress either at home or work 
  • The release of dopamine from the brain rewards the person with a feeling of pleasure initiates the recurrence of the impulse to steal. 
  • Change in the levels of serotonin that regulates emotions and moods 

Signs and Symptoms of Kleptomania 

  • Feeling increased tension or arousal leading up to the theft 
  • Feeling relief while stealing or terrible guilt, shame, or fear of arrest after the theft  
  • Inability to resist powerful urges to steal items that you don’t have  

Risk Factors Of Having Kleptomania 

  • Family history: Having a first-degree relative with kleptomania or obsessive-compulsive disorder may increase the risk of kleptomania.  
  • Having another mental disorder: People with kleptomania frequently have another mental disorder such as eating disorder, bipolar disorder, or anxiety disorder. 

Safety Precautions  

Some measures that can stop the progress of psychological illnesses include: 

  • Teaching the children and teenagers about relationships and human values 
  • Creating a happy and peaceful environment for the children 
  • Instructing people with behavioral problems to preventing those situations which trigger the disease  
  • Training the people on stress management techniques 

If left untreated, kleptomania may result in severe problemsOther complications associated with this disorder may include: 

  • Depression 
  • Eating disorder 
  • Personality disorder 
  • Alcohol and substance disorder 
  • Other impulse-control disorders such as compulsive shopping or gambling  

Treating Kleptomania 

Kleptomania treatment is significant as this illness is not self-limiting type. If any patient is not treated on time, it may become a life-long psychological condition. Treatment includes both medical management and psychiatric therapy. 

Medical Management 

This type of treatment includes the use of medications to lessen the symptoms of the need to steal. These medications act on chemicals like opioids of the brain to stop the urge to steal. 

Psychiatric Treatment 

It includes behavioral change therapy. Some essential techniques of this therapy include: 

  • Instructions are given on the practice of relaxation techniques like deep breathing techniques when the patient’s brain triggers the urge to steal something. 
  • The patients are also shown to deviate their attentiveness when the symptom of the urge to steal begins.  

Family therapy also helps to relieve the symptoms. It involves, engaging the patient with family and peer group most of the time.  

Medications for Kleptomania 

Treatment for kleptomania usually focuses on behaviors. For some, medications may also be used as part of the treatment program.  

  • Anti-depressants like fluoxetine may be useful to relax and calm down the brain. Fluoxetine might be useful in helping curb very intense urges.  
  • Naltrexone has also shown some capacity in controlling impulse-based behavior. This medicine is now used to help alcoholics control the urge to drink.  

Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the ovaries of women. Ovaries are the small organs in the reproductive system of a female that produces eggs. This type of cancer might be hard to detect because it frequently does not cause any symptoms until later stages. Usually, this is because ovarian cancer symptoms are not visible in the early stages of the illness. They can also imitate common digestive and stomach issues that are often mistaken for minor diseases. Once a woman has ovarian cancer, it can be treated with chemotherapy and surgery to remove any tumors.

Ovarian cancer types include:

  • Stromal tumors: This begins in the ovarian tissue that has hormone-producing cells. These tumors are typically identified at an earlier stage than other ovarian tumors.
  • Epithelial tumors: This begins in the thin layer of tissue that covers the outside of the ovaries.
  • Germ cell tumors: This begins in the egg-producing cells. These uncommon ovarian cancers tend to befall younger women.

What Causes Ovarian Cancer?

It’s not clear what causes ovarian cancer. However, doctors have identified factors that increase the risk of this disease. In general, cancer starts when a cell develops mutations in its DNA. It tells the cell to develop and reproduce quickly. Wherein, it also creates a mass of abnormal cells. These abnormal cells remain alive when healthy cells will die. They can attack nearby tissues and separate from a primary tumor to spread elsewhere in the body. 

Signs and Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

The most common signs and symptoms are:

  • A need to urinate frequently or urgently
  • Abdominal or pelvic pain
  • Early satiety or difficulty eating
  • Bloating

Less common symptoms may include:

  • Menstrual changes
  • Constipation or upset stomach
  • Acid reflux
  • Unusual belly swelling
  • Weight loss
  • Extreme tiredness
  • Back pain
  • Pain during sex

Women with persistent symptoms for more than several weeks or who notice a change in their ovarian health must consult a doctor. In advanced stages of ovarian cancer, an individual may experience gastrointestinal and other digestive disorders along with diarrhea, vomiting, or nausea.

