A venous ulcer is a wound that takes longer than usual to heal. It is due to vein and blood flow issues and often occurs on your legs near your ankle. This condition can sometimes lead to severe problems if left untreated. However, there are also several ways to prevent them from happening.
Worsening symptoms include:
Call your doctor if you experience:
Your veins contain tiny valves that keep blood circulating throughout your body. These valves snap open and shut to move blood against the force of gravity back to your heart. In some people, venous diseases affect valve functioning. Other medical conditions, like diabetes, can also put you at risk for leg and foot ulcers.
The veins in the leg, which should send blood back to the heart, might not be doing their job all that well. That is often because the valves that stop the flow of blood back into the veins are not. The backflow of blood means increased pressure at the end of the limb. Over time, it can weaken the skin and make it harder for a cut or scrape to heal.
Other causes are:
If left untreated, this condition may cause the following complications:
Venous ulcers don’t heal on their own. The longer you live with them, the greater the likelihood of permanent tissue damage. The damage can spread or cause infections that can become life- or limb-threatening. To prevent this condition, you can:
Venous ulcers that are severe or not responding to standard therapies may require additional treatments such as:
Fungal nail infection is one of the most common infections of the nail. It begins as a yellow-brown or white spot that appears under the tip of your nail. As time passes, the nail might change color, thicken, and then break near the edge. Nail fungus can affect several nails. Fungi may be found in soil, air, plants, and our bodies. Fungi can be beneficial or harmful, like other microbes.
See your doctor if you experience:
A serious nail fungus condition could be painful and result in permanent nail damage. Factors that could increase the risk of developing nail fungus are:
The cause of the infection is different organisms. The most prevalent is known as Dermatophyte. Bacteria, yeast, and mold can also result in nail infection. The discoloration caused by an infection caused by bacteria tends to be black or green. It may be spread to the nail, and fungal infections of the nail may spread to the feet. It is also possible to get the infection by touching areas where fungi thrive, such as the floor tiles in a gym shower or inside sweaty, dark, and moist shoes.
Terbinafine tablet. This tablet treats fungal diseases of nails and fingernails. Terbinafine is part of a group of drugs known as antifungals. It stops the growth of the fungi.
Insulin resistance is when cells in your muscles, fat, and liver don’t respond well to insulin and can’t use glucose from your blood for energy. It may also include conditions like obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and type 2 diabetes. Insulin is a hormone released by the pancreas that tells your cells to open up to that sugar and convert it into energy.
When you eat food, your body converts that food into dietary sugars. The cells do not react with resistance, resulting in excessive sugar in the blood. Over time, the pancreas keeps trying to regulate the blood sugar, producing more and more insulin until it wears out and may not produce large amounts of insulin anymore. As a result, blood sugar levels increase to the point of being in the diabetic range.
Anyone can develop insulin resistance temporarily or chronically. Over time, chronic insulin resistance can lead to pre-diabetes and then Type 2 diabetes if it’s not treated or can be treated. You are at risk if:
The best way to measure the prevalence of insulin resistance is through the number of prediabetes cases. More than 84 million adults in the United States have prediabetes. That’s about 1 out of every 3 adults.
This condition may progress to type 2 diabetes if you do not change how you eat and exercise. Your blood sugar levels will rise until you have prediabetes. It causes your pancreas to use extra insulin to make up for it. It will work for a while, and your blood sugar levels will stay normal.
Doctors usually request more than one of these tests to ensure an accurate diagnosis. Several tests can help diagnose prediabetes and diabetes:
Pioglitazone. It enhances the transcription of insulin-responsive genes and improves the entry of glucose into muscles and fats. It can also be used as monotherapy along with diet and exercise in mild cases and to supplement insulin in advanced cases.
An esophageal ulcer is a type of peptic ulcer that develops in the lining of the esophagus. It occurs when the layer of mucus, which lines and protects the gastrointestinal tract, wears away. The condition results from an infection with a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori. It can also be caused by destruction from stomach acid moving up into the esophagus.
Most of the time, this problem can be caused by a bacterium called H. Pylori. The bacterium damages the mucosal lining of the esophagus. It makes the esophagus vulnerable to damage caused by stomach acid.
A chronic condition called GERD can cause an ulcer in the esophageal tract. People suffering from GERD suffer from frequent acid reflux. Patients who suffer from GERD suffer from acid reflux at least every two weeks.
Acid reflux happens in the stomach when contents travel backward towards the stomach and into the esophagus. It can occur when the lower esophageal sphinx is damaged or weak, so it can’t close properly.
Alcohol consumption, smoking, and the frequent consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications may also cause damage to the mucosal linings of the esophagus. It can lead to an ulcer. Genetics also plays a part.
Several pills could cause ulcers and irritation of the esophagus if not taken with enough water or lying down right after taking. If you take any type of pill, you must swallow it with plenty of water.
For those with compromised immune systems, the problem could be caused by other fungal, bacterial, or viral infections, such as:
The treatment for ulcers of the esophageal tract is dependent on the reason. Most ulcers are treated with proton pump inhibitors, an acid-blocking drug. If you’ve been diagnosed with esophageal ossification on endoscopy, ongoing treatment using PPI medication could be necessary.
If an ulcer has begun to bleed, a doctor may treat the bleeding through an endoscopy. It can be done by injecting the region with medication or heating the site to stop bleeding. They may also advise avoiding NSAIDs, particularly when those drugs cause the ulcer. When the ulcer appears to be related to an infection, doctors may also recommend medication.
If you’ve had the typical signs of esophagitis due to a pill following a prescription and are unsure what to do, it’s unlikely to need an endoscopy. In these cases, if there’s a strong connection, the injury usually requires the time needed to recover.
To prevent the condition from coming or worsening, it would be helpful if you will incorporate a diet. During a treatment plan, your doctor might suggest dietary adjustments. Contrary to what many believe, having a bland food plan or avoiding all spices is unnecessary. Instead, you should eat a balanced diet of fruits, fiber, and vegetables.
Also, avoid anything that can make the symptoms worse. The symptoms are aggravated by food items that relax the esophageal muscle. Keep a food journal to keep track of the foods that cause your symptoms. It can aid in eliminating problematic foods.
Diabetic nephropathy affects the kidneys’ ability to do their usual work of removing waste products and extra fluid from your body. The best way to prevent or delay diabetic nephropathy is by maintaining a healthy lifestyle and adequately managing your diabetes and high blood pressure. Over many years, the condition slowly damages your kidneys’ delicate filtering system. Early treatment may prevent or slow the disease’s progress and reduce the chance of complications.
Diabetic nephropathy is a serious complication of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. It’s also called diabetic kidney disease. In the United States, about 1 in 3 people with diabetes have diabetic nephropathy. There are five stages of diabetic nephropathy. The fifth stage is ESRD. Progress from one stage to the next can take many years.
In the early stages of diabetic nephropathy, you would likely not notice any signs or symptoms. In later stages, signs and symptoms may include:
Make an appointment with your doctor if you have any signs or symptoms of kidney disease. If you are living with diabetes, visit your doctor yearly or as recommended for kidney function tests.
If you’re living with diabetes, factors that can increase your risk of diabetic nephropathy include:
The stages of any kidney disease, including diabetes-related nephropathy, include:
Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a complication of diabetes that is believed to contribute most directly to diabetic nephropathy. Hypertension is believed to be a cause of diabetic nephropathy and a result of the damage created by the disease. As kidney disease progresses, physical changes in the kidneys often lead to increased blood pressure. Uncontrolled hypertension can make the progress toward stage five diabetic nephropathy occur more rapidly.
The high blood sugar associated with diabetes also causes damage to the kidney through many different and complicated pathways. Most of this damage is directed toward the blood vessels that filter the blood to make urine.
The first step in treating diabetic nephropathy is to treat and control your diabetes and high blood pressure. It includes diet, lifestyle changes, exercise, and prescription medications. With good management of your blood sugar and hypertension, you may prevent or delay kidney dysfunction and other complications. If your disease progresses to kidney failure, your doctor will likely discuss options for care focused on either replacing the function of your kidneys or making you more comfortable.
If you have diabetes, you should schedule regular appointments with your healthcare provider every three to six months or as your healthcare provider recommends. If you have diabetes, your healthcare provider will recommend annual diabetes-related nephropathy testing five years after your initial diagnosis. Kidney damage usually doesn’t appear within the first 10 years of your diabetes diagnosis. If you’ve had diabetes for more than 25 years and don’t have kidney damage, you’re less likely to develop diabetes-related nephropathy.
The best way to prevent diabetes-related nephropathy is to manage your diabetes and lower your blood pressure. Be sure to follow your treatment plan as prescribed by your healthcare provider.
A fungus is a tiny type of germ that usually doesn’t cause any problems. They are all around us. You can only see them with a microscope. But fungi can infect your lungs in some situations, particularly if you have other serious illnesses. It can be very serious and requires specialist care.
Fungi may cause lung disease through direct infection of pulmonary tissue, infection of pulmonary air spaces/lung cavities, or their ability to trigger an immunological reaction when fungal material is inhaled. The latter mechanism is involved in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, aspergillus-induced asthma, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to fungi.
Except for aspergillosis, these infections are usually not present to any significant degree in immunocompetent residents of the UK. They are more likely to affect those who have traveled abroad to areas where they are endemic or arise as opportunistic infections in patients who are immunocompromised due to oncological treatment due to immunomodulation following solid organ transplantation or HIV infection. Pulmonary infection occurs after inhalation of spores/conidia or by the reactivation of latent infection. Hematogenous dissemination of fungal infection leading to a systemic mycosis tends to occur chiefly in immunocompromised patients.
Symptoms of fungal infections can range from mild to very serious. The exact symptoms depend on the type of fungus that has caused the infection. Some common symptoms include:
Fungal infections can affect many parts of the body, including:
Symptoms of fungal infections can mimic other conditions, so it’s important to consult your physician for a complete exam and diagnosis.
Antifungal medicines can kill a fungus. Or they may stop it from multiplying or growing. There are several classes of antifungal medications and different types of medicines. Your healthcare provider will select the best prescription medicine. Or they may guide you to an effective over-the-counter (OTC) treatment.
There are OTC and prescription antifungal medicines. Talk to your healthcare provider about what treatment to use.
Antifungals come in different forms, including:
Treatment length varies depending on the fungal infection. Some fungal skin infections like ringworm clear up in a few weeks. But clearing up some fungal nail, blood, and lung infections can take months or years.
Recommended medication used for fungal infection:
Antifungal medications treat fungal infections affecting skin, nails, lungs, and other organs. Some fungal infections clear up in a few weeks. Others may need months of treatment. Taking antifungal medicines for an extended period or failing to complete the prescribed treatment may lead to antifungal resistance.
Medication safety depends on the antifungal drug. Breastfeeding infants who develop thrush can get antifungal mouth drops. Their moms also need treatment, typically with an antifungal skin cream. Your healthcare provider can determine whether it’s okay for you or your child to take an antifungal medicine.
Side effects from antifungals vary. Results depend on the type of drug, dosage (strength), and fungus. You may experience the following:
Rarely, an antifungal drug may cause serious problems like:
Antiepileptic medications do not cure epilepsy but rather attempt to prevent seizures. The medications do not alter the underlying problem predisposing to seizures. People with epilepsy are prescribed antiepileptic medications to decrease seizures’ number, severity, and duration. While seizure freedom is the ideal treatment outcome, seizures can still occur while taking antiepileptic medication.
Normal brain function involves communication between millions of nerve cells. At any one time, nerve cells are resting, exciting, or inhibiting other nerve cells. A nerve cell comprises a cell body and branches called axons and dendrites, which join other neurons at synapses. Electrical signals are sent from the cell body along the axon to the synapse, resulting from ion currents across channels in the nerve cell membrane. Chemical signals pass across synapses between neurons. Neurotransmitters cross the synaptic gap between neurons and fix to receptor points of the adjoining neuron. Some neurotransmitters excite the joining neuron to send a further electrical signal. Other neurotransmitters inhibit the joining neuron and electrical signals passing down that neuron. The millions of neurons within the brain communicate and function normally through these electrical and chemical pathways.
Seizures occur when there is an imbalance within these excitatory and inhibitory circuits in the brain, either throughout the brain or in a localized part of the brain, so neurons fire off in a bizarre fashion.
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) protect against seizures by modulation of voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels, enhancing GABA receptor-mediated synaptic inhibition, and inhibiting ionotropic glutamate receptor-mediated synaptic excitation.
Antiepileptic medications work in different ways to prevent seizures, either by decreasing excitation or enhancing inhibition. Specifically, they act by either:
As the specific mechanisms that cause epilepsy are mostly unknown, drugs with specific mechanisms of an action directed at the underlying epileptic processes have not yet been developed.
Narrow-spectrum Antiepileptic Drugs:
Broad-spectrum Antiepileptic Drugs:
Recommended medication used for seizures:
Epilepsy is a common condition that affects the brain and causes frequent seizures. Seizures are bursts of electrical activity in the brain that temporarily affect how it works. They can cause a wide range of symptoms. Epilepsy can start at any age but usually in childhood or in people over 60. It’s often lifelong but can sometimes get slowly better over time.
Seizures can affect people differently, depending on which part of the brain is involved. Possible symptoms include:
Sometimes you might pass out and not remember what happened.
Treatment can help most people with epilepsy have fewer seizures or stop having seizures completely.
Some people need treatment for life. But you might be able to stop treatment if your seizures disappear over time.
Side effects are common when starting treatment with Antiepileptic drugs. Some may appear soon after starting treatment and pass in a few days or weeks, while others may not appear for a few weeks.
The side effects you may get depend on the medicine you’re taking. Common side effects of Antiepileptic drugs include:
Contact your doctor or specialist if you have symptoms like being drunk, such as instability, poor concentration, and being sick. It could mean your dose is too high.
Viagra relaxes muscles found in the walls of blood vessels and increases blood flow to particular body areas. Some medicines can cause unwanted or dangerous effects when used with Viagra. Tell your doctor about all your current medicines.
Viagra is a medicine used to treat erectile dysfunction (ED, also called impotence). It works by helping to relax the blood vessels in the penis, allowing blood to flow into the penis and causing an erection. If you plan to use Viagra, take it an hour before the planned sexual activity.
Viagra doesn’t cause erections alone — sexual stimulation is still needed. It also does not cure ED, increase a man’s sexual desire, protect from sexually transmitted diseases, or serve as a male form of birth control. If you use Viagra, you should not take more than 1 tablet in 24 hours, and it should not be taken with other ED medicines.
Viagra treats male sexual function problems (impotence or erectile dysfunction-ED). In combination with sexual stimulation, sildenafil increases blood flow to the penis to help a man get and keep an erection. This drug does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases (such as HIV, hepatitis B, gonorrhea, and syphilis). Practice “safe sex,” such as using latex condoms. Consult your doctor or pharmacist for more details.
Treatments for erectile dysfunction are big business, and online scams abound. If you do buy medications over the internet:
Most men who take oral erectile dysfunction medications aren’t bothered by side effects. When side effects do occur, they can include:
Dysuria refers to pain when you urinate. Individuals with dysuria usually describe it as a burning sensation. It can affect anyone of any age, but it is most common in women. Treatment for dysuria depends on the underlying cause. If a bacterial infection causes dysuria, antibiotics are usually prescribed.
Dysuria is pain or discomfort when you urinate. It isn’t about how often you go, though urinary frequency often happens together with dysuria. Dysuria is not a diagnosis. It’s a sign or symptom of an underlying health problem.
Men and women of any age can experience painful urination. It’s more common in women. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are commonly associated with dysuria. UTIs occur in more women than men.
Other people at a higher risk of dysuria include:
Symptoms of painful urination can vary between men and women, but both genders usually describe it as a burning, stinging, or itching. Burning is the most commonly reported symptom.
Pain can occur at the start of urination or after urination. Pain at the start of urination is often a symptom of a urinary tract infection. Pain after urination can be a sign of a problem with the bladder or prostate. In men, pain can also remain in your penis before and after urination.
Symptoms in women can be internal or external. Pain outside your vaginal area may be caused by inflammation or irritation of this sensitive skin. Internal pain can be a symptom of a urinary tract infection.
Dysuria is a symptom. It causes a burning sensation, pain, and discomfort. You will likely contact your healthcare provider because this symptom is uncomfortable. It’s essential to see your provider determine if your symptom relates to a urinary tract infection or another medical cause. In any case, the sooner you see your provider, the sooner a diagnosis can be made and treatment can be started.
There are many causes of dysuria. Also, know that doctors can’t always identify the cause.
WOMEN: Painful urination for women can be the result of:
MEN: Painful urination for men may be the result of:
Treatment for dysuria depends on the cause of your pain/burning sensation. The first step in your treatment is to determine if infection, inflammation, dietary factors, or a problem with your bladder or prostate causes your painful urination.
You can take several steps to reduce the discomfort of painful urination, including drinking more water or taking an over-the-counter aid to treat painful urination. Other treatments need prescription medications. If you have frequent urinary tract infections, your provider can help find the cause.
One of the most common side effects of cancer treatment is nausea. It can be caused by chemotherapy, radiation therapy and even anaesthesia. Dehydration or constipation can play a part, too. Several medications are available now to help patients manage nausea.
Nausea and vomiting are common and sometimes serious side effects of cancer treatment. Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and other cancer treatments can cause nausea and vomiting.
Nausea feels queasy, sick to your stomach, or like you might throw up. Vomiting is throwing up the food and liquid in your stomach.
It is important that your nausea and vomiting are controlled and managed. If these aren’t, these problems can affect your daily life, mental health, and physical health and even delay treatment. Relieving side effects, palliative care or supportive care, is an important part of cancer care and treatment.
When you have cancer, the causes of nausea and vomiting can include the following:
Nausea and vomiting can be caused by radiation therapy based on the following:
You can take steps to reduce your risk of nausea and vomiting. For example:
A recommended prescription that can be used for nausea and vomiting:
Urinary incontinence is a common and often embarrassing problem. The severity ranges from occasionally leaking urine when you cough or sneeze to having the urge to urinate that’s so sudden and strong you don’t get to a toilet in time.
Though it occurs more often as people get older, urinary incontinence isn’t an inevitable consequence of ageing. Don’t hesitate to see your doctor if urinary incontinence affects your daily activities. For most people, simple lifestyle and dietary changes or medical care can treat symptoms of urinary incontinence.
Urinary incontinence is a condition that impacts many people’s lives. You may experience bladder control issues and leak urine when you have incontinence. This leakage is often uncontrollable and can negatively impact your life.
Your urinary system comprises the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. These parts do several jobs. They filter, store and remove waste from your body. Your kidneys are the filters of your body. Waste products are removed from your blood by the kidneys, creating urine. The urine then moves down through two thin tubes called ureters. The ureters connect to the bladder, where the urine will collect until it leaves the body. Your bladder is like a storage tank. Once the bladder is complete, the brain signals that it’s time to urinate. Urine then leaves the bladder when a muscle opens up, allowing the urine to flow freely out of the body through the urethra. When this system is working smoothly, you usually have time to get to a bathroom before urinating, and you don’t experience any urine leakage. Urinary incontinence can happen when these parts don’t operate as they should. It can happen for many different reasons throughout your life.
Many people think incontinence is a normal part of ageing that can’t be helped. While it is true that your risk of incontinence increases as you get older, there are also treatments available to help you manage this condition. Incontinence doesn’t have to disrupt your life and keep you from being active.
There are several different types of incontinence. These types have different causes, characteristics and triggers for urine leakage. Knowing the type of incontinence is often an essential part of the diagnosis and treatment plan for incontinence.
The types of incontinence include:
The main symptom of incontinence is a leakage of urine. It could be a constant dripping of urine or an occasional leakage experience. If you have incontinence, you might have significant amounts or small amounts of leaked urine. You might experience leakage for various reasons, often depending on the type of incontinence you have.
You might leak urine when you:
Incontinence can happen to anyone. However, it’s more common in certain groups and times in your life. Incontinence is much more common in women than in men. It is often related to pregnancy, childbirth and menopause. Each of these experiences can cause a woman’s pelvic support muscles to weaken over time.
You’re also more likely to experience incontinence as you get older. The muscles that support your pelvic organs can become weaker over time, causing you to experience leakage issues.
There are many different reasons that you could experience incontinence. These causes can vary depending on if you’re a woman or a man. Some causes are temporary health conditions that usually go away once treated. In those cases, your incontinence also usually stops once the condition is treated. Long-term medical conditions can cause incontinence. When you experience leakage issues because of a chronic condition, it’s usually something you will have to manage over a more extended period. Even with treatment, chronic conditions usually don’t go away. Incontinence may have to be managed over time as a symptom of your chronic condition.
There are many different factors that your healthcare provider will consider when creating a treatment plan for your incontinence. The type of incontinence and how it affects your life are significant considerations. Your provider will also talk to you about the type of treatment you are most comfortable with. You can explore three main treatment types for incontinence — medications, lifestyle changes and surgery. Each option has pros and cons that your provider will discuss with you.
Parkinson’s disease affects people in various ways, and those who live with the condition may not experience all of the typical symptoms. Those who share similar or identical symptoms may not necessarily have them simultaneously or experience the same intensity. It’s a disease that progresses uniquely from person to person, and the uncertainty of what might happen next can be very difficult for patients and their loved ones.
Parkinson’s disease is caused by a loss of nerve cells in a part of the brain called the substantia nigra, leading to progressive damage to several areas of the brain over many years. The loss of nerves reduces dopamine in the brain, which plays a vital role in the body’s ability to move. This reduction of dopamine is responsible for several Parkinson’s symptoms, mainly motor symptoms, but the mechanism for losing nerve cells remains unclear. Most experts agree that it’s due to genetic and environmental factors.
The three typical movement symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are:
Additionally, people with Parkinson’s disease can also experience other physical and non-movement symptoms, such as:
Many medical professionals who diagnose Parkinson’s disease use the Hoehn and Yahr scale to classify symptoms and their severity. This scale rates the condition and breaks it into five stages based on disease progression. The scale allows doctors to evaluate how far PD has advanced in patients and what treatments may be most effective for symptom management.
At stage 1, there can be mild symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, but they’re often not severe enough at this point to impact daily tasks and general quality of life. However, this isn’t to say symptoms are not present. Family and friends may notice changes in a person’s movement, recognize poor posture, and see differences in facial expressions at this early stage.
Stage 2 of Parkinson’s disease is considered a ‘moderate’ condition, with symptoms becoming more noticeable than in the previous stage. Examples include noticeable tremors, stiffness, and trembling. Also, changes to facial expressions can occur but are not always apparent to others.
Although stage 2 doesn’t usually cause balance-related issues, other movement symptoms, such as muscle stiffness, can make tasks more challenging. Additionally, the condition can hinder a person’s posture at this stage, leading to back and neck pain. At this point, the disease can impact both sides of the body, and difficulties with speech can also occur.
Progression from stage 1 to 2 can take months to years, and there are no reliable methods to predict how it will progress. People in stage 2 of Parkinson’s can generally live alone but tend to find everyday tasks more difficult.
The third stage of Parkinson’s is considered mid-stage Parkinson’s progression and a significant turning point in how the disease will progress from here on out. While many of the symptoms remain the same or similar to stage 2, stage 3 can also introduce poorer reflexes and loss of balance at times. For this reason, people in stage three experience more noticeable movement issues or appear to ‘slow down.’ Unfortunately, falls become more frequent at this stage due to balance and reflex problems.
The critical factor in separating people with stage 3 Parkinson’s and stage 4 is independence. Motor skills are heavily impacted at stage 4, and movement symptoms affect a person’s ability to retain their independence. Some people at stage 4 can stand confidently without assistance, and some can walk without the help of equipment or another person, but it’s common for a person to require assistive equipment such as a walker.
Stage 5 of Parkinson’s disease is the final and most debilitating stage and reflects the most advanced progression. Severe stiffness can make it difficult, if not impossible, for a person to stand or walk. It is due to stiffness causing the legs to freeze when the patient attempts to stand essentially. These symptoms make daily tasks impossible and dangerous for someone to try without assistance. Therefore, it’s common for stage 5 sufferers to need a wheelchair because of an inability to stand without help — meaning they often require supervision to avoid falls.
Recommended medications for this type of disease may include:
These drugs are in a class of medications called dopamine agonists. It works by acting in place of dopamine, a natural substance in the brain needed to control movement.
The most common soft tissues injured are muscles, tendons, and ligaments. These injuries often occur during sports and exercise activities, but sometimes simple everyday activities can cause damage. Even with appropriate treatment, these injuries may require a prolonged time to heal.
Soft tissue injuries (STI) occur when trauma or overuse occurs to muscles, tendons, or ligaments. Most soft tissue injuries result from a sudden unexpected, or uncontrolled movement like stepping awkwardly off a curb and rolling over your ankle.
Soft tissue injuries include the following conditions:
Even though soft tissue injuries can occur anywhere in the body, the ankles, knees, and wrists are especially vulnerable. These joints can turn inward, especially when you land sharply or twist from a fall. This sudden action places tension on the corresponding ligament, which can result in a sprain. By contrast, a strain affects the muscles and tendons. These injuries may occur when the body’s fibrous tissue or tears are stretched too far. Other injuries like tendonitis involve inflammation or irritation of muscles and tendons, stemming from stress or repetitive use that eventually manifests in pain.
A common factor connecting all soft tissue injuries, many can take an extended period to heal and may affect the body’s future performance.
Symptoms of soft tissue injuries depend on the specific type of injury but often include general pain and swelling around the affected area.
Other common symptoms are:
When soft tissue is damaged, there is usually immediate pain and immediate or delayed swelling. Stiffness is also very common as a result of the trauma and swelling. Bruising may also develop after 24 to 48 hours. In the case of moderate to severe soft tissue injuries of muscles, tendons, and ligaments around a joint, instability may be experienced, especially in weight-bearing joints like the hip, knee, and ankle.
Soft-tissue injuries fall into two basic categories: acute injuries and overuse injuries.
Injuries often occur when people suddenly increase their activities’ duration, intensity, or frequency. Many soft-tissue injuries can be prevented through proper conditioning and training. Other prevention tips include:
Recommended medication used for soft tissue injuries:
The delusional disorder most often occurs in the middle to late life, with the average age of onset being 40 years. Although delusions might be a symptom of more common disorders, such as schizophrenia, delusional disorder is rare. Approximately 0.05% to 0.1% of adults have a delusional disorder.
Delusional disorder is a type of psychotic disorder. Its main symptom is the presence of one or more delusions. A delusion is an unshakable belief in something untrue. The idea isn’t part of the person’s culture or subculture, and almost everyone knows this belief to be false.
People with delusional disorders often experience non-bizarre delusions. Non-bizarre delusions involve situations that could occur in real life, such as being followed, deceived or loved from a distance. These delusions usually involve the misinterpretation of perceptions or experiences. In reality, these situations are either untrue or highly exaggerated. Non-bizarre delusions are different from bizarre delusions, which include beliefs that are impossible in our fact, such as believing someone has removed an organ from your body without any physical evidence of the procedure.
People with delusional disorder often continue to socialize and function well, apart from the subject of their delusion. Generally, they don’t behave oddly or unusually. It is unlike people with other psychotic disorders, who might also have delusions as a symptom. In some cases, however, people with delusional disorder might become so preoccupied with their delusions that their lives are disrupted.
Early symptoms of the delusional disorder may include:
As with many other psychotic disorders, researchers don’t know the exact cause of the delusional disorder. Researchers are, however, looking at the role of various factors that may contribute to the development of the condition, including:
Treatment for delusional disorder most often includes psychotherapy and medication, but the delusional disorder is highly resistant to treatment with medication alone. People with delusional disorder often don’t seek treatment for the condition on their own because most people with the delusional disorder don’t realize their delusions are problematic or incorrect. They’ll likely seek help due to other mental health conditions such as depression or anxiety.
People with severe symptoms or at risk of hurting themselves or others might need to be admitted to the hospital until the condition is stabilized.
Watery eyes can be due to many factors and conditions. In infants, persistent watery eyes, often with some matter, are commonly the result of blocked tear ducts. In babies, the tear duct may not be fully open and functioning for the first several months of life.
Epiphora is the medical term for having watery eyes. Usually, tears lubricate and protect your eyes. Epiphora happens when something causes you to make too many tears or stops them from draining away from your eyes as they should.
Epiphora can happen for lots of reasons, many of which don’t need any treatment. It can be a temporary condition, but it can also be a sign of a serious eye infection or a blockage in your tear ducts. Visit your healthcare provider if your eyes are constantly watering or you’re having trouble seeing. Anyone can be affected by epiphora. Most people experience watery eyes at some point throughout their life. Epiphora happens frequently and is more common in babies and adults older than 50.
Symptoms of watery eyes include:
Watery eyes are usually a sign of another issue or condition that’s affecting your eyes or tear system. Some of the most common causes of epiphora include:
Infections like pink eye or sinus infections can cause watery eyes, as well.
How your watery eyes are treated depends on what’s causing them. Many people experience temporary watery eyes that clear up on their own without any treatment.
Your provider will tell you which type of treatment you’ll need. The most common treatments include:
Your provider will tell you how to manage your epiphora symptoms. If they prescribe a medication, make sure to take it or use it as often as they say. This is especially true if they give you antibiotics for an infection. You need to take antibiotics for as long as your provider prescribes, even if your symptoms improve. If you don’t take the full course of antibiotics, the infection might come back, get worse or spread to other parts of your body.
The recommended prescription used for the condition:
Talk to your provider about ways you might be able to prevent watery eyes in the future.
Your cholesterol numbers show how much cholesterol is circulating in your blood. Your HDL (good cholesterol) is the one number you want to be high (ideally above 60). Your LDL (bad cholesterol) should be below 100. Your total should be below 200. Talk with your provider about what your results mean for you and how to manage your cholesterol.
Your provider checks your cholesterol levels through a blood test called a lipid panel. Your provider will draw blood from a vein in your arm and send the blood to a lab for analysis. Be sure to closely follow your provider’s instructions on how to prepare for the test. You’ll likely need to fast for 12 hours beforehand. This means avoiding all foods and drinks except water.
When your results come in, your provider will let you know. You may also be able to access your results through your electronic medical record.
Your lipid panel gives you the following numbers:
Healthcare providers measure cholesterol levels as milligrams of cholesterol per deciliter of blood. The abbreviation is mg/dL. Providers use these same units to measure your triglycerides.
High cholesterol generally means your total cholesterol is 200 mg/dL or higher. But providers use additional categories like borderline high and near-optimal to break down your results. If your numbers are close to normal levels, they may be easier to manage through lifestyle and dietary changes.
Your cholesterol numbers are important because they help you know your risk for heart disease. Cholesterol is a type of lipid that helps your body perform many important functions. But too much cholesterol in your blood is bad for you. It can enter your artery wall, damage its integrity and lead to the formation of atherosclerotic plaque.
You may feel upset to learn you have high cholesterol. But now that you know about it, you can take action to lower your numbers. Follow your provider’s guidance on how to lower your cholesterol and reduce your risk of heart disease. Some general tips include:
Learn how food impacts your cholesterol, and start with small changes to your diet.
Most of all, don’t blame yourself. High cholesterol is a common condition that can be hard to control through lifestyle choices alone. And many factors beyond our control limit the choices we can make.
Medications that can be used to lower cholesterol:
These medications work by decreasing hepatic triglyceride synthesis and reducing circulating free fatty acids. As a result with proper lifestyle, helps with cholesterol levels.
Your eyes are filled with fluid that helps keep them inflated like a ball. The normal pressure in the eyes can change during the day and differ from person to person. The fluids drain freely in healthy eyes to keep the eye pressure steady. If your eye pressure is consistently too high or too low, it could be a warning that you may have problems with your vision.
Intraocular pressure is the medical term for the pressure of the fluid inside your eyes. Your body regulates your intraocular pressure automatically. As your eye creates new aqueous humor, an equal amount of older aqueous humor leaves your eye. Old aqueous humor runs out of your eye through the drainage angle — the spot where your iris meets the sclera.
Having high intraocular pressure is a health condition called ocular hypertension. If it’s not treated, this added stress on the parts inside your eye can damage your optic nerve. Untreated, ocular hypertension can cause glaucoma and make you permanently lose your vision.
Your body automatically adjusts your eye pressure. But certain changes inside your eye can affect your intraocular pressure faster than your body can regulate it, including:
People with high intraocular pressure have an increased risk of developing glaucoma. Ask an eye care specialist how often you should check your intraocular pressure.
An eye care specialist will check your intraocular pressure during an eye exam. Intraocular pressure is the amount of pressure or force inside of your eyes. Specifically, it measures the fluid pressure in your aqueous humor.
An eye care specialist will measure your eye pressure with a tonometry test. Tonometry measures the pressure inside of your eye by flattening your cornea. The more force needed to flatten your cornea, the higher your eye pressure is.
The most common type of tonometry is non-contact or air puff tonometry. A machine shoots a brief puff of air against your eye and measures how much your cornea moves. Your eye care specialist might also measure your intraocular pressure by numbing your eye with special drops and pressing a tool against your cornea.
Eye pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury, like the way a thermometer measures temperature using mercury. Normal eye pressure is usually between 10 and 20 millimeters of mercury (mmHg). Having eye pressure that’s too low or too high can damage your vision.
Elevated eye pressure with no other symptoms is ocular hypertension. Some people can have higher eye pressure with no damage. Other people may lose vision even if the pressure is normal.
When someone has glaucoma, eye pressure damages the optic nerve. This damage permanently reduces vision. If glaucoma is not treated, it can lead to total blindness.