Risk Factors of Having Ovarian Cancer

The following are the listed factors of getting the disease:

  • The possibility of developing this disease gets higher with age. This disease is rare in women younger than 40. Most ovarian cancers start to develop after menopause.
  • Obesity is known to be linked to a higher risk of developing many cancers. Obese women probably have a high risk of developing ovarian cancer but not certainly a serious type of cancer. Being obese may as well negatively affect the overall survival of a woman with ovarian cancer.
  • Having children after the age of 35 or who never carried a pregnancy.
  • Women using estrogens alone or with progesterone after menopause has an increased risk of developing ovarian cancer than those who have never used hormones.
  • Ovarian cancer can run in families. Having a family history of ovarian cancer, colorectal cancer, and breast cancer can make your risk higher in developing this cancer.

We Care for Your Safety

  • Diet and Exercise: The risk of ovarian cancer decreases by maintaining a weekly exercise and healthy diet.
  • Oral Contraceptives: Women who have a history of taking contraceptives have a lower risk of developing ovarian cancer.
  • Healthy Lifestyle: Avoiding the use and exposure of tobacco products may not only lower the risk of this cancer but other types also. It is recommended to limit your alcohol consumption.
  • Pregnancy and Breastfeeding: Women who have birthed at least one child before 30 years of age have a lower risk of developing ovarian cancer. Those who breastfeed their children also have a lower risk of developing this cancer.
  • Avoiding Carcinogens: These are a substance that is capable of causing cancer. Avoiding certain products that contain Carcinogens lowers the risk of developing ovarian cancer. Some of these products include vaginal deodorants, makeup, or baby powder.

Treating Ovarian Cancer

The treatment of ovarian cancer will depend on how far it has spread and your overall health. Most people have a combination of chemotherapy and surgery.

The goal of the treatment is to cure cancer. If the cancer is too advanced to be cured, the goal is to relieve the symptoms and control cancer for as long as possible. 

Medications for Ovarian Cancer

Two medications can change the way cells works. It also helps to stop cancer from increasing and spreading:

  • Olaparib
  • Niraparib

Hepatitis: Causes, Treatment, and Medications

Hepatitis is an inflammatory condition of the liver. The liver is found in the right upper part of your abdomen. It has several dangerous functions that affect metabolism through your body:

  • Synthesis of clotting factors and  blood proteins
  • Storage of glycogen, minerals, and vitamins
  • Breakdown of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins
  • Excretion of bilirubin, cholesterol, hormones, and drugs
  • Filtering of toxins from your body
  • Bile production, which is essential to digestion

There are 5 types of hepatitis:

  • Hepatitis A: This is caused by an infection with the hepatitis A virus that is most commonly transmitted by consuming water/food contaminated by feces.
  • Hepatitis B: This is transmitted through contact with infectious body fluids that have the hepatitis B virus. Your risk getting this disease if you have the same injection drug used or sharing razors with an infected person.
  • Hepatitis C: This comes with the hepatitis C virus that is transmitted through direct contact with infected body fluids usually through sexual contact.
  • Hepatitis D: This is a serious liver disease that is caused by the hepatitis D virus. Hepatitis D is an uncommon type of hepatitis that only happens in combination with hepatitis B infection. Hepatitis D is not able to multiply without the presence of hepatitis B.
  • Hepatitis E: This is a waterborne disease that is mostly found in areas with poor hygiene. This usually results from ingesting a fecal substance that contaminates the water supply.

What Causes Hepatitis?

There are various types of hepatitis and with different causes:

  • Toxic hepatitis can be caused by certain supplements, poisons, medicines, chemicals.
  • Viral hepatitis is the most common type caused by one of several viruses such as hepatitis viruses A, B, C, D, and E.
  • Alcoholic hepatitis is caused by heavy alcohol use.
  • Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic type in which your body’s immune system attacks your liver. The cause is not known, but genetics and your environment may play a role.