To treat this type of condition, you can do the following:
An eye care specialist will treat high eye pressure. Which treatment you’ll need depends on how high your intraocular pressure is and what’s causing it. Some treatments include:
Your eye care specialist will monitor you for signs of glaucoma. They’ll tell you how often you need your eye pressure checked.
Actinic keratosis (AK) is a skin disorder. AK is a type of pre-cancer, which means that if you don’t treat the condition, it could turn into cancer. Without treatment, AK can lead to a type of skin cancer called squamous cell carcinoma. About 58 million Americans have one or more spots of actinic keratosis. AK is the most common type of skin pre-cancer.
Actinic keratosis is a rough, scaly patch on the skin that develops from years of sun exposure. It’s often found on the face, lips, ears, forearms, scalp, neck, or back of the hands.
Also known as solar keratosis, actinic keratosis grows slowly and usually first appears in people over 40. You can reduce your risk of this skin condition by minimizing sun exposure and protecting your skin from ultraviolet (UV) rays.
Usually, the first signs of actinic keratosis are rough, raised bumps on your skin. They can vary in color but often have a yellow or brown crust on top. These bumps may be:
Symptoms may also include:
It can be challenging to distinguish between noncancerous spots and cancerous ones. So it’s best to have new skin changes evaluated by a healthcare provider, especially if a scaly spot or patch persists, grows, or bleeds.
The most common cause of actinic keratosis is too much exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light. UV light comes from the sun or indoor tanning equipment like beds. UV light can damage your outer layer of skin cells, called keratinocytes.
UV rays from the sun and tanning beds cause almost all actinic keratosis. Damage to the skin from UV rays builds up over time. It means that even short-term exposure to the sun regularly can build up over a lifetime and increase the risk of actinic keratosis.
Some people are more at risk than others, including:
Your healthcare provider will likely determine whether you have an actinic keratosis simply by looking at your skin. If there’s any doubt, your healthcare provider may do other tests, such as a skin biopsy. During a skin biopsy, a small skin sample is taken for analysis in a lab. A biopsy can usually be done in a clinic after a numbing injection. Even after treatment for actinic keratosis, your healthcare provider might suggest you have your skin checked at least once a year for signs of skin cancer.
An actinic keratosis sometimes disappears but might return after more sun exposure. It’s hard to tell which actinic keratosis will develop into skin cancer, so they’re usually removed as a precaution.
Many methods are used to remove actinic keratosis, including:
If you have several actinic keratoses, your healthcare provider might prescribe a medicated cream or gel to remove them, such as:
A thromboembolic disorder is a blood clot that blocks blood flow through your veins. It can be stuck in the deep veins of the legs or arms or travel through the veins to the lungs. A thromboembolic disorder that blocks the lungs is life-threatening. As such, it requires immediate treatment. Knowing the signs of thromboembolism and who is at risk can help you better recognize when you or someone you love needs medical attention.
Thromboembolism is when a blood clot (thrombus) forms in a blood vessel, breaks loose and travels to another part of the body via the bloodstream, which blocks another blood vessel. When an unattached mass (embolus) causes the blockage, it is called an embolism. Thromboembolic diseases can affect multiple organs, eventually causing the organ to shut down and die.
Two main types of thromboembolic disorders are categorized by the affected blood vessels.
While venous thromboembolism and arterial thromboembolism share many risk factors, they have key differences.
Venous thromboembolism can be caused by:
Arterial thromboembolism is strongly connected to the same risks associated with heart disease:
Thromboembolism has many risk factors, and not all can be managed. But in general, movement is the easiest prevention. Since most occur in the legs, you can mitigate a lot of risk by circulating blood in your legs. If you sit a lot for work or travel, get up and walk or exercise your leg muscles periodically to keep blood from pooling. If you’ve been sick or recovering from surgery, getting up and moving as soon as possible will help reduce the risk of clots. Exercise will also help you keep stress levels down and maintain a healthy weight, which is other contributing factors.
Medication can be used for the condition:
Birth control pills are an effective method of birth control with a success rate of about 91%. Birth control pills come in a pack, usually a 28-day cycle, with one pill assigned to each day. You take a birth control pill daily, typically during the same time frame each day, depending on the pill. It keeps certain hormones elevated, making you less likely to get pregnant.
The birth control pill is a type of contraception that contains hormones that prevent pregnancy. People call it the pill because it comes in pill form. Women take the pill orally once a day. The pill is most effective when you take it consistently at the same time each day.
Recommended birth control pill:
There are two different types of birth control pills. Both types contain hormones that prevent pregnancy.
The pill comes in different dosing packets, from 21-day pill packs to 90-day pill packs, to even 365 days of active pills. Traditionally, depending on the brand and dose, you take at least three weeks of active pills followed by two to seven days of hormone-free pills. It is called cyclical dosing. Most women have a menstrual period during the inactive pills. Some brands do not provide any inactive pills at all in the pack. With the 21-day packs, a woman takes no pills for a week. During this time, you’ll have your period, similar to when taking inactive, hormone-free pills.
Some formulations offer continuous dosing, which means you do not have any inactive pills, and a woman takes an active pill daily. Alternatively, extended cycle dosing is when inactive pills or breaks in the active pill regimen only occur three to four times yearly. Skipping inactive pills prevents menstruation. Your healthcare provider can discuss the best option for you.
Hormones in birth control pills prevent pregnancy by:
The pill can potentially be 99% effective at preventing pregnancy if you take it without fail, meaning you don’t forget to take the pill for even a day or two. However, taking the pill ideally can be difficult, so nine out of 100 women who use the pill will have an unintended pregnancy every year. The pill is most reliable when you take it consistently at the same time each day. Being consistent helps keep hormone levels from fluctuating.
It can take up to seven days for the pill to become effective in preventing pregnancy. During this time, you should use another form of birth control. If the pill controls symptoms such as acne or abnormal bleeding, it can take three to four months to see the benefits.
Some women take the pill for health purposes. The pill can:
Some women experience medication side effects when they start taking the pill. These side effects often improve after a couple of months. Tell your healthcare provider if you experience side effects.
Pneumococcal disease is an infection caused by bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae. It causes contagious and potentially severe illnesses, including pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis, so early diagnosis and treatment are essential. Vaccines are the best protection against developing infection.
Pneumococcal disease is caused by bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae) that can attack different body parts. When these bacteria invade the lungs, they can cause pneumonia. When they invade the bloodstream, they can cause sepsis; when it invades the covering of the brain, they can cause meningitis.= These severe conditions often require hospitalization and can lead to death. The bacteria can also cause milder common conditions like middle-ear infection (otitis media) and sinusitis.
Scientists have identified about 100 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. They cause two main types of pneumococcal disease:
Symptoms of pneumococcal disease vary based on the location and severity of the infection. In the case of mild conditions, you may experience pain, fever, or swelling of your affected body part:
Pneumococcal disease can also lead to life-threatening complications.
In the case of pneumonia, you may have the following:
Symptoms of meningitis often include:
If you have bacteremia, you may experience the following:
You may develop an extreme inflammatory response to pneumococcal infection. These symptoms include:
Talk to your healthcare provider about your symptoms. Call 911 immediately if you or your child experiences a fever over 100.5 degrees Fahrenheit, chest pain, or difficulty breathing.
Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria cause pneumococcal disease. These bacteria are often found in the noses and throats of healthy people, especially children. Illness develops when the bacteria spread and set up an infection in your body.
Anyone can develop the pneumococcal disease. Children younger than two are more likely to develop an infection, along with children who have:
Adults with weakened immune systems also face a higher risk of developing the pneumococcal disease, as well as those who:
Healthcare providers typically use antibiotics to treat bacterial infections such as pneumococcal disease. Your provider may have to try several antibiotics because the bacteria have become resistant to certain medications.
For mild infections, your healthcare provider may also recommend the following:
In severe cases, such as meningitis, you may need to stay in the hospital for treatment.
Pneumococcal vaccines are safe and don’t cause pneumococcal disease. Side effects are uncommon, typically mild, and should go away within two days. They may include pain, swelling, or tenderness where you received the shot. Rarely, you might experience symptoms like muscle aches, joint pain, or fever. Ask your provider any questions you may have about vaccine safety.
Intermittent claudication causes muscle pain during your activity and ceases when you take a break. It typically shows blood flow issues such as peripheral arterial disease. The problem may worsen in time, leading to serious health issues and complications. However, the condition is typically treatable in the early stages of diagnosis.
Claudication occurs when there is insufficient flow of blood to muscles when exercising. Most of the time, it is felt in the legs following walking at a particular speed and for a specific amount of time, based upon the degree of issue. The condition is also known as intermittent claudication since the pain isn’t always continuous. It starts during exercise and is then cured by the need to rest. As the claudication gets worse but dis, comfort can occur even in relaxation. Claudication technically is a disease manifestation, usually peripheral artery disease, which is the narrowing of the arteries in the limbs, which restricts blood flow.
Claudication refers to muscle pain caused by a deficiency of oxygen, triggered by activity and eased through rest.
These symptoms are:
The signs or symptoms of peripheral arterial disease, generally in more advanced stages, may include:
Speak to your doctor for advice if you have problems with your arms or legs while exercising. The condition can trigger an unending cycle of an increase in cardiovascular disease. Exercising can be painful, and the absence of exercise leads to lower health.
The most common cause of claudication is signed peripheral artery disease. These are big vessels that supply blood to the arms and legs.
Peripheral artery disease results from damage to an artery that reduces blood flow within the leg or arm. If you’re sitting at home, blood circulation is typically sufficient. However, if you’re in a high-intensity situation, your muscles don’t receive adequate oxygen, nutrients, and oxygen to function effectively and stay healthy.
The damage to the peripheral arteries is typically due to atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is the accumulation of cholesterol, fats, and other substances on the artery wall. This accumulation is known as plaque. The plaque may cause vessels to narrow, thereby preventing blood flow. The plaque could also explode and cause blood clots.
Risk Factors for Intermittent Claudication
Risk factors for claudication are:
The condition may not be recognized since many people view the discomfort as an unwelcome, normal part of ageing. Many people lower their activities to minimize discomfort. Claudication is a diagnosis, and peripheral artery disease is based on a thorough review of symptoms, physical examination, skin conditions on the legs, and tests to determine blood flow.
The main goals of treating claudication and peripheral artery disease are to ease pain and control the risk factors contributing to blood vessels and heart disease.
Exercise is an essential component of treatment for claudication. Exercise helps reduce pain, improves exercise duration, boosts the vascular system’s health within the affected limbs, and helps with weight management and overall health.
The recommended walking programs for you include:
The use of medication can be used to treat the condition:
Consult your physician regarding supplements or medications you should not consume when prescribed a treatment.
The most common type of Juvenile Arthritis that children suffer from is at the age of 16. Certain forms of this condition can lead to serious complications, including growth issues, joint injuries, and eye inflammation. Treatment is focused on reducing inflammation and pain, improving the eye’s function, and avoiding injuries.
Juvenile arthritis (JA), or pediatric rheumatic disease, is not a specific condition. It’s a broad word to define the inflammatory and rheumatic conditions that can develop among children who are younger than. The conditions affect more than 300,000 children and teens across the United States.
The majority of JA are auto-inflammatory illnesses. The immune system is designed to defend against foreign invaders, such as bacteria and viruses, which becomes misguided and releases an inflammatory chemical that attacks healthy cells and tissues. It leads to joint swelling, inflammation, and tenderness in most JA instances. However, some forms of JA are not accompanied by joint symptoms or affect only the internal organs and the skin.
There are many kinds of arthritis in juveniles. The classification is based on the following factors:
Doctors’ classification of juvenile arthritis can help predict the disease’s development.
The most common types of juvenile arthritis include:
Oligoarticular is the term used to describe a small number of joints. In this form of arthritis, only a few joints are affected at a young age. Children younger than 8 years old are more susceptible to developing it. For half of the children with oligoarticular juvenile arthritis, just one joint is typically affected by the ankle or knee. In certain cases, this type of arthritis may require just moderate treatment. For certain children, arthritis affects four or fewer larger joints.
Around 30% of children with arthritis in their juvenile years have the polyarticular form. This kind of arthritis is to be more prevalent among girls than boys.
Polyarticular juvenile arthritis can affect 5 or more joints, including large joints (knees and ankles) and smaller ones (hands and feet). Most often, both sides of your body can be affected.
Children who have psoriatic arthritis have arthritis as well as:
They may also suffer from the appearance of a nail and a diffuse swelling of the finger or toe called dactylitis. In certain cases, only some joints are affected; in other instances, multiple joints, including large and small ones, can be affected.
Enthesitis-related joint arthritis is a type of juvenile arthritis typically causes inflammation of tendons, joints, and ligaments. It can even affect the spine. Children with this kind of arthritis may experience joint pain but no obvious swelling. They may also suffer from back discomfort.
Systemic juvenile arthritis can cause swelling, pain, and limited movement in at least one joint. Other signs include rash and inflammation in internal organs like the liver, heart, spleen, and lymph nodes. A fever of 102deg per day for two weeks or more suggests this diagnosis.
Symptoms can change with time. There are times when symptoms are more intense and are referred to as flares, and when symptoms improve and get better, they are referred to as Remission. These symptoms and signs are:
The trouble with everyday tasks like dressing, walking or playing
The root cause of juvenile arthritis is unclear. Like many autoimmune diseases, the individual cases could be due to a mix of genetic causes, environmental exposures, as well as the immune system of the child.
Juvenile arthritis develops in the adolescent and young adult years. Children from any race and ethnic background are susceptible to the illness.
It’s uncommon to have families with more than one member family develop JA. However, children with older family members with chronic arthritis are more likely to be affected. A family member who has Psoriasis is one of the risk factors for developing a form of JA.
A child who has juvenile arthritis needs an intervention from a pediatric Rheumatologist. The doctor specializes in helping children with arthritis and other related ailments.
The treatment for juvenile arthritis is intended to:
The recommended medication is:
Chronic bronchitis is one of the forms of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder). COPD is a class of lung disorders that can cause breathing difficulties and worsen with time. Another kind of COPD is Emphysema. A majority of people who suffer from COPD suffer from both emphysema as well as chronic bronchitis. However, how severe each kind of COPD is likely to differ from person to person.
The bronchial tubes are the tissues of your bronchial tube that carry air from and to your lung. Patients suffering from bronchitis will cough up thick mucus that can turn discoloured. Bronchitis can be chronic or acute.
Most often, the cause is the common cold or other respiratory infections. Chronic bronchitis is common. Chronic bronchitis, a more severe form of the disease, can cause continuous inflammation or irritation of the linings of the bronchial tubes. It is often related to smoking.
If you suffer from frequent bronchitis, you could suffer from chronic bronchitis requiring medical care. Chronic bronchitis is among the symptoms that are common in chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD).
For acute bronchitis as well as chronic bronchitis, symptoms, and signs could be:
If you suffer from acute bronchitis, you could suffer cold-like symptoms, including a slight headache or body pains. While these symptoms generally improve within a week, you could experience an unrelenting cough that lasts for a long time.
Chronic bronchitis can be a powerful cough lasting at least three months. It is characterized by recurring coughs lasting for at least two years consecutively.
If you suffer from chronic bronchitis, you’ll probably be experiencing periods where your cough and other symptoms worsen. During those instances, there could be an acute infection on top of chronic bronchitis.
Consult your physician if your cough is:
The presence of a virus or bacteria does not cause chronic bronchitis. Most specialists agree the primary reason for chronic bronchitis is smoking cigarettes. Air pollution in your work environment could be a factor. It is mainly the case if you smoke.
To decrease your chance of getting the bronchitis virus, you should follow these guidelines:
Since viral infections are the primary cause of cases of bronchitis, antibiotics could be more effective. However, if your physician suspects that you may have a bacterial infection and prescribes an antibiotic, in some instances, the doctor might recommend alternative medications, such as:
A recommended medicine to treat the treatment of bronchitis
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially disabling brain and spinal cord disease. Symptoms of MS vary widely between patients and depend on the location and severity of nerve fiber damage in the central nervous system. Some people with severe MS may lose the ability to walk independently or ambulate. Other individuals may experience long periods of remission without any new symptoms depending on their MS type.
In multiple sclerosis, the immune system attacks the protective sheath (myelin) that covers nerve fibers and causes communication problems between your brain and the rest of your body. Eventually, the disease can cause permanent damage or deterioration of the nerve fibers.
These factors may increase your risk of developing multiple sclerosis:
The symptoms of multiple sclerosis vary widely from person to person and can affect any part of the body.
The main symptoms include:
Depending on your MS type, your symptoms may come and go in phases or get steadily worse over time.
There are no specific tests for multiple sclerosis. Instead, a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis often relies on ruling out other conditions that might produce similar symptoms, known as a differential diagnosis. Your doctor is likely to start with a thorough medical history and examination.
Your doctor may then recommend the following:
Diagnosing multiple sclerosis can be more difficult in people with unusual symptoms or progressive disease. Further testing with spinal fluid analysis, evoked potentials, and additional imaging may be needed in these cases.
There is no cure for multiple sclerosis. Treatment typically focuses on speeding recovery from attacks, reducing new radiographic and clinical relapses, slowing the progression of the disease, and managing the symptoms. Some people have such mild symptoms that no treatment is necessary.
Medication that can be used for multiple sclerosis:
Multiple myeloma is a rare blood cancer that affects your plasma cells. Plasma cells are white blood cells and part of your immune system. Plasma cells make antibodies. These antibodies, called immunoglobulins, help fight infection.
Multiple myeloma happens when healthy cells become abnormal cells that multiply and produce abnormal antibodies called M proteins. This change starts a cascade of medical issues and conditions affecting your bones, kidneys, and body’s ability to make healthy white and red blood cells and platelets.
Factors that may increase your risk of multiple myeloma include:
Symptoms of multiple myeloma can vary, and there may be none early in the disease. When symptoms do occur, they can include:
Complications of multiple myeloma include:
If you are experiencing symptoms, treatment can help relieve pain, control complications of the disease, stabilize your condition, and slow the progress of multiple myeloma.
The combination of treatments you’ll likely receive will depend on whether you’re considered a good candidate for a bone marrow transplant. Treatment depends on the risk of your disease progressing, age, and overall health.
Because multiple myeloma can cause several complications, you may also need treatment for those conditions. For example:
Actinic keratosis is a rough, scaly patch on the skin that develops from years of sun exposure. It grows slowly and usually first appears in people over 40. If left untreated, this condition may lead to squamous cell carcinoma is about 5% to 10%. The lesions frequently arise on sun-exposed areas of the face, lips, ears, scalp, shoulders, neck, and the back of the hands and forearms.
AKs result from long-term exposure to UV rays. This means that if you already have an AK, you are likely to develop more in the future. This puts you at a higher risk for skin cancer which sometimes can be an invasive form of the disease.
In some cases, this condition will disappear on its own without the need for medication. If you have several AKs your healthcare provider might prescribe a medicated cream or gel to remove them.
Imiquimod cream is often recommended to treat skin infections such as AK. It is generally known as an immune response modifier and is sometimes indicated for other types of skin infections too. This also improves the immune response of the cells when applied. The activated immune cells travel to areas of infection and eliminate the infected cells.
Antipsychotic medications can reduce or relieve symptoms of psychosis, such as delusions and hallucinations. Formerly known as significant tranquilizers and neuroleptics, antipsychotic medications are the main class of drugs used to treat people with schizophrenia. They are also used to treat people with psychosis, bipolar disorder, depression, and Alzheimer’s disease. Other uses of antipsychotics include:
Antipsychotic medications can help to calm and clear confusion in a person with acute psychosis within hours or days, but they can take up to four or six weeks to reach their full effect. These medications can help control symptoms but do not cure the underlying condition. When taken over a longer term, antipsychotics can help to prevent further episodes of psychosis. While antipsychotic medications can help some people with psychosis and mood disorders, these drugs can have serious side effects. Medication treatment aims to reduce and control symptoms while keeping side effects at a minimum.
Combining antipsychotic medication with other therapy and support can help people to manage symptoms and improve their quality of life. Family therapy, peer support, school and job counseling, and housing and employment support can all be helpful. Some therapists now offer cognitive-behavioral therapy to help people cope with voices and auditory hallucinations.
Taking care of your physical health is especially important if you take antipsychotic medication. Both schizophrenia and the medicines used to treat it can increase the risk of diabetes and other serious health problems. Regular checkups and medical care can help you have good physical health. Eating a nutritious diet, exercising regularly, and getting enough sleep can also help you to get and stay well.
Antipsychotic medications don’t ‘cure’ psychosis, but they are often effective in reducing and controlling many symptoms, including:
Rather than obliterating these symptoms, sometimes antipsychotic medication may prevent the symptoms from being so intrusive and intense, helping the person feel more stable and productive.
One of the best antipsychotic medications:
Antipsychotics have been abused and misused by inpatients and outpatients. Most published case reports of antipsychotic abuse involve quetiapine, although some describe the misuse of other agents, including olanzapine.
Both typical and atypical antipsychotics commonly cause side effects like drowsiness, dizziness, blurred vision, constipation, nausea, and vomiting. These often go away. But the drugs can also cause serious long-term side effects.
Antipsychotic medication can cause movement disorders such as twitching and restlessness, sedation and weight gain, and lead to diabetes. Taking antipsychotics can increase your risk of developing metabolic syndrome. If you experience metabolic syndrome, this means you are at higher risk of developing diabetes and stroke.
You may say you have the stomach flu if you have diarrhea and vomiting. These symptoms often are due to a condition called gastroenteritis. With gastroenteritis, your stomach and intestines are irritated and inflamed. The cause is typically a viral or bacterial infection.
Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of the lining of the stomach and intestines. There can be many different causes of gastroenteritis:
Viral gastroenteritis is the most common type. Many different viruses, including noroviruses and rotaviruses, can cause it. Some people call viral gastroenteritis the stomach flu. But this name needs to be medically correct. Flu viruses do not cause it. The flu is a respiratory infection that affects your nose, throat, and lungs. When gastroenteritis is caused by consuming foods or drinks contaminated with viruses, bacteria, parasites, or chemicals, this is called food poisoning.
The viruses, bacteria, and parasites that cause gastroenteritis can also spread from person to person. You could be infected when you touch something with germs on it and then touch your eyes, mouth, or nose.
The symptoms of gastroenteritis include:
Gastroenteritis is usually not serious. But, it can sometimes cause lead to dehydration or cause severe symptoms. Certain people are at higher risk for these problems. They include:
There’s often no specific medical treatment for viral gastroenteritis. Antibiotics aren’t effective against viruses. Treatment first involves self-care measures, such as staying hydrated.
To help keep yourself more comfortable and prevent dehydration while you recover, try the following:
Medication that can be used for the condition:
Older adults or very young children are more vulnerable to the symptoms of gastroenteritis. They’re also at a higher risk of complications. If you have a loved one at a higher risk, keep a close eye on them so they can get medical care if needed.
Complications of these infections include high fevers, muscle pain, and inability to control bowel movements. Some bacterial infections can cause:
Quickly seeking treatment for bacterial gastroenteritis lessens your risk of complications. Gastroenteritis should last only a few days and does not normally require treatment. Medication for nausea or diarrhea can be useful for adults but may not be safe for children. Antibiotics are rarely helpful. The most important treatment for gastroenteritis is to drink fluids. Frequent sips are easier for young children than a large amount. Keep regularly drinking even if you are vomiting. You can also buy rehydration fluids from a pharmacy. These are the best fluids to use in gastro cases, especially for children.
Owing to the signs of Schizophrenia, a person with the illness is likely to interpret reality in a way that seems abnormal to others. They may believe that others are trying to control or harm them and may feel compelled to act in ways to protect themselves that appear inexplicable to others. For instance, keeping all doors and windows closed protects the family from the neighbours’ attempts to kill or harm them. People with Schizophrenia are not aware of the changes in their behaviour.
Schizophrenia, one of the most devastating and baffling mental illnesses, is a group of disorders that cause distorted thought and perception. Perceptions can be distorted beyond reality, causing people to see or hear things that are not there.
People with Schizophrenia go through periods of getting better and worse, remission and relapse. They can go for long periods without any symptoms, but because Schizophrenia is often a chronic illness, it requires ongoing medical attention like hypertension or diabetes.
Schizophrenia is neither a “split” personality nor multiple personality disorder, a different and infrequent problem. Though often stigmatized for the behaviours caused by the illness, people with Schizophrenia did not bring the disease upon themselves by becoming involved with the “wrong” crowd or interests. Contrary to the beliefs reinforced by movies, television and books, people with the disorder are more likely to withdraw into isolation or become victims of crime than to hurt anyone else.
Can you Develop Schizophrenia with no family History?
Several different genes are directly linked to Schizophrenia, and scientists have gotten a lot better at pinpointing them. Researchers have discovered that specific genes impact the brain, resulting in structural differences in the brains of people with Schizophrenia and increasing the risk of developing the illness. However, we still do not fully understand how those genes interplay and activate in particular individuals who develop Schizophrenia. The genetics of Schizophrenia remains complex, and more research is needed.
On the other hand, a family member or member with Schizophrenia is a definite risk factor for developing the condition. 80% of people with Schizophrenia do not have relatives with the disease. Schizophrenia likely results from a confluence of factors, some of which are only beginning to be understood.
Getting a diagnosis of Schizophrenia can be devastating. You may struggle to think clearly, manage your emotions, relate to other people, or even function normally. But having Schizophrenia doesn’t mean you can’t live a whole and meaningful life. Despite the widespread misconception that people with Schizophrenia have no chance of recovery or improvement, the reality is much more hopeful. Although currently there is no cure for Schizophrenia, you can treat and manage it with medication, self-help strategies, and supportive therapies.
Since Schizophrenia is often episodic, periods of remission from the severest symptoms often provide an excellent opportunity to start employing self-help strategies that may help to limit the length and frequency of future episodes. A diagnosis of Schizophrenia is not a life sentence of ever-worsening symptoms and hospitalizations. You have more control over your recovery than you probably realize.
Some people have one psychotic episode, while others experience many throughout their lives. When treated with medication and therapy, in many cases, people with Schizophrenia can pursue their goals, have healthy relationships, keep jobs, and be productive members of their communities.
Once medication and therapy begin to work, these strategies can help ease the challenges of Schizophrenia:
Medication for Schizophrenia that you can use along with therapy:
Seasonal affective disorder, or SAD, is a depression that happens to a person only at a specific time of year. It causes a person to become depressed in fall or winter when days are shorter, and it gets dark earlier. It is brought on by the brain’s response to seasonal changes in daylight. When the daylight hours grow longer again, the sadness lifts. Take steps to keep your mood and motivation steady throughout the year.
People who have bipolar disorder are at increased risk of SAD. In some people with bipolar disorder, episodes of mania may be linked to a specific season. For example, spring and summer can bring on symptoms of mania or a less intense form of focus, worry, tension, and irritability. They may also experience sadness during the fall and winter months.
There is no real way to prevent the onset of this disorder, but if you take steps to manage the symptoms, you can prevent it from worsening. Managing the symptoms can also reverse or head off serious changes in mood, appetite, and energy levels, as you can predict the time of the year in which these symptoms may start.
Treatment can help prevent complications, especially if the affective disorder is diagnosed and treated before symptoms get bad. Some people find it helpful to begin treatment before symptoms normally start in the fall or winter and then continue treatment past the time symptoms normally go away.
Treatment for the seasonal affective disorder may include light therapy, psychotherapy, and medications. When prescribed light therapy or an antidepressant, let your doctor or mental health professional know if you have bipolar disorder.
The symptoms of childhood depression may vary. Most of these conditions are undiagnosed and taken for granted because symptoms are passed off as regular emotional and psychological changes. Although it is normal for children to feel sadness and irritability in some cases, persistent sadness may lead to melancholy.
A mood disorder can cause sadness, irritability, or hopelessness. It can affect your sleep, appetite, or relationships with others. Sadness can also cause you to lose interest in hobbies or activities you once enjoyed. In severe cases, it can lead to thoughts of suicide. Although it is a serious medical condition, it is usually treatable.
The disorder can affect how children interact with friends and family. It may prevent your child from enjoying school, sports, hobbies, or other normal childhood activities. The condition often goes along with anxiety. Anxiety is a medical condition that causes fear, panic, or worries about everyday situations.
Sometimes, depression or anxiety in children gets chalked up to growing pains, but if you have any concerns about behavioral or mental health, talk to a healthcare provider. Early childhood depression alters brain development . The brains of children who suffer clinical conditions as preschoolers develop abnormally, compared with the brains of preschoolers unaffected by the disorder.
Up to 3% of children and 8% of adolescents in the U.S. have dejection. The condition is significantly more common in boys under the age of 10. However, by age 16, girls have a greater incidence of this condition.
Treatment for children with depression involves therapy and prescription medication. Some children may benefit from one of these, but doctors may also recommend a combination approach. These are not lifelong treatments. The treatment plan for childhood depression often depends on the severity of the symptoms. Fortunately, proper care can help your child find relief from their symptoms.
Medications such as Amitriptyline is an antidepressant typically prescribed to treat depression. It works by increasing a chemical called serotonin in your brain. It improves mood and can also change how your nerves receive pain signals, so the pain goes away.
Breast cancer forms in the cells of the breast but it can spread outside the breast through blood vessels and lymph vessels. It has two common kinds known as invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma. Invasive ductal carcinoma begins in the ducts and then grows outside the ducts into other parts of the breast tissue. It can also spread, or metastasize, to other parts of the body. Invasive lobular carcinoma begins in the lobules and then spread from the lobules to the breast tissues that are close by. They can also spread to other parts of the body.
Male breast cancer is rare cancer that forms in the breast tissue of men. These are common in older men but do not mean it does not occur in the younger population. Though breast cancer is most commonly thought of as a disease that affects women, breast cancer does occur in males.
About 1 out of every 100 breast cancers diagnosed in the United States is found in a man. The most common type of breast cancer in men is infiltrating ductal cancer. It starts in the milk duct and spreads to nearby tissues. Other less-common types of breast cancer in men include inflammatory carcinoma and Paget disease of the nipple.
Your doctor will assess the signs and symptoms as well as your medical history. During the visit, your doctor will do a clinical breast exam using his or her fingertips to examine your breasts and surrounding areas for lumps or other changes. Other diagnostic method includes:
Treatment for men’s and women’s breast cancer is similar. It involves killing or removing the affected cells of the breast. Male breast cancer treatment often involves surgery and may also include other treatments. Surgery may involve removing all of the breast tissue including the nipple and areola. Other surgical approaches will focus on removing a few lymph nodes for testing. f no cancer cells are found, there is a good chance that your breast cancer hasn’t spread beyond your breast tissue.
Radiation therapy may be used after surgery to eliminate any remaining cancer cells in the breast, chest muscles, or armpit. Hormone therapy often involves medications that work in men. Chemotherapy is also recommended to remove affected cells using medication after surgery to kill any cancer cells that might have spread outside your breast. Chemotherapy may also be an option for men with advanced breast cancer.
Exemestane. It treats certain types of breast cancer. It also prevents cancer from returning after remission. It works by reducing the amount of estrogen the body makes and helps to slow or reverse the growth of these breast cancers. The dosage is based on your medical condition, response to treatment, and other medications you may be taking.
Social anxiety is also known as social phobia. It affects about 5.3 million people in the United States. The average age it begins is between ages 11 and 19 or the teenage years. In this condition, the fear is limited to one or two particular situations, like speaking in public or initiating a conversation. Others are very anxious and afraid of any social situation. The tough part is being able to ask for help.
People who have this condition may have trouble with any of the following:
It prevents you from living your life as you avoid situations that most people consider normal. You might even have a hard time understanding how others can handle them so easily. It also affects your personal relationships. It leads to low self-esteem, negative thoughts, low social skills, depression, and sensitivity to criticism.
If this condition keeps you from doing things you want or need to do, or from making or keeping friends, you may need treatment. Talk about your fears and worries with a doctor or therapist who has experience treating such conditions.
Note that getting help from doctors does not mean that you are not normal. Your feelings are valid and you are not alone. Many people also experience the condition and experts can help you get through it. Talk to a professional to help you find solutions. Talk openly with your doctor about treatment to avoid depression, drug or alcohol problems, school or work problems, and a poor quality of life.
The treatment depends on what causes the condition. A combination of medication and therapy would be a great help for your recovery. Psychotherapy improves symptoms and helps you learn how to recognize and change negative thoughts about yourself and develop skills to help you gain confidence in social situations.
Your doctor may also prescribe medcations such as anti anxiety, antidepressants, and beta blockers. Though several types of medications are available, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are often the first type of drug tried for persistent symptoms of social anxiety. To reduce the side effects, you may be instructed to start with a lower dosage.
Roundworms are small organisms that can live in your intestine. It can live in the human intestine for a long time and can cause many problems including diarrhea, high fever, and abdominal pain. They have long and round bodies that can be of different types and sizes. The eggs and larvae of this worm live in the infected stool and soil.
Hundreds of millions of people around the world are infected with roundworms at any given time. However, these parasites are not common in the United States. People can acquire them when traveling to certain countries.
The causes of the spread of the infection are not directly from person to person. It starts with a person has to come into contact with soil mixed with human or animal feces that contain eggs or infected water. These are widespread in some developing countries where human feces are used for fertilizer, or poor sanitary facilities allow human waste to mix with soil in yards. People can also get it from eating uncooked meat products that are infected.
Anti-parasite medications are the first line of treatment against this infection. In some cases, these parasites will go on their own without the need for treatment. Doctors often recommend the following anti-parasite medication:
Ivermectin. It treats conditions caused by roundworms. It works by paralyzing and inactivating the gut of parasites in humans. It stops the adult one from producing larvae. It kills the newly developed parasite and works to treat the infection. Medications for this condition often start to work in 3 days period. Ensure to take your prescription at the same time each day to get the utmost benefit.