Signs and Symptoms of Hepatitis

If you have hepatitis B and C, you may not have symptoms in the beginning. Signs and symptoms may not befall until the damage affects the function of the liver. Some of the common symptoms of this disease are:

  • Loss of appetite
  • Abdominal pain
  • Pale stool
  • Dark urine
  • Flu-like symptoms
  • Fatigue
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Yellow eyes and skin which might be a sign of jaundice

Risk Factors of Having Hepatitis

The following are the listed factors of getting the disease:

Areas commonly affected by the condition:

  • Asia
  • South America
  • Africa
  • China
  • Japan
  • Vietnam
  • United States

Hepatitis spreads when you are exposed to it from contaminated:

  • Food
  • Water
  • Blood
  • Stool
  • Semen
  • Saliva
  • Vaginal fluid

The risk is higher for:

  • People who do not wash their hands well especially after changing a diaper or using the bathroom
  • People with jobs in healthcare, daycare, or public safety
  • Men who have sex with men
  • Close contact with someone who has or carries hepatitis
  • People who have anal sex, oral to anal sex, or many sex partners
  • People who have sex with someone who has a sexually transmitted infection (STI)
  • Living in or traveling to countries with raw sewage, poor sanitation, or untreated water

Having certain health conditions or procedures such as:

  • A weak immune system from a disease or treatment
  • An STI or HIV
  • Persistent higher than normal liver function tests
  • Hemodialysis to treat kidney disease

Safety Precautions


Having good hygiene is one way to prevent contracting hepatitis A and E. If you’re traveling to a developing country, you should avoid:

  • Raw fruit and vegetables
  • Local water
  • Undercooked or raw oysters and shellfish

Hepatitis B, C, and D contracted over contaminated blood can be prevented by not:

  • Sharing drug needles
  • Sharing razors
  • Using someone else’s toothbrush
  • Touching spilled blood

Hepatitis B and C can also be contracted through intimate sexual contact and sexual intercourse. Practicing safe sex by using dental dams or condoms can help decrease the risk of infection.


The use of vaccines is an essential key to avoiding hepatitis. Vaccinations are accessible to prevent the progress of hepatitis A and B. Experts are currently developing vaccines against hepatitis C. 

Treating Hepatitis

  • Hepatitis A: This usually doesn’t require treatment because it is known to be a short-term illness. You may be recommended to have bed rest. If you have diarrhea or vomiting, follow your doctor’s advice for nutrition and hydration.
  • Hepatitis B: This is treated with antiviral medications.
  • Hepatitis C: Antiviral medications are used for the treatment of both acute and chronic forms of hepatitis C. People who develop cirrhosis or liver disease as a result of chronic hepatitis C may be candidates for a liver transplant.
  • Hepatitis D: Accordingly, this can be prevented by getting the vaccination for hepatitis B as infection with hepatitis B is needed for hepatitis D to develop.
  • Hepatitis E: This typically resolves on its own. However, it is recommended to get enough rest and nutrients, drink plenty of fluids, and avoid alcohol.

Medications for Hepatitis

  • Telbivudine
  • Adefovir
  • Lamivudine
  • Tenofovir
  • Entecavir
  • Sofosbuvir
  • Simeprevir
  • Ribavirin

Polio: Causes, Treatment, and Medications

Polio is an infection also known as poliomyelitis. This is a highly infectious viral infection that largely affects children under 5 years of age. Polio can lead to breathing problems, paralysis, or even death.

The last case of naturally occurring polio was in the U.S in 1979. At present, even with a global effort to wipe out polio, it continues to affect children and adults in parts of Asia and Africa. Adults who have been vaccinated planning to travel to a place where polio is happening must have a booster dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV).

What Causes Polio?

Polio is caused by a virus called poliovirus. The virus enters the body through the nose or mouth, getting into the respiratory and digestive systems. It reproduces in the intestines and throat. From there, it can enter the bloodstream which can also attack the nervous system. It is the nerve network that helps the brain communicate with the rest of the body. 

Signs and Symptoms of Polio

Even though polio can cause paralysis or death, the majority of people who are infected don’t get sick and are not aware that they have been infected.