Doctors may recommend surgery if the parasite causes heavy infestation. It may be necessary to remove worms and repair the damage they’ve caused. Intestinal blockage or holes, bile duct blockage, and appendicitis are complications that may require surgery.
If humans ingest the larvae of cat or dog roundworms, they can become infected, and illness results from the larvae migrating through organs and tissues. In severe cases, the worms may partly or completely block your small intestine. You may get an inflamed pancreas. The infection can even be life-threatening.
Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder in which individuals interpret reality abnormally and may result in some combination of delusions, hallucinations, and disordered thinking. This behavior damages daily functioning and inactivates a person’s daily dealings in life. This condition needs lifelong treatment.
This condition has no specific cause but it is believed that a combination of genetics, brain chemistry, and environmental contributions can cause this disorder. Neuroimaging studies show differences in the brain structure and central nervous system of people with this condition. While researchers are not certain about the significance of these changes, they indicate that this is a brain disease. Common risk factors for this condition are:
This condition requires lifelong treatment, even when symptoms have subsided. Treatment with medications and psychosocial therapy can help manage the condition. However, some cases may also need hospitalization.
Medications are the foundation for treating this condition. A patient may be recommended to take antipsychotic drugs that control the symptoms by affecting the brain neurotransmitter dopamine. The goal of this treatment is to manage signs and symptoms at the lowest possible dose. Other medications also may help, such as antidepressants or anti-anxiety drugs. It can take several weeks to notice an improvement in symptoms.
Chlorpromazine is a typically recommended prescription for this condition. It works by helping to restore the balance of certain natural substances in the brain and reduce aggressive behavior and the desire to hurt yourself or others. It may also help to decrease hallucinations.
Doctors may also give long-acting injectable antipsychotics as an option if someone has a preference for fewer pills which may help with adherence. They are usually given every two to four weeks, depending on the medication. Psychological interventions also play a very important role in treating this condition. This may include individual therapy, social skills training, and family therapy.
Melancholia is a term used to describe the feeling of being deeply sad and desperate since that time. Also known as melancholic depression is a type of depression. About 15%-30% of people have this type of depression. This condition may have more severe symptoms than other types of depression and it’s harder to treat.
It is a major mental health condition characterized by persistent and intense feelings of sadness and hopelessness. The disorder can affect many areas of life and may also impact mood and behavior as well as various physical functions. People with this condition often lose interest in activities they once enjoyed and have trouble getting through the day. Occasionally, they may also feel as if life isn’t worth living.
The typical causes of this condition are changes in the brain and hormonal pathways. This is due to the malfunction of the adrenal glands, hypothalamus, and pituitary glands. These glands release chemicals that regulate stress and appetite. With this condition, you may have high levels of steroids and cortisol. These are hormones that are made by your adrenal glands when you are stressed. This affects many different functions in your body, including your metabolism, appetite, and memory. You may also have changes in brain signals called neurons. These signals affect how you respond to your surroundings.
Psychotherapy and medication are often part of the treatment plan for this condition because it is believed to have a biological root. Causes of melancholic depression appear to be mainly due to genetic makeup and brain function, necessitating a medication that works on biological causes like brain function. Types of antidepressants used for this condition are:
In addition to medication, psychotherapy is also used to treat people who have MDD with melancholic symptoms. A combination of these two treatment methods is usually more effective than either approach on its own. This involves meeting with a therapist on a regular basis to discuss symptoms and related issues. It helps a patient in the:
Venlafaxine. It is an atypical antidepressant drug referred to as serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor. It works by increasing the levels of mood-enhancing chemicals called serotonin and noradrenaline in the brain. The side effects of this medication include feeling sick, headaches, sweating, and dry mouth are common. They are usually mild and go away after a couple of weeks.
What is OCD?
Obsessive-compulsive disorder or OCD is a common mental health disorder where a person has obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors. This condition can affect anyone and some people start having symptoms early, often around puberty but it usually starts during early adulthood.
Some causes of this condition are:
Experts are not sure why people have this condition. Genetics, brain abnormalities, and environment are supposed to play a role. Also, stress can make symptoms worse. It often starts in teens or early adulthood but it can also start in childhood as well. Other anxiety depression, problems, substance abuse, or eating disorders may happen with OCD. Watch out for the factors that may increase your risk of the condition such as;
Compulsion symptoms include:
As with obsessions, compulsions typically have themes, such as:
It is sometimes difficult to diagnose this condition because symptoms can be similar to those of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, depression, or other mental health disorders. The steps for diagnosis are:
The goal of the treatment is to help bring symptoms under control so that they don’t rule your daily life. Depending on the severity of the condition, some people may need long-term, ongoing, or more intensive treatment. Cognitive behavioral therapy, CBT therapy, and exposure and response prevention are typically recommended parts of the treatment. Doctors may also prescribe medications to control the obsessions and compulsions of this condition. Most commonly, antidepressants are tried first.
Paroxetine is a selective serotonin and reuptake inhibitor. It is used in the treatment of obsessive compulsion disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Generally, the goal is to effectively control symptoms at the lowest possible dosage. It’s not unusual to try several drugs before finding one that works well. Your doctor might recommend more than one medication to effectively manage your symptoms.
Eczema is a condition that causes dry, itchy, and swollen skin. This is common in young children but can happen at any age. This condition is long-lasting and tends to flare sometimes, and can be irritating, but it is not infectious. Persons with this condition are at risk of developing asthma, food allergies, and hay fever.
In infants and toddlers, eczema looks and acts differently rather than it does in older children.
Start with regular moisturizing and a self-care routine for your child. If these do not help, your doctor might suggest medicated creams that control itching and help repair skin. These are sometimes combined with other treatments. This condition can be persistent, and your child may need to try various treatments over months or years to control it.
There are several options that will help control itching and repair the skin. Products are available in various strengths and as creams, gels and ointments. Talk with your child’s doctor about the options and your preferences. Whatever is prescribed, apply it as directed before you moisturize.
Clobetasol. It is used to treat various types of skin disorders, such as eczema. It has properties that work by controlling the synthesis of inflammation-causing mediators such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Controlling the production of inflammation-causing substances can effectively reduce symptoms associated with allergic reactions in the skin.
Social anxiety disorder leads to avoidance which can interrupt your life. Severe conditions may affect your daily routines, relationships, school, work, or other activities. It can be a chronic mental health condition, but learning coping skills in psychotherapy and taking medications can help you gain confidence and improve your ability to interact with others.
It’s normal to feel anxious in some social situations. For instance, going to a game or giving a presentation may cause that feeling of cramps in your stomach. But in this condition, everyday interactions cause significant anxiety, self-consciousness, and embarrassment because you fear being examined or judged negatively by others. This is also known as social phobia.
This condition is more than shyness. It is a fear that does not go away and affects everyday activities, relationships, self-confidence, and school or work life. Numerous people rarely worry about social situations, but someone with this condition feels overly anxious before, during, and after them. Typical symptoms are:
This condition likely arises from a complex interaction of biological and environmental factors such as:
The treatment of this condition depends on the severity of the condition or how it affects your daily life. It includes medications and psychotherapy or a combination approach of both. Psychotherapy improves symptoms in most people with this condition. It helps you learn to distinguish and change negative thoughts about yourself and develop skills to help you gain confidence in social situations.
Paroxetine. It is a selective serotonin and reuptake inhibitor that is believed to be because of the potentiation of serotonergic activity in the central nervous system resulting from the inhibition of neuronal reuptake of serotonin. Aside from taking medications, it is crucial for you to seek regular help and finish the therapy to manage and prevent any attacks.
Hypothyroidism is a condition where the thyroid gland does not make enough hormones. It may not cause noticeable symptoms in the early stages, but if left untreated, it may trigger other health problems such as heart disease and high cholesterol.
It happens when the thyroid gland doesn’t make enough hormones. Conditions or problems that can lead to this condition include:
The diagnosis of hypothyroidism doesn’t rely on symptoms alone. It’s usually based on the results of blood tests. The first blood test is typically done to diagnose hypothyroidism and measures the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone in the blood. If the second test shows high TSH, but T-4 and T-3 are in the standard range, then the diagnosis is a condition called a subclinical condition. It usually doesn’t cause any noticeable symptoms.
Thyroxine sodium. It is used for the treatment of hypothyroidism and pituitary TSH suppression. It binds to the thyroid hormone response element and results in gene transcription. This results in the expression of a predetermined genetically coded pattern of protein synthesis.
Most healthcare providers recommend taking the medicine levothyroxine to treat hypothyroidism. But an extract containing thyroid hormone derived from the thyroid glands of pigs is available. It is sometimes called desiccated thyroid extract. This medicine is taken by mouth. It returns hormone levels to a healthy range, eliminating symptoms of hypothyroidism.
You’ll likely start to feel better one or two weeks after you begin treatment. Treatment with this medication can be lifelong because the dosage you need may change. Visit your doctor from time to time for a regular check-up.
Systemic Mastocytosis is a rare condition that results in too many mast cells building up in your body. A mast cell is a type of white blood cell. These are found in connective tissues throughout your body. They help your immune system function properly and help protect you from disease.
Excess mast cells build up in your bone, skin, digestive tract, marrow, or other body organs when you have this condition. When triggered, these mast cells release substances that can cause signs and symptoms similar to an allergic reaction. This condition can also cause severe inflammation that may result in organ damage. Avoiding its typical triggers, such as spicy foods, alcohol, and certain medications, can help.
The signs and symptoms depend on the part of the body where it occurs. Most of the cells build up in the skin, spleen, bone marrow, and liver skin. Signs and symptoms of systemic Mastocytosis may include:
People have different triggers for this condition, but the most typical causes include the following:
Talk to your doctor if you have problems with hives or flushing or if you have concerns about the signs or symptoms listed above.
Most cases of this condition are caused by a mutation in the KIT gene. Too many mast cells are produced and build up in tissues and body organs, releasing substances such as histamine, leukotrienes, and cytokines that cause inflammation and symptoms. This condition can cause several complications, such as:
The treatment for this condition varies depending on the type of condition, and part of the organ is affected. It focuses on managing the symptoms, regular monitoring, and managing the disease itself. To control the triggers, identify and avoid the common triggers such as foods.
Ranitidine is a prescription used in the treatment and management of this condition. It blocks all the phases of gastric secretion. The recommended dosage of this medicine in adults is 150 mg twice daily or 300mg once daily, given at bedtime. The recommended dose of Ranitidine in pediatric patients is 2 to 4 mg once daily.
Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that can cause respiratory illness in humans. They are called “corona” because of crown-like spikes on the surface of the virus. Severe acute respiratory syndrome, Middle East respiratory syndrome, and the common cold are examples of coronaviruses that cause illness in humans. The new strain of this virus was detected in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and eventually becomes a pandemic.
Signs and symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 may appear 2 to 14 days after exposure. During the incubation period, the infected individual can spread the virus through respiratory droplets. Common signs and symptoms can include:
This list is not complete. Children have similar symptoms to adults and generally have mild illnesses. Emergency signs and symptoms can include:
This list is not complete. Let your healthcare provider know if you are an older adult or have chronic medical conditions, such as heart disease or lung disease, as you may have a greater risk of becoming seriously ill with this virus.
The severity of this virus’s symptoms can range from very mild to severe. Some people may have only a few symptoms. Some people may have no symptoms but can still spread it. Some people may experience worsening symptoms, such as shortness of breath and pneumonia, about a week after symptoms start. This is called post-COVID-19 conditions. Some children experience multisystem inflammatory syndrome, which can affect some organs and tissues after COVID-19. Rarely, do some adults experience the syndrome too.
People who are older have a higher risk of serious illness from COVID-19, and the risk increases with age. People who have existing medical conditions also may have a higher risk of serious illness. Certain medical conditions that may increase the risk include:
If you have an emergency of these virus signs and symptoms, seek care immediately.
Coronaviruses are zoonotic or they first develop in animals before being transmitted to humans. For the virus to be transmitted from animals to humans, a person has to come into close contact with an animal that has the infection. Once the virus develops in people, coronaviruses can be transmitted from person to person through respiratory droplets.
The 2019 coronavirus has not been definitively linked to a specific animal. Researchers believe that the virus may have been passed from bats to another animal either snakes or pangolins and then transmitted to humans. This transmission likely happened in the open food market in Wuhan.
Remdisivir is an approved medication for the disease. It is given to hospitalized adults and children who are aged 12 and older in the hospital. For mild conditions, a combination of isolation and supportive care will be given until the infected individual recovers.
In relieving symptoms of the virus, you can also use Nasal FabiSpray. The properties of FabiSpray, Nitric Oxide, prevent the virus’s transmission. It also protects high-risk patients from severe disease. It also treats symptoms such as colds, congestion, sneezing, and runny nose.
Psychosis is a condition that affects the way the brain processes information. This leads a person to lose touch with reality. Note that this is a symptom, not an illness. It is triggered by a mental illness, injury, substance abuse, trauma, or extreme stress.
The symptoms of this condition depend on its cause. This may appear quickly or cause slow changes in a person’s thoughts and perceptions. The symptoms can be mild or severe. The early signs are:
This condition involves one of the following categories or domains:
There are no specific causes of this condition but some known factors include:
The treatment of this condition involves a combination approach of medicine and therapy. Using antipsychotic medications relieves the symptoms and behavioral therapy helps reduce the need for hospital treatments. Therapy is significant, especially for conditions like schizophrenia.
Social support is also a successful aid in treating psychosis. Supporting a patient’s needs such as education, employment, and accommodation may significantly ease the condition along with proper medications.
Affected people often have reduced insight and awareness of the real world. If you know someone who has the condition or showing symptoms, you can seek help for them. You can contact your community social worker for evaluation, take them to the nearest emergency department, or call their GP.
Chlorpromazine. It is a prescription medicine used to treat the symptoms of Schizophrenia and Psychotic Disorders. It is also recommended by doctors to their patients to control agitation and mania in people who have bipolar disorder. It works by helping to restore the balance of certain natural substances in the brain. It can reduce aggressive behavior and the desire to hurt yourself or others. It may also help to decrease hallucinations.
What are the Side Effects of Chlorpromazine?
Inform your doctor if you experience persistent:
Rare but serious side effects can include:
Endometrial hyperplasia is a precancerous condition in which the lining of the uterus becomes unusually thick due to hormonal imbalance. This condition leads to various symptoms that may require medical care. In some women, this can lead to cancer of the uterus. However, this is a rare condition that affects at least 133 out of 100,000 women.
Your menstrual cycle depends on the hormones estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen helps grow cells on the lining of the uterus. If there is no pregnancy taking place, the progesterone levels tell your uterus shed its lining. With an imbalance of these hormones, things can get out of sync. The typical cause of this condition is having too much progesterone instead of estrogen. An imbalance is caused by any of the following:
After assessing your symptoms and medical history, your doctor may run the following diagnostic method:
Treatment for this condition can either be hormonal therapy or surgery. In some cases, the treatment may also include a combination of both, otherwise, it can be treated with:
Progesterone. It is mainly used to treat endometrial hyperplasia and secondary amenorrhea in women. t works as part of hormone replacement therapy by decreasing the amount of estrogen in the uterus. It works to bring on menstruation by replacing the natural progesterone that some women are missing.
Home Care Treatment for Endometrial Hyperplasia Symptoms
Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome is a rare condition that causes tumors to grow in your intestine or pancreas. Tumors or gastrinomas release hormones that trigger your stomach to produce gastric acid. Too much production may lead to ulcers and other complications which may also include cancerous tumors.
Seek immediate help if you have aching or burning pain in your upper belly that does not go away with medications. Conditions associated with nausea, vomiting, and persistent diarrhea may need immediate medical attention.
The exact specific cause of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is unknown. But the pattern of events that occurs in this condition typically follows the same sequence. The syndrome begins when one or more tumors form in your pancreas or a part of the duodenum or the section connected to your stomach. Sometimes the tumors form at other sites, such as the lymph nodes next to your pancreas.
Your pancreas sits behind and below your stomach. It makes enzymes that are needed for digesting food. Digestive juices from the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder mix in the duodenum. This is where most of your digestion happens.
The tumors that occur with this condition are made up of cells that secrete large amounts of the hormone gastrin. High gastrin production causes the stomach to make far too much acid. The excess acid then leads to peptic ulcers and sometimes to diarrhea. Besides causing excess acid production, the tumors are often cancerous and may affect the liver and other nearby organs.
Anyone is at risk of this condition but people with the condition may have a genetic problem known as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). Children of adults with MEN1 are at a greater risk of getting the disease. This is common in men from 30 to 50 years old. Ensure to seek immediate help if you experience persistent symptoms of ZES.
Your doctor will assess your symptoms and review your medical history. To diagnose ZES, your doctor will run some blood tests to see through your gastrin levels. Other diagnostic method includes:
The goal of the treatment is to focus on managing the hormone-secreting tumors as well as the ulcer they cause. The treatment of tumors includes an operation to remove the gastrinomas. If you have just one tumor, your provider may be able to remove it surgically. But surgery may not be an option if you have many tumors or tumors that have spread to your liver. Risks associated with surgery include infection, pain, and blood loss. Talk to your doctor to understand your risks.
Ranitidine. This drug blocks gastric secretion and treats conditions like hypersecretory conditions like ZES. Ranitidine counteracts the effects of gastrin. Medicines known as proton pump inhibitors are the first line of treatment. These are effective medicines for controlling acid production in ZES. Continue taking this medication throughout the treatment course to ensure recovery.
Musculoskeletal disorders affect joints, bones, tendons, muscles, or ligaments. It is often characterized by persistent pain that affects mobility and dexterity. It reduces your ability to work and participate in any day-to-day activities.
Muscle spasms range from mild to intense conditions. The spastic muscle may feel harder than normal to touch and some may appear visibly distorted. Spasms typically last from seconds to fifteen minutes, or longer. Some attacks may also reoccur before totally going away.
There is usually no single cause of this condition. But it has various risk factors that often work in combination, including physical and organizational and psychosocial, and individual factors. Common causes of this condition include bone fracture, joint dislocation, overuse injuries, poor postures, and sprain. Direct blows to muscles and joints may also cause this condition.
If the condition interferes with your daily activities or function, speak with your doctor. Seek immediate medical help if you have severe pain from a sudden injury.
Tunnel syndromes. This condition causes nerve compression. Examples of this condition include carpal tunnel syndrome, and cubital tunnel syndrome leads to these conditions.
Your doctor will start by assessing your signs, symptoms, and medical history. Symptoms such as fever or rash may help with the diagnosis to determine whether the pain is chronic or acute. Your healthcare provider will perform a hands-on exam to look for the source or cause of the pain by touching the affected area. Some testing methods may include:
Typically, this condition improves with proper treatment. If an underlying condition causes pain, treating that condition can help relieve symptoms. Maintaining strong bones and joints is essential for preventing this condition. Along with proper exercise and medications, ensure that you are following a healthy lifestyle, especially during the treatment course. Use good posture and limit repetitive movements to successfully treat the pain.
Medication Used for Musculoskeletal pain
Ibuprofen. This is a tolerable pain reliever than using aspirin. It is used as a simple analgesic and antipyretic for muscle and bone pain. You can buy OTC ibuprofen but ensure to talk to your doctor about taking this medication especially if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
Gout is a type of arthritis caused by a build-up of uric acid crystals in the joints. This condition has the distinction as it is one of the most frequently recorded illnesses throughout history. A gout attack can occur suddenly that may often wake you up at night and even the weight of your bedsheet is intolerable. This condition can occur in anyone but they often come earlier in men than women because men often have higher levels of uric acid.
Some attacks may occur frequently and others go years between episodes. If left untreated, attacks may become more frequent and may last longer which may also happen over again in the same joint.
You are more likely to develop this condition if you:
Gout is caused by crystals accumulating in your joint that cause inflammation and intense pain during an attack. Crystals can form when you have high levels of uric acid in your blood. Other causes are linked to certain medications, existing diseases, weight, and dietary choices.
There are two types of medication available for this condition to focus on two different problems. The first type reduces the inflammation and pain associated with the attack. The second type prevents gout complications by lowering the amount of uric acid in your blood. However, the potency of the medication depends on the severity and frequency of your symptoms along with other health problems.
Medications work best if it is coupled with a proper diet and healthy lifestyle. If you have this condition it is always important to:
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, progressive, and disabling autoimmune disease that causes inflammation, swelling, and pain in and around the joints and can affect other parts of the body. It usually affects the hands and feet first, but it can occur in any joint that may involve the same joints on both sides of the body.
RA is the result of an immune response in which the body’s immune system attacks its own healthy cells. Although there is no specific cause of this condition, some factors can increase the risk of developing the disease. Eventually, if left untreated, the inflammation can invade and destroy cartilage.
There is no cure for this condition but there are several ways to manage its symptoms and prevent future attacks. Clinical studies indicate that remission of symptoms is more likely when treatment begins early with medications known as disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs.
Medications such as NSAIDs can relieve pain and reduce inflammation. A recommended medication for this condition is Nabumetone. It possesses analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory actions used to manage symptoms of RA. Discuss with your doctor the possible benefits and risk factors before using this medication.
Steroids are also used as a medication to reduce inflammation and pain and slow joint damage. Doctors also recommend conventional DMARDs to slow the progression of the disease and save the joints and other tissues from permanent damage.
Your doctor may also refer you to a physical or occupational therapist who can teach you exercises to help keep your joints flexible. Besides suggesting ways to do daily tasks that are easier on your joints, the therapist may also suggest new ways to do them.
Surgery is the last option of treatment for RA if medications fail to prevent or slow joint damage. To restore your ability to use your joint, your doctor may recommend surgery to repair damaged joints. It can also reduce pain and improve function.
Fibromyalgia is a condition that causes pain all over the body or also referred to as widespread pain, sleep problems, fatigue, and often emotional and mental distress. People with this disease may be more sensitive to pain due to abnormal pain perception processing. Women are more likely to develop this condition than men. Many people also have tension headaches, temporomandibular joint disorders, irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety, and depression.
The primary symptoms of this condition include:
This condition often co-exists with other conditions, such as:
In people with fibromyalgia, repeated nerve stimulation changes their brains and spinal cords. This change involves an abnormal increase in levels of certain chemicals in the brain that signal pain. Moreover, the brain’s pain receptors seem to develop a memory of the pain and become sensitized, which means they can overreact in both painful and nonpainful situations.
Some of the related causes are Genetics as this condition tends to run in families, and certain genetic mutations may make you more susceptible to developing the disorder. Infections, physical, and emotional life events also cause chronic pain.
Generally, treatments for this disease include both medication and self-care strategies. The emphasis is on minimizing symptoms and improving general health. The use of multiple treatment strategies can have a cumulative effect since no one treatment works for all symptoms. Common choices include:
Duloxetine. It is an antidepressant that is also used to relieve chronic pain associated with a condition known as fibromyalgia. It is believed that duloxetine exerts antidepressant effects due to its serotonergic and noradrenergic activity in the central nervous system.
Dermatitis is a general term that describes a common skin irritation. It has many causes and forms and usually involves itchy, dry skin or a rash. This skin condition may also cause the skin to blister, ooze, crust, or flake off. Although this is not contagious, it will make you feel uncomfortable.
Each type of this condition tends to occur in a different part of your body. Symptoms may include:
Seek immediate help if:
A common cause of this condition is contact with something that irritates your skin or triggers an allergic reaction. Other causes include dry skin, a viral infection, bacteria, stress, genetic makeup, and a problem with the immune system. Other factors that may cause dermatitis are:
The treatment for this condition varies, depending on the cause and your symptoms. In addition to the lifestyle and home remedies, treatment might include one or more of the following:
Clobetasol. It is a corticosteroid that treats various types of skin disorders by controlling the production of inflammation-causing substances. It effectively reduces symptoms associated with allergic reactions in the skin.
Otomycosis is a fungal infection in the outer ear and causes inflammation, dry skin, and a smelly discharge in the ear canal. It usually affects the outer ear canal that starts from your eardrum and continues to the outside of your head. In some cases, it may affect the middle ear as well. About 10% of outer ear canal infections are caused by fungi.
These indications typically occur in one ear, but it is possible that both ears can be affected at the same time. Typical symptoms of otomycosis include:
Otomycosis can become chronic if someone does not respond to treatment or has a weakened immune system, diabetes mellitus, or a chronic skin condition, such as eczema.
Symptoms of otomycosis should always be evaluated by a doctor in order to get the correct diagnosis and treatment. The doctor will take a thorough medical history to determine if any risk factors are present. They will perform a physical exam with an instrument called an otoscope to look inside the ear canal and eardrum. In some cases, a sample of cells or fluid from the ear will be taken to be examined under a microscope. This will help them to differentiate between a fungal or bacterial infection.
Clotrimazole Cream. It is an antifungal medication used as a topical treatment for tinea infections. Use this cream two or three times daily. Continue to use the cream for at least 14 days after your symptoms have gone. Ensure to finish the treatment course to get the most benefits.
Bipolar 2 disorder is a form of mental illness that is similar to bipolar I disorder, with moods cycling between high and low over time. However, in this condition, the up moods never reach full-blown mania. The less-intense elevated moods in this disorder are called hypomanic episodes, or hypomania.
Most people with bipolar 2 disorder have also experienced periods of depression which may include:
Bipolar I disorder requires symptoms to meet the full criteria for what is known as a manic episode. The diagnosis of Bipolar I is not dependent on depression, but many people with the diagnosis experience both types of mood episodes. At least three of the following symptoms can determine the diagnosis:
Mania is more extreme than a sudden burst in energy, motivation, or a happy mood. It often causes problems at work, school, and in relationships, and in some cases it may require hospitalization. A manic episode is also just as frequently characterized by an irritable mood as an elevated one for people with Bipolar I.
For bipolar 2 disorder, on the other hand, a person has to have experienced a depressive episode and a less severe form of mania which is known as hypomania. Mania occurs when an individual displays manic symptoms but is able to carry on with day-to-day responsibilities. In fact, job performance or other goal-directed activities may even improve. To meet the diagnosis of a depressive episode, a person must experience 5 or more of the following symptoms:
Many people with bipolar 2 disorder are diagnosed with depression because they fail to report the elevated mood symptoms of hypomania to their doctor. Furthermore, people with bipolar 2 disorder are more likely to suffer from substance abuse and eating disorders, as well as have a family member suffering from a mental illness.
The types and doses of medications prescribed are based on your particular symptoms of bipolar 2 disorder. Whether you have bipolar I or II, medications may include:
Chlorpromazine. It is used to address symptoms of mania, psychosis, or agitation and not for long-term bipolar 2 disorder management. It works by helping to restore the balance of certain natural substances in the brain. It can reduce aggressive behavior and the desire to hurt yourself or others.
What are Beta Blockers?
Beta-blockers are a class of medicines most commonly used for problems involving your heart and your circulatory system. Doctors may also recommend them for your nervous system and brain conditions. It works by slowing down certain types of cell activity, which can help control blood pressure, heart rate, and more.
These medications are recommended as a first treatment in people who have only high blood pressure. These are not usually prescribed for high blood pressure unless other medications, such as diuretics, are not working well. Also, a doctor may prescribe a beta blocker as one of several medications to lower blood pressure. Other uses include:
These medications work by decreasing the total peripheral resistance and as a result, the blood pressure fall. It reduces noradrenaline release from the sympathetic terminals due to beta-receptor blockade. The beta-receptor inhibition can cause a decrease in renin release from the kidney.
Atenolol. It reduces cardiovascular complications in post-myocardial infarction patients. This medication has a longer duration of action and hence a dosage of once daily suffices. It also causes fewer CNS side effects and has a low risk of causing bronchoconstriction.
This medication can negatively impact several diseases, conditions, and health concerns. Tell your doctor if you have any of the following:
What is Conjunctivitis?
Conjunctivitis, also known as pinkeye, is an inflammation of the conjunctiva or the thin clear tissue that lies over the white part of the eye and lines the inside of the eyelid. This condition is common in children and can be contagious. Nevertheless, this condition is rarely severe and unlikely to damage vision.
Seek immediate help if you or your child experience any of the following symptoms:
The appropriate treatment for this depends on its cause.
The first step is to remove or avoid the irritant, if possible. Cool compresses and artificial tears sometimes relieve discomfort in mild cases. Antihistamines and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications may be prescribed in more severe cases.
This condition is usually treated with antibiotic eye drops or ointments. Bacterial pinkeye condition may improve after three or four days of treatment, but patients need to take an entire course of antibiotics to prevent a recurrence. However, no drops or ointments can treat conditions caused by viral infections. Like a common cold, the virus has to run its course, which may take up to two or three weeks. Symptoms can often be relieved with cool compresses and artificial tear solutions.
It is treated with careful flushing with saline. People with chemical conditions also may need to use topical steroids. In the case of severe chemical injuries, particularly alkali burns, scarring, damage to the eye or sight, or even loss of sight can occur. If chemical spills in your eye, flush the eye for several minutes with a lot of water before seeing your medical provider.
Promethazine. It is a phenothiazine derivative used in the treatment of rhinitis, pinkeye, and mild and uncomplicated allergic skin reactions. Promethazine is an H1 selective antagonist that exhibits sedative and antiemetic properties.
What Is Malaria?
Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite that is spread to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes. People who have this disease usually feel very sick with a high fever and shaking chills. This disease is uncommon in temperate climates, but it is still common in tropical and subtropical countries.
Some people who have malaria experience cycles of attacks that you usually start with shivering and chills, followed by a high fever, followed by sweating, and a return to normal temperature. Symptoms include:
It is caused by a single-celled parasite of the genus Plasmodium. The parasite is transmitted to humans most usually through mosquito bites.
Anyone can get malaria, but people who live in Africa have a higher risk of infection than others. There is an increased risk of malaria mortality among young children, the elderly, and pregnant women. The disease is more likely to cause complications in poor people with no access to healthcare. More than 90% of deaths occur in Africa, and almost all of them are children under the age of five.
Your doctor will review your medical history and recent travel, as well as your symptoms. Blood testing is the main diagnostic method to determine the condition. Blood tests can indicate:
This condition is treated with prescription medications that aim to kill the parasite. The length of the treatment period varies on the type of the parasite, the severity of symptoms, and age. In some cases, prescription drugs may not clear the condition due to the resistance of parasites to certain medications. If this happens, your medical provider will recommend other treatments or change the medications to successfully treat your condition.
Chloroquine. It is the preferred treatment for any parasite that is sensitive to the drug. But in many parts of the world, parasites are resistant to chloroquine, and the drug is no longer an effective treatment. Follow your doctor’s recommendation for successful treatment.
If you go somewhere or are traveling to an area where this disease is common, take steps to avoid mosquito bites. Mosquitoes are most active between dusk and dawn. To protect yourself from mosquito bites, you should:
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder in which people interpret reality abnormally. It may result in some combination of delusions, hallucinations, and extremely disordered thinking and behavior that weakens daily functioning, and can be disabling. People with this condition require lifelong treatment. Early treatment may help get symptoms under control before serious problems develop and may help improve the long-term outlook.
Schizophrenia includes a range of problems with behavior and emotions. These signs and symptoms may differ, but usually involve hallucination, delusion, or disorganized speech, and reflect a weakened ability to function. Other symptoms include:
Compared these symptoms in adults and teens may be:
These several factors may contribute to a person’s risk of developing this condition, including:
Research has not identified one single cause of schizophrenia. However, it may be caused by a combination of genes and environmental factors. There is also evidence that psychosocial factors may play a role in the onset and progression of the condition. Heavy use of cannabis is associated with an elevated risk of the disorder.
Schizophrenia requires lifelong treatment, even when symptoms have subsided. Treatment with medications and psychosocial therapy can help manage the condition. In some cases, hospitalization may be needed. To coordinate care, the treatment team may also include a psychologist, social worker, psychiatric nurse, and possibly a case manager.
Chlorpromazine. It is a prescription medicine used to treat the symptoms of Schizophrenia and psychotic disorders. It is also suggested by doctors to their patients to control agitation and mania in people who have bipolar disorder. It works by helping to restore the balance of certain natural substances in the brain. It can reduce aggressive actions and the desire to hurt yourself or others. It may also help to decrease hallucinations.
Pharyngitis is an inflammation of the pharynx, resulting in a sore throat. It is typically a symptom, rather than a condition. It is usually caused by viral or bacterial infections, such as the common cold and flu. Both viral infections or bacterial infections with the Streptococcus bacterium in your strep throat can also occur.
Signs and Symptoms of Pharyngitis
Symptoms of Pharyngitis can vary depending on the cause. It includes:
Infections causing a sore throat might result in other symptoms, including:
Seek help If you or your child, has severe signs and symptoms such as:
Viruses that cause the common cold and the flu also cause sore throats. Less often, bacterial infections cause this condition. Viral illnesses that cause a sore throat include:
Other causes of pharyngitis include:
The treatment of this condition depends on its cause and severity. For bacterial causes, doctors often recommend antibiotics. Ensure to take your medications as per directed by doctors for the utmost benefits. Pain relievers are also given to ease pain caused by swelling in the throat.
Clarithromycin. It is used to treat different bacterial infections like a sore throat. works by preventing the growth of infection-causing bacteria and stops the bacteria from growing by interfering with the protein synthesis in bacterial cells.
Lifestyle and Home Remedies for Pharyngitis
Alzheimer’s disease is a brain illness that slowly destroys thinking and memory skills. Eventually, this condition leads to difficulty in carrying out the simplest tasks. Most people with the sickness or those with the late-onset type symptoms first appear in their mid-60s. Early onset of this condition between a person’s 30s and mid-60s is very rare. It involves parts of the brain that control thought, memory, and language that can seriously affect your ability to carry out daily activities.