Non-paralytic polio

Some people who develop symptoms contract a type of polio that does not lead to paralysis. This usually causes flu-like symptoms which can last up to 10 days:

  • Fatigue
  • Vomiting
  • Headache
  • Sore throat
  • Fever
  • Neck pain
  • Back pain
  • Stiffness in the legs or arms
  • Muscle weakness

Paralytic syndrome

This form of the disease is rare. The first signs and symptoms are headache and fever often imitate those of non-paralytic polio. Within a week, you may develop:

  • Severe muscle weakness or aches
  • Loss of reflexes
  • Floppy or lose limbs

Post-polio syndrome

This affects several people years after having polio and also a cluster of restricting symptoms. Common signs and symptoms are:

  • Fatigue
  • Progressive joint or muscle pain
  • Breathing problems
  • Swallowing problems
  • Muscle wasting
  • Decreased tolerance of cold temperature
  • Sleep-related breathing problems

Risk Factors of Having Polio

The following are the listed factors of getting the disease:

Areas affected by the condition:

  • India
  • Nigeria
  • Egypt
  • Pakistan
  • Afghanistan

People who are at risk:

People living in areas with limited access to running water often contract polio from drinking water contaminated by infected human waste. People with a weakened immune system and pregnant women as well as young children are the most susceptible to the poliovirus.

A higher risk of contracting polio if you have not been vaccinated and you also:

  • Have extreme stress activity after exposure to the virus
  • Have tonsils removed
  • Take care of or live with someone infected with polio
  • Travel to an area that has a recent polio outbreak
  • Handle a laboratory specimen of the virus

Safety Precautions

Vaccines are the main way to prevent polio. However, other methods of limiting the spread of this infection:

  • Checking with a medical professional that your vaccinations are current.
  • Avoiding food or beverages that may have been contaminated by a person with poliovirus.
  • Being sure to receive any necessary booster dosages of the vaccine.
  • Washing your hands frequently and using hand sanitizer when soap is not available.
  • Making sure you only touch the nose, mouth, or eyes with clean hands.
  • Avoiding close contact with people who are sick including kissing, hugging, and sharing utensils.
  • Covering the mouth while coughing or sneezing.

Treating Polio

Doctors can only treat the symptoms while the infection runs its course. But since there’s no cure, the best way to treat polio is to prevent it with vaccinations. The most common supportive treatments include:

  • Physical therapy or corrective braces to help with walking
  • Warm towels or heating pads to ease muscle spasms or aches
  • Bed rest
  • Portable ventilators to help with breathing
  • Pulmonary rehabilitation to increase lung endurance
  • Physical therapy to address breathing and pulmonary problems
  • Physical therapy to treat pain in the affected muscles

In advanced cases of leg weakness, you may need a wheelchair or other mobility device. 

Medications for Polio


Depression is a common and serious medical illness. Having this condition negatively affects the way you think and act as well as how you feel. Being depressed causes feelings of sadness or a loss of interest in the things you once enjoyed. Depression might lead to a variety of physical and emotional problems. It can also lessen your ability to function in your everyday life.

This condition is different from feeling down or just sad for a few hours or a couple of days. It is also different from experiencing sadness after a difficult event or grief over losing a loved one. People with depression cannot just pull themselves out of it.

There are different types of depression and it includes:

  • Major depressive disorder
  • Dysthymic disorder
  • Psychotic depression
  • Postpartum depression
  • Seasonal affective disorder
  • Bipolar depression

What Causes Depression?

There are various reasons why a person may have depression:

  • Family history: If you have a family history of depression, you may be more at risk.
  • Hormone levels: Changes in hormones especially in women occur. The hormones progesterone and estrogen change during pregnancy, menstrual cycle, postpartum period, or menopause.
  • Stress: Stressful life events such as work responsibilities, trauma, abuse, or poverty may lead to depression.
  • Medical problems: Dealing with a person with a serious health problem such as cancer may lead to depression. Some medical conditions such as stroke, hypothyroidism, or Parkinson’s disease may cause changes in the brain that can trigger depression.
  • Pain: Those who feel physical or emotional pain for long periods are much more likely to develop depression. The pain may come from an accident, chronic health problems, or trauma.

Signs and Symptoms of Depression

If you have experienced most of the following symptoms each day over 2 or more weeks, you may meet the criteria for a depression diagnosis. Some of the symptoms of depression include:

  • Feeling of hopelessness
  • Lack of energy
  • A persistent feeling of sadness or loneliness
  • Difficulties with attention or concentration
  • Eating too little or too much
  • Getting too little or too much sleep
  • Feelings of guilt and worthlessness
  • Loss of interest in enjoyable activities
  • Thoughts of suicide or death

Depression may look different from a different person and the intensity of the symptoms also varies. If you have depression, may have experienced every symptom. This condition might appear differently in children than in adults. Some symptoms in children can include anxious behavior or anxiety.

Risk Factors of Having Depression

The following are the listed factors of getting the disease:

Areas affected by the condition:

Accordingly, when it comes to places/areas, United States, China, India, Brazil, and Bangladesh have the highest rate of depression. 

People who are at risk:

Depression may affect everyone even an individual who seems to live in relatively ideal environments. Various factors can play a part in depression:

  • Genetics: Depression can run in families.
  • Personality: People who are easily overwhelmed by stress, with low self-esteem, or who are normally pessimistic appear to be more likely to experience depression.
  • Biochemistry: Variances in certain chemicals in the brain may contribute to symptoms of depression.
  • Environmental influences: Constant exposure to violence, poverty, or abuse may make some individuals more susceptible to depression.

Safety Precautions

If you do have depression, you can do a few things to keep it from getting worse:

  • Avoid alcohol and recreational drugs.
  • Stick with your treatment plan. If you are on medication, take it as prescribed. Don’t skip therapy sessions. Let your doctor know if isn’t working for you.
  • Try ways to fight stress like yoga or meditation.
  • Spend time with family and friends. Do things that keep you connected to others.
  • Don’t make big life decisions on a day when you’re feeling down.
  • Know yourself and pay attention to the things that seem to make your symptoms worse. Keep records and let your doctor know about it.
  • Talk to your doctor about medication that can stop depression from coming back.

Treating Depression

Depression is curable with the majority of those who search for treatment showing progress. The most commonly used treatments are psychotherapy, antidepressant medication, or a combination of the two.

The treatment depends on the severity, pattern, the history of the illness, and persistence of depressive symptoms. As with several diseases, early treatment is more effective and helps avoid the likelihood of serious reappearances. Depression should be cured by a physician or qualified mental health professional.

Acute Flaccid Myelitis

Acute Flaccid Myelitis is a polio-like sickness that affects the nerve cells in the gray matter of the spinal cord. It is thought to be caused by a viral infection. Children with Acute Flaccid Myelitis have an acute onset of flaccid paralysis that usually happens in the leg or arm. They might also have trouble swallowing or have trouble moving their face. This weakness might progress to the weakness of the muscles that control breathing. It is important to seek care for a child who is developing weakness.

Acute Flaccid Myelitis is a rare but progressively known cause of paralysis that primarily occurs in children. In recent history, this condition has been observed in clusters that appear to befall every two years. The first notable increase occurred in 2014, with additional spikes in 2016 and 2018.

What causes Acute Flaccid Myelitis?

Acute Flaccid Myelitis is thought to be caused by germs such as toxins, viruses, or poisons in the environment. It can also be possible because of certain genetic issues. Several viruses that have been linked to this condition include poliovirus, adenoviruses, and West Nile Virus. Non-polio enteroviruses have also been linked to Acute Flaccid Myelitis and some other diseases of the nervous system like Acute Flaccid Myelitis. 

Signs and Symptoms of Acute Flaccid Myelitis

The most common signs and symptoms of Acute Flaccid Myelitis include:

  • Sudden loss of reflexes
  • Sudden loss of muscle tone
  • Sudden leg or arm weakness

Other possible signs and symptoms include:

  • Difficulty with swallowing or slurred speech
  • Difficulty moving the eyes or drooping eyelids
  • Facial weakness or droop
  • Pain in the legs, arms, back, or neck

Uncommon symptoms might include:

  • Inability to pass urine
  • Numbness or tingling

Severe symptoms include respiratory failure. It may be because the muscles involved in breathing become weak. It is also possible to experience blood pressure instability and life-threatening body temperature changes. 

Risk Factors Of Having Acute Flaccid Myelitis

The following are the listed factors at risk of getting the disease. 

Areas affected by the condition:

  • USA
  • Australia
  • Norway
  • France

Anyone can get Acute Flaccid Myelitis, but most cases have been in young children.