The symptoms of this condition vary from person to person, and may include problems with:
Other symptoms may be changes in the person’s behavior including:
This condition can range from minor to severe. The scale ranges from a state of mild impairment to moderate impairment before eventually reaching severe cognitive decline.
Unfortunately, Alzheimer’s disease has no available treatment but some medications can slow down its progress and help with behavioral changes. Doctors often recommend antidepressant drugs to treat anxiety, aggression, depression, and restlessness. Anti-anxiety drugs are also used to treat agitation along with anticonvulsants to treat aggression.
Memantine HCI. It is used to treat moderate to severe dementia related to this condition. It works by decreasing abnormal activity in the brain. Memantine may improve the ability to think and remember or may slow the loss of these abilities in people who have AD.
HIV is a virus that attacks cells that help the body fight infection, making a person more vulnerable to other infections and diseases. Over decades, the disease slowly spread across Africa and later into other parts of the world. It is spread by contact with certain bodily fluids of a person with the infection, most commonly during unprotected or through sharing injection drug equipment.
The signs and symptoms of this condition depend on its severity and phase.
Some patients develop symptoms 2 to 4 weeks after the virus enters the body. Signs and symptoms are:
In this stage, the virus is still present in the body and in white blood cells. However, there are no typical symptoms or infections during this time. This stage can also last for many years if you are receiving regular therapy.
At this stage, the virus multiplies and destroys your immune cells and triggers chronic symptoms.
1. Seroconversion illness. Infection can cause a short illness for some people shortly after contracting it. This is known as seroconversion illness or primary or acute condition.
2. The asymptomatic stage of HIV. Asymptomatic stages can last several years and are commonly called asymptomatic stages. Though you might feel well at this stage, the virus is active, infecting new cells, replicating, and damaging your immune system.
3. Symptomatic stage. Living with this condition without treatment increases your risk of developing infections that your weakened immune system can’t handle, including certain cancers and HIV-related diseases.
4. Late-stage. Certain opportunistic infections and cancers may develop if it causes a lot of damage to your immune system. These illnesses are also known as AIDS-defining.
It is caused by a virus that spreads through sexual contact, contact with infected blood, illegal injection drug use or sharing needles, or from mother to child during pregnancy, or breastfeeding. The following factors also increase your risk of getting the virus:
Currently, there is no cure for HIV. Infection cannot be cured once it is present in the body. However, many medications can control and prevent complications. These include antiretroviral therapy or ART. Most often, it consists of two or more medications from different drug classes.
To prevent getting infected, ensure to maintain healthy sexual practices such as avoiding multiple sex partners and maintaining proper hygiene. Protect yourself from getting the infection by using condoms during sex. Use KamaSutra Pink Dotted Condoms, which is made from premium rubber latex with changes in its texture for maximum benefits.
NOTE: Condoms are not used as a treatment for any sexually transmitted disease. Seek immediate help if you have symptoms or if you are exposed to an infected individual.
Dysmenorrhea is the term used to describe painful periods. The primary type refers to recurrent pain, while the second condition results from reproductive system disorders. The pain usually begins one or two days before you get your period or when the bleeding actually starts. You may feel pain ranging from mild to severe in the lower abdomen, back, or thighs.
Contact your doctor if the symptoms of dysmenorrhea worsen regardless of taking pain relievers. Keep track of your periods and the days on which pain is the worst and if you notice other symptoms, like headaches or heavy flows, you should keep track of those, too. Your doctor will assess you when you started getting your period, how long they last, and what kinds of treatments you might have tried already.
Dysmenorrhea is a result of problems with the reproductive organs such as:
Dysmenorrhea happens when a chemical called prostaglandin makes the uterus contract. The uterus contracts throughout your menstrual cycle and it is stronger during your menstruation. It can press against nearby blood vessels, cutting off the supply of oxygen to muscle tissue. You feel pain when part of the muscle briefly loses its supply of oxygen.
Period pain can sometimes be caused by intrauterine devices, especially after a few months of insertion. After an IUD insertion, your period might change and become more irregular, or last longer than normal.
Speak to your pharmacist for advice on pain relief for more severe pain, there are other types of medications that are only available from your doctor. There are several things you can do to relieve pain and cramps such as:
Thanksgiving is probably the most anticipated meal of the year, but it can cause discomfort for people who have GERD. To minimize the attacks or this condition, ensure to plan ahead your menu to celebrate thanksgiving with gladness.
GERD is a disease that can lead to damage and, eventually, complications to the esophagus over time. It occurs when stomach acid repeatedly flows back into the tube connecting your mouth and stomach. It can interfere with daily living, but most people can get relief from it through lifestyle changes, home remedies, and medical treatment.
A burning sensation in your chest, usually after eating, which might be worse at night or while lying down:
If you have nighttime acid reflux, you might also experience:
You can also make some strategic decisions about the Thanksgiving meal to prevent symptoms. Experts suggest eating earlier in the day to allow more time to digest the meal. Alcohol is a trigger for many people, so you may want to avoid alcohol or just have a small glass of wine with your early meal.
Esomeprazole. It is a Proton Pump Inhibitor that reduces gastric secretion. It reduces the amount of acid your stomach makes and treats indigestion, heartburn and acid reflux, and gastroesophageal reflux disease.
Class III obesity, previously known as morbid obesity, is a complex chronic condition that can lead to several serious health issues. When you resort to processed foods, it can increase the fat deposition in your body. Excessive weight is due to fat accumulation that links to health problems. When your BMI is over 30, you are obese. It is due to eating loads of calories and having an inactive lifestyle. Likewise, it is also due to genetic disorders.
When you eat, your body uses the calories you consume to run your body. The body also needs calories to pump your heart or digest food. If those calories are not used, the body stores them as fat. Your body will build up fat stores if you continue to eat more calories than your body can use during daily activities and exercise. Morbid conditions are due to chronic and uncontrolled weight gain caused by several factors.
Treatment for excessive weight gain is a combination of therapy and the help of professionals to increase your chances of success. These includes:
Orlistat. It is a drug that is prescribed to people suffering from morbid weight gain conditions. works by inhibiting the lipases that are required to break down the fatty acids, thereby preventing the absorption of fatty acids in the diet. Talk to your doctor about the risk, benefits, and further guidelines when taking orlistat for weight loss.
Peptic ulcers are open sores that develop on the inside lining of your stomach and the upper portion of your small intestine. It occurs when stomach acid damages the lining of the digestive tract. Common causes include the bacteria H. Pylori and anti-inflammatory pain relievers including aspirin. Two types of the condition are:
Stomach acid makes the pain worse, as does having an empty stomach. The pain can often be relieved by eating certain foods that control stomach acid or by taking an acid-reducing medication.
Less occurring but severe symptoms include:
If you have any of the severe symptoms listed above, see your doctor immediately. See your doctor if over-the-counter antacids and acid blockers don’t relieve your pain.
It occurs when acid in the digestive tract eats away at the inner surface of the stomach or small intestine. The acid can create a painful open sore that may bleed. A mucous layer covers the digestive tract and protects it from acid. Ulcers may develop if there is an increase in acid or a decrease in mucus. Other causes include:
To determine the diagnosis, your doctor will ask about your medical history and perform physical and diagnostic tests such as:
The treatment for this condition focuses on dealing with the cause such as the H.pylori bacteria and reducing discomfort using pain relievers. Antibiotic medications are used to kill the bacteria along with medications that block the production of stomach acids.
Cimetidine. It is used to treat ulcers of the stomach and intestines and prevent them from coming back after they have healed. It works by reducing the amount of acid in your stomach. This medication is also available without a prescription.
A pseudomonas infection is caused by a bacterium of the Genus Pseudomonas. The bacteria are found widely in the environment, such as in soil, water, and plants. They usually do not cause infections in healthy people. It is more likely that people will contract a severe infection if they are already hospitalized with another illness or condition, or if they have a weak immune system. These are fairly common microorganisms involved in infections acquired in a hospital setting.
It lives in the environment and can be spread to people in healthcare settings when they are exposed to water or soil that is contaminated with these microorganisms. Resistant strains of the bacteria can also spread in healthcare settings from one person to another through contaminated hands, equipment, or surfaces.
Specific symptoms depend on where the infection occurs. Watch out for the following:
A blood infection is one of the most severe infections caused by this condition. Symptoms may include:
Infection of the lungs is called pneumonia. Symptoms include:
When this bacterium infects the skin, it most often affects the hair follicles. Symptoms may include:
An external ear canal infection may sometimes be caused by this condition. Symptoms may include:
Symptoms of an eye infection may include:
These infections are caused by a free-living bacterium from the Genus Pseudomonas. They are commonly found in moist areas such as soil and water. The bacteria can be spread in hospitals via the hands of healthcare workers, or by clinic equipment that is not properly cleaned. These infections are considered opportunistic infections as it affects a person’s immune system that is already impaired. Your risks of getting the condition increase if you:
These infections are treated with antibiotics. Unfortunately, many infections are becoming more difficult to treat. Antibiotics are no match for these bacteria, as they have developed the ability to adapt to their environment and overcome them. This is called antibiotic resistance.
The increase in antibiotic resistance has made treating infections much more challenging. Oftentimes, it develops resistance to multiple types of antibiotics and can even develop resistance during treatment. Your medical provider must select the right antibiotic and other medications for you. To do this, your doctor may recommend further laboratory testing to determine which medications work best.
A doctor might ask about recent activities that might help diagnose the infection, like swimming or using a hot tub. They will also carry out a physical examination or take samples of blood or fluid from the affected area to confirm a diagnosis. It may also be necessary to conduct laboratory tests to determine the best course of treatment since there are different types of bacteria.
Ciprofloxacin Dexamethasone Otic. It has high potency and rapid bactericidal activity and a long post-antibiotic effect on certain bacterial infections. It exhibits a low frequency of mutational resistance. Ciprofloxacin is in a class of medications called quinolone antibiotics. Dexamethasone is in a class of medications called corticosteroids.
The combination of ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone works by killing the bacteria that cause infection and reducing swelling. Before using this medication ensure to tell your doctor about your allergies and other conditions. Inform your doctor about the prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take.
Desloratadine is an antihistamine used to relieve allergy symptoms. It is also used to treat skin hives and itching in people with chronic skin reactions. Ingestion of this medication does not cause drowsiness like other drugs in the same category. You can easily buy desloratadine online or through your local pharmacy. It belongs to a group of medications called antihistamines that stops the effects of histamine, a chemical that causes allergy symptoms. Talk to your doctor about the benefits and other recommendations of this drug.
It works by preventing the effects of a substance called histamine, which is produced by the body. Histamine can cause itching, sneezing, runny nose, and watery eyes. Also, in some cases, histamine can close up the air passages of the lungs and make breathing difficult. Histamine can also cause some persons to have hives, with severe itching of the skin.
It is an antihistamine used to relieve symptoms of hives in the skin and hay fever. Take this medication by mouth with a glass of water. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully. Take it as exactly as directed avoid having more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.
If you are using the rapidly-dissolving tablet, allow the tablet to dissolve on the tongue and then swallow, with or without water. If you are using the liquid form of this medication, carefully measure the dose using a special measuring device or spoon.
If you miss a dose, take the medicine as soon as you can, but skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next dose. Do not take two doses at one time. Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed.
Get medical help if you experience symptoms of drug allergies such as:
This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.
In case of allergic reactions or serious side effects such as fast or irregular heartbeat, inability to sleep, muscle pain, hallucinations, seizures, or restlessness with increased body movements. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if any of the side effects become serious, or if you notice any that are not listed in this leaflet. Consult a doctor if the condition worsens or does not improve after 14 days of use.
Before taking desloratadine:
Cyproheptadine is an antihistamine that reduces the effects of the natural chemical histamine in the body. It is used to treat a variety of allergic conditions. This medication comes in both tablet and syrup forms and can be used in people ages 2 and older. However, this is not commonly used because it causes more drowsiness and other side effects compared to other allergy medications.
Cyproheptadine is used to treat sneezing, runny nose, itching, red or watery eyes, and other symptoms of seasonal allergies. This is also prescribed to treat other conditions such as eczema or skin reactions to insect bites and is sometimes used to treat certain types of headaches, including migraines.
The dosage of this medication depends on your condition or age. Your doctor may change your dosage to get the best results. Avoid taking this medication in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. To get the proper amount for a liquid prescription, use the syringe provided, or a special dose-measuring spoon or medicine cup.
If you miss a dose, take the missed dose as soon as you remember but skip it if is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up for the missed dose. Avoid drinking alcohol with this medicine because it can interfere with recovery and may cause other health risks.
Store Cyproheptadine in a cool dry place or away from direct sunlight and moisture. Avoid putting this in the freezer or hot temperature to prevent the solution from spoiling. Keep away from the reach of children and pets.
Rare side effects of Cyproheptadine that may need medical attention include:
Amoxicillin is a penicillin antibiotic that fights bacteria. It is used to treat many different types of infections caused by bacteria. It is also sometimes used together with another medication called clarithromycin to treat stomach ulcers caused by H.pylori infection.
Other bacterial infections that occur in the ear, nose, throat, and skin are also treated with this medication along with other prescriptions given by doctors.
You can take it by mouth with a glass of water. It is permissible either before or after a meal. Avoid chewing or breaking the tablet. If you forget to take a dose, take it as soon as you remember unless it’s nearly time for your next dose. In this case, just leave out the missed dose and take your next dose at the usual time. Avoid taking two tablets at the same time as it leads to overdoing and other risks.
The dose of this medicine varies from person to person depending on your condition. Follow your doctor’s orders or the directions on the label that includes information on the average doses of this medicine. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.
For the treatment of gonorrhea, the quantity is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 50 milligrams per kilogram of body weight per day, combined with other single-dose medication.
Seek immediate help if you or your child experience any severe symptoms such as:
Stick to simple meals if you feel nauseous and do not eat rich or spicy food. It might help to take your medicine after a meal or snack. For diarrhea, drink plenty of fluids, such as water to avoid dehydration. Signs of dehydration include peeing less than usual or having dark, strong-smelling pee.
Hives are a skin reaction that causes itchy welts. It often starts as itchy patches that turn into swollen welts that vary in size. These swellings appear and fade at random as the reaction runs its course. Chronic hives can be very uncomfortable and interfere with sleep and daily activities.
See your healthcare provider if you have severe conditions that last for more than a few days. Seek emergency medical care if:
The swellings that come with this reaction are caused by the release of immune system chemicals, such as histamine, into your bloodstream. The specific cause of this condition depends on their type such as:
Unlike some other skin conditions, these are not contagious. But if you develop rashes because your skin is exposed to secretions from a plant like poison ivy, you can spread the allergenic product to others until you wash it off.
Your healthcare provider will likely talk with you about your symptoms and look at your skin. One of the effective features of this condition is that the welts come and go at random. You might be asked to keep a diary to keep track of:
Treatment for chronic conditions often starts with nonprescription antihistamines. If these do not help, your doctor might suggest that you try one or more medications.
Loratadine. It is a medication used to treat various skin allergies. works by selectively antagonizing peripheral H1 histamine receptors. It works effectively, with the results showing immediately after taking the pill.
Tonsillitis is inflammation of the tonsils or the two oval-shaped pads of tissue at the back of the throat. Most cases of tonsillitis are caused by infection with a common virus. Bacterial infections may also cause inflammation of the tonsils.
This condition is common in children between preschool ages and the mid-teenage years. Symptoms include:
In young children signs may include:
Call your doctor if your child is experiencing:
It is caused by common viruses, but bacterial infections also can be the cause. The most common bacterium causing tonsillitis is Streptococcus Pyogenes which also causes strep throat. Other strains of strep and other bacteria also may cause this condition.
The tonsils are the immune system’s first line of defense against bacteria and viruses that enter your mouth. This function may make the tonsils particularly susceptible to infection and inflammation. However, the tonsil’s immune system function declines after puberty which becomes a factor that may cause such a condition in adults.
A throat swab is a common method to diagnose the condition. Your doctor will rub a sterile swab over the back of your throat to get a sample of secretions. The sample will be checked in the clinic or a lab for streptococcal bacteria.
A Complete blood cell count also helps with the diagnosis. Doctors will recommend this to determine what’s elevated, what’s normal, or what’s below normal can indicate whether an infection is more likely caused by a bacterial or viral agent.
Treatment of this condition depends on the causes and severity. If it is caused by a bacterial infection, your doctor will prescribe a course of antibiotics. Failure to take all of the medication as directed may result in the infection worsening or spreading to other parts of the body. Not completing the full course of antibiotics can, in particular, increase your child’s risk of rheumatic fever.
Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium. It is an antibiotic in the class of drugs called penicillins that fights bacteria in your body to treat many different types of infections. It acts as a beta-lactase inhibitor that prevents the bacteria from developing resistance to Amoxicillin. The combination of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium is very powerful and protects against a wide range of bacterial infections.
At-home care remedies to use during the recovery time include the following:
Hay fever is an allergic reaction to pollen when it comes into contact with your mouth, throat, or nose, and throat. Pollen is a fine powder from plants. The proper name for this condition is allergic rhinitis, which means inflammation inside your nose.