Safety Precautions

To prevent Acute Flaccid Myelitis, doctors may recommend that you:

  • If possible, avoid being around people who are sick.
  • Do not share eating utensils or straws or cups.
  • Use disinfectant to clean hard surfaces.
  • Have your vaccines on schedule particularly the polio vaccine.
  • Using soap and water follows good hand washing practices. Washing regularly is somewhat good advice to avoid illness in general. Similarly, wash your hands before and after eating, taking care of someone who is sick or has a cut, and after using the bathroom or touching an animal.
  • Try to be far from mosquitoes that may spread viruses by not going outside when they are biting. Use products that keep away mosquitoes and do not allow water to collect near your home.

Treating Acute Flaccid Myelitis

Here are some things that can help with the symptoms of Acute Flaccid Myelitis. Children with Acute Flaccid Myelitis may need:

  • A machine called a ventilator to help them breathe
  • Fluids to keep them from being dehydrated
  • Physical therapy to make weak muscles stronger
  • Pain relievers like ibuprofen to ease pain and bring down fever
  • Occupational therapy to help with everyday activities like eating and dressing

Medications for Acute Flaccid Myelitis

There are no precise cures for Acute Flaccid Myelitis. Occupational and physical treatment to reinstate movement is seen as being very significant. Some doctors may recommend treatments such as:

Treatment of Breast Cancer in Women after Menopause

Anastrazole is prescribed by most doctors for the treatment of breast cancer in women after menopause. Some breast cancer grows faster by estrogen, a natural hormone. This medicine lessens the amount of estrogen that the body is making and helps slow these breast cancers’ growth. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Anastrazole in 2000.   

What condition does Anastrazole treat? 

Anastrazole is for women who have gone through menopause and used for the treatment of breast cancerSpecifically, itfor: 

  • The treatment of advanced breast cancer: The medicine gives if the condition has advanced even after early reaction with the cancer medication.  
  • Early breast cancer treatment: The medicine gives women who have a hormone receptor-positive after surgery or other therapies.  
  • Initial treatment of breast cancer has metastasized: The medicine is used in women with hormone receptor-positive cancer or in whom the hormone receptors are unknown.  

How does Anastrazole work? 

  • Anastrazole is in the class of drugs called aromatase inhibitors, which block the production of estrogen. Wherein it is the critical stimulator of breast cancer.  
  • An enzyme called aromatase changes hormones into the hormone estrogen in postmenopausal womenVarious breast cancer tumors grow when estrogen is present. Anastrazole stops the aromatase from working, which lowers estrogen in your body and the cancer tissue.  

What is the dosage of Anastrazole? 

  • The recommended dosage is one 1mg tablet per day, taken by mouth. The dosage and how often you take it depends on your age, condition, and how you react to the first dose.  
  • You may take each dose with or without food as directed by your doctor.  
  • Anastrazole is to be taken at the same time each day.  
  • It would help if you did not stop taking Anastrazole without consulting your doctor.  

What are the precautions in using Anastrazole?

  • Tell your healthcare provider if you are allergic to Anastrazole or if you have any allergies.  
  • If ever you have or have ever had high cholesterol, liver disease, or osteoporosisdonforget to tell your doctor.  
  • Cancer medications may interact with some herbal products and other medicines. Tell your doctor about any medication you are taking. It includes herbal supplements, vitamins, and over-the-counter medications.  
  • This medication might harm a baby‘s developmentPut an effort not to father a child or become pregnant while you’re having treatment and for a few months afterward. Before starting treatment, you can ask your doctor about effective contraception.
  • Do not breastfeed if you are taking Anastrazole because the drug may come through into your breast milk. 
  • This drug may have side effects such as nausea, vomiting, sore throat, and decreased energy. Your doctor will monitor you closely during treatment and check how you are. 
  • Anastrazole contains lactose. If you have lactose intolerance, contact your doctor before taking this medicine. 
  • Always tell other pharmacists, nurses, doctors, or dentists that youre having this treatment if you need treatment for anything else. 
  • You have blood tests before and during your treatment. They check your levels of blood cells and other substances in the blood. They also check how well your liver and kidneys are working.

Cost of Anastrazole vs. Arimidex

The generic Anastrazole effectively reduces the amount of estrogen in your body to help low breast cancer developmentAnastrazole only costs $79 per 30 tabsThe brand name Arimidex cost $1,710.26. In whichAnastrazole is a lot cheaper than Arimidex