When you have hay fever, your immune system mistakenly identifies a harmless airborne substance as being harmful. It causes your immune system to protect protects itself, so it produces immunoglobulin E antibodies to protect against this allergen. The next time you come in contact with the allergen, these antibodies signal your immune system to release chemicals such as histamine into your bloodstream. This causes a reaction that leads to the symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Other causes and risk factors include:
The best treatment is to limit your exposure to substances that cause your condition. If your hay fever is not severe, your doctor may recommend medications. You can also buy without a prescription may be enough to relieve symptoms. For worse symptoms, you may need prescription medications.
Immunotherapy might be especially effective if you’re allergic to animal dander, dust mites, or pollen. In children, immunotherapy may help prevent asthma. Doctors will recommend allergy shots to change the way the immune system reacts to allergens. Aside from allergy shots, some physician also recommends taking tiny amounts of allergen in pill form that dissolves in your mouth. Pills are usually taken daily.
Reduce your symptoms by limiting your exposure to the typical triggers by knowing what you are allergic to. For pollen or mold, aversion ensure avoiding outdoor activity in the early morning, when pollen counts are highest, and also on high pollen-count days.
Consider removing carpeting, especially where you sleep, if you are highly sensitive to dust mites. Keep pets out of your home or bathe them regularly to avoid attacks caused by pet danders. Talk to your doctor if you are considering taking alternative or herbal medications.
Asthma is a disease that affects your lungs and is one of the most common long-term conditions in children. It causes wheezing, coughing, and chest tightness. If you have asthma, you have it all the time, but you will have attacks only when something troubles your lungs.
Signs of worsening condition:
There is no specific cause of this condition but there are typical triggers that can kickstart its attack. Some causes are due to a combination of environmental and inherited factors. Other trigger includes:
Watch out for these factors that increase your risk of developing or triggering an attack. They include:
Attacks can be prevented and controlled long-term. Symptoms are usually controlled by learning your triggers, avoiding triggers, and tracking your breathing to ensure your medications are working. In case of an asthma flare-up, you may need to use a quick-relief inhaler.
The right medications for you depend on your age, symptoms, triggers, and what works best to keep your condition under control. Inflammation of your airways leads to symptoms when you take preventative, long-term control medications. Quick-relief inhalers quickly open swollen airways that are limiting breathing. In some cases, allergy medications are necessary.
Albuterol relieves bronchospasm associated with asthma and chronic pulmonary diseases. It works by dilating the bronchial muscles and acts upon the airways by opening the breathing passages. It also relaxes the muscles of the breathing passages, thereby allowing a smooth flow of air and relieving the difficulties in breathing.
Taking steps to reduce your exposure to its triggers is a key part of the control. You can prevent its attack through lifestyle and home remedies, especially for patients who have a chronic condition.
Clinical depression is a serious condition that negatively affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. It is persistent and often with a person’s ability to experience or anticipate pleasure. If inadequately treated, depression can lead to significant impairment, other health-related issues, and in rare cases, suicide.
Despair is not a normal part of growing older, and it should never be taken lightly. Unfortunately, this condition often goes undiagnosed and untreated in older adults. Symptoms of this condition may be different or less obvious in older adults, such as:
Medications and psychotherapy are effective for most people with depression. However, many people with this condition also benefit from seeing a psychiatrist, psychologist, or other mental health professional. Other treatments are Electroconvulsive therapy and transcranial magnetic stimulation. In ECT, electrical currents are passed through the brain to impact the function and effect of neurotransmitters in your brain to relieve the condition. TMS, on the other hand, can be an option for those who haven’t responded to antidepressants.
Citalopram is an effective drug to treat major depression associated with mood disorders. This is also used as a medication for panic disorders and anxiety. This prescription belongs to Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors which work by restoring the balance of those neurotransmitters that are responsible for producing anxiety and mood changes.
Dementia is a term used to describe a group of symptoms that affects memory, thinking, and social abilities severely enough to interfere with your daily life. Though dementia generally involves memory loss, memory loss has different causes. Having memory loss alone doesn’t mean you have dementia, although it’s often one of the early signs of the condition.
Dementia is currently the seventh leading cause of death among all diseases and one of the major causes of disability and dependency among older people worldwide. The condition has physical, psychological, social, and economic impacts, not only for people living with dementia but also for their carers, families, and society at large.
Dementia is a syndrome, usually of a chronic or progressive nature that leads to deterioration in cognitive function beyond what might be expected from the usual consequences of biological aging. It affects thinking, memory, comprehension, orientation, calculation, language, learning capacity, and judgment.
Dementia affects each person differently, depending upon the underlying causes, other health conditions, and the person’s cognitive functioning before becoming ill. The signs and symptoms can be understood in three stages.
Early stage: Dementia is often overlooked because the onset is gradual. Common symptoms may include:
Middle stage: The signs and symptoms become clearer and may include:
Late stage: The late stage of dementia is one of near total dependence and inactivity. Memory disturbances are serious and the physical signs and symptoms become more obvious and may include:
Dementia is caused by damage to brain cells. This damage interferes with the ability of brain cells to communicate with each other. When brain cells cannot communicate normally, thinking, behavior, and feelings can be affected. The brain has many distinct regions, each of which is responsible for different functions. When cells in a particular region are damaged, that region cannot carry out its functions normally.
Usually, dementia goes through these stages. But it may vary depending on the area of the brain that’s affected.
1. No impairment. Someone at this stage will show no symptoms, but tests may reveal a problem.
2. Very mild decline. You may notice slight changes in behavior, but still independent.
3. Mild decline. You’ll notice more changes in their thinking and reasoning. They may have trouble making plans and may repeat themselves a lot. They may also have a hard time remembering recent events.
4. Moderate decline. They’ll have more problems with making plans and remembering recent events.
5. Moderately severe decline. They may not remember their phone number or their grandchildren’s names. They may be confused about the time of day or day of the week. At this point, they’ll need assistance with some basic day-to-day functions.
6. Severe decline. They’ll begin to forget the name of their spouse. They’ll need help going to the restroom and eating. You may also see changes in their personality and emotions.
7. Very severe decline. They can no longer speak their thoughts. They can’t walk and will spend most of their time in bed.
To treat dementia, doctors will treat whatever is causing it. If the cause of a person’s dementia is not reversible, treatment will focus on managing symptoms, particularly agitation and other emotional concerns.
If your loved one is in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease, the most common form of dementia, their doctor may prescribe this monthly infusion. It’s a monoclonal antibody that lessens the build-up of things called amyloid plaques in your brain. These plaques are part of what leads to the memory loss associated with Alzheimer’s disease.
Medicines such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can sometimes help to slow the progression of cognitive changes, but quite often the effects of medicines are only modest and cannot prevent the eventual worsening of the underlying condition.
Parkinson’s disease is a progressive disorder that affects the nervous system and the parts of the body controlled by the nerves. Symptoms start slowly. In the early stages of Parkinson’s disease, your face may show little or no expression. Your arms may not swing when you walk. The disease may be improved with medications.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a type of movement disorder that can affect the ability to perform daily activities. It is characterized by its most common motor symptoms, tremors, stiffness or rigidity of the muscles, and slowness of movement. Also, it manifests in non-motor symptoms including sleep problems, constipation, anxiety, depression, and fatigue.
The known symptoms of Parkinson’s disease involve loss of muscle control. However, experts now know that muscle control-related issues aren’t the only possible symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.
Additional motor symptoms can include:
Parkinson’s disease is caused by a loss of nerve cells in a part of the brain called the substantia nigra. This leads to a reduction in a chemical called dopamine in the brain. Dopamine plays a vital role in regulating the movement of the body. A reduction in dopamine is responsible for many of the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.
Exactly what causes the loss of nerve cells is unclear. Most experts think that a combination of genetic and environmental factors is responsible.
There are currently no blood or laboratory tests to diagnose non-genetic cases of Parkinson’s. Doctors usually diagnose the disease by taking a person’s medical history and performing a neurological examination. If symptoms improve after starting to take medication, it’s another indicator that the person has Parkinson’s.
Several disorders can cause symptoms similar to those of Parkinson’s disease. People with Parkinson’s-like symptoms that result from other causes, such as multiple system atrophy and dementia with Lewy bodies are sometimes said to have Parkinsonism. While these disorders initially may be misdiagnosed as Parkinson’s, certain medical tests, as well as responses to drug treatment, may help to better evaluate the cause. Many other diseases have similar features but require different treatments, so it is important to get an accurate diagnosis as soon as possible.
While there is no cure for Parkinson’s at this time, there are several treatments that can ease symptoms. The medications are the mainstay of treatment, but modalities are often used in combination. Physical, occupational, and speech therapy can be critical to the treatment plan. Surgical options also have an important role for a subset of patients with the disease. Lastly, complementary therapies can be used to treat some Parkinson’s disease symptoms. Your physician and other healthcare professionals can help you determine the best treatment plan for your symptoms.
Recommended medication that can be used to manage Parkinson’s disease:
The doctor may prescribe other medicines to treat Parkinson’s symptoms, including:
Obesity is a complex disease involving an excessive amount of body fat. It isn’t just a cosmetic concern. It’s a medical problem that increases the risk of other diseases and health problems such as heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure. There are many reasons why some people have difficulty losing weight. Usually, obesity results from inherited, physiological and environmental factors, combined with diet, physical activity, and exercise choices.
Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a health risk. A body mass index (BMI) over 25 is considered overweight, and over 30 is obese. The issue has grown to epidemic proportions, with over 4 million people dying each year as a result of being obese in 2017 according to the global burden of disease.
Obesity is one side of the double burden of malnutrition and today more people are obese than underweight. Once considered a problem only in high-income countries, overweight and obesity are now dramatically on the rise in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings. The vast majority of overweight or obese children live in developing countries, where the rate of increase has been more than 30% higher than that of developed countries.
The most obvious symptom is the increase in weight therefore the symptoms that may be presented arise from this increase in weight that, among others, other symptoms may include:
The main signs also derive from the magnitude of the excess weight, the most common:
Several factors can play a role in gaining and retaining excess weight. These include diet, lack of exercise, environmental factors, and genetics.
The best way to treat obesity is to eat a healthy, reduced-calorie diet, and exercise regularly. To do this you should:
You may also benefit from receiving psychological support from a trained healthcare professional to help change the way you think about food and eating. If lifestyle changes alone don’t help you lose weight, a medication called orlistat may be recommended. If taken correctly, this medication works by reducing the amount of fat you absorb during digestion. Your GP will know whether Orlistat is suitable for you.
The drug is used with an individualized low-calorie, low-fat diet, and exercise program to help people lose weight. Orlistat is in a class of medications called lipase inhibitors. It works by preventing some of the fat in foods eaten from being absorbed in the intestines.
In rare cases, weight loss surgery may be recommended.
Genital warts are one of the most common types of sexually transmitted infections. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), HPV is the most common of all STIs. Everyone who is sexually active is vulnerable to complications of HPV, including genital warts.
Genital warts are similar to common warts but are usually found around or in the vagina, cervix, penis, scrotum, rectum, or the area between the vagina and rectum. They are soft, fleshy, small growths on the skin.
This condition is more contagious, or more easily spread, than other warts. They are spread by skin-to-skin contact. They may spread to other nearby parts of the body and they may be passed from person to person by sexual activity. The warts are usually first seen 1 to 6 months after you have been infected with HPV. However, you can be infected with HPV without having any visible warts.
Genital warts are transmitted through sexual activity including oral, vaginal, and anal sex. You may not start to develop warts for several weeks or months after infection. It isn’t always visible to the human eye. They may be very small and the color of the skin or slightly darker. The top of the growths may resemble a cauliflower and may feel smooth or slightly bumpy to the touch. They may occur as a cluster of warts, or just one wart.
For people assigned male at birth, genital warts may appear in the following areas:
For people assigned female at birth, these warts may appear:
Genital warts may also appear on the lips, mouth, tongue, or throat of a person who has had oral sexual contact with a person who has HPV.
Even if you can’t see genital warts, they may still cause symptoms, such as:
If genital warts spread or become enlarged, the condition can be uncomfortable or even painful.
A genital wart appears on the skin around your genitals and anus. Certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause them. Some types of HPV can cause cancer, but those aren’t the same ones that result in genital warts.
HPV can be a challenging STD to understand. Most of the time, it will fade away on its own, but it is one of the most common STDs. Untreated high-risk HPV can sometimes develop into cancer. It is also possible to get warts on your vulva, vagina, cervix, rectum, anus, penis, or scrotum from other low-risk types of HPV. Genital warts are common. About 360,000 people get them each year.
Depending on the severity, genital warts may disappear on their own, grow larger, or multiply. Genital warts can be removed in different ways. Getting rid of warts may require several treatments. Generally, an anesthetic will be administered first to numb the area being treated. Sexual contact should be avoided during treatment. Your healthcare provider may use one of these methods to treat genital warts:
The recommended medicine for genital warts:
Estradiol valerate is a hormone replacement therapy used to treat the symptoms of osteoporosis, menopause, hypoestrogenism, and advanced androgen-dependent prostate carcinoma. Buy Estradiol Valerate online at a reasonable price.
Estradiol valerate works by enhancing the lowered levels of sex hormones in women who undergo peri and post-menopausal periods. Menopause is stopping a woman’s period after an entire span of 12 months without menstruation. This medication is rapidly oxidized in the liver to estrone, which is hydroxylated to form estriol.
All these three forms are found in the blood. It is the most potent of the three. Secreted in menstruating women under the influence of FSH and concentration of Estradiol Valeratein blood increases during the follicular phase. After ovulation corpus luteum continues to secrete estrogens till about 2 days before menstruation.
It helps in combating several symptoms of menopause such as:
Doctors often prescribe this medication for:
If any of these side effects persist, ensure to seek immediate help. Some serious side effects may also occur however, most patients have zero to minimal effects. These includes:
Serious but less likely to occur symptoms includes:
Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a condition caused when stomach acid repeatedly flows back into the tube connecting your mouth and esophagus. Repeated backwash can irritate the lining of your esophagus. Most people can manage the discomfort of GERD with lifestyle changes and medications.
If you have nighttime acid reflux, you might also experience:
Seek immediate help if you experience these symptoms:
Though there is no single and specific cause of GERD, there is a mechanism in your body that can increase the possibility of it. Acid reflux happens when your lower esophageal sphincter does not tighten or close properly. This allows digestive juices and other contents from your stomach to rise up into your esophagus. Other possible causes include:
Your doctor is likely to recommend that you first try lifestyle changes and nonprescription medications. During the first few weeks of treatment, your doctor may prescribe prescription medication and recommend additional testing if you do not experience relief.
Omeprazole is inactive in neutral pH. Prilosec is a Proton Pump Inhibitor that reduces gastric secretion. It works by decreasing the amount of acid produced by the stomach. This medicine is available both over-the-counter and with your doctor’s prescription.
Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis which affects millions of people worldwide. It occurs when the protective cartilage that wears down. Although it can damage any joint, the disorder most commonly affects joints in your hips, hands, and spine. Staying active, maintaining a healthy weight and regular treatments helps slow down the progression of the disease and help improve pain and joint function.
Osteoarthritis is caused by damage or breakdown of joint cartilage between bones. Eventually, if the cartilage wears down completely, the bone will rub on the bone. Besides the breakdown of cartilage, OA affects the entire joint. It causes changes in the bone and deterioration of the connective tissues that hold the joint together and attach muscle to bone. Several risk factors may cause the disease such as:
During the physical exam, your doctor will check your affected joint for tenderness, swelling, redness, and flexibility through imaging tests, MRI, x-ray, blood test, joint fluid analysis, and other laboratory examinations to determine the diagnosis.
Osteoarthritis has no cure but you can treat and slows down the production through prescribed medications and therapy. Medications and therapy for this condition include:
Sodium Hyaluronate is indicated for the treatment of pain in patients who have failed to respond to conservative nonpharmacologic therapy and to simple analgesics like acetaminophen. It works by improving the joint fluid that helps the knee to move smoothly and thereby reduces the pain in joints.
Strongyloidiasis is a disease caused by a nematode, or a roundworm, in the genus Strongyloides. Strongyloides stercoralis is one of over 40 species within this genus that may cause disease in birds, reptiles, amphibians, livestock, and other primates. The virus sometimes infects primates, dogs, and cats, and some strains infecting dogs and primates can infect humans as well.
Severe symptoms may include:
It can be severe and life-threatening in persons who:
In case of severe side effects, ensure to seek immediate medical help from the nearest medical facility.
It is caused by a nematode, or a roundworm, in the genus Strongyloides. Once they are in your small intestine, they lay their eggs. Adult females can lay up to 40 eggs per day. Either these eggs are passed out in the stool and continue to contaminate the soil, or they remain inside of you and cause autoinfection. When the worms burrow back into your intestines or the skin around your anus, they re-infect you.
This is often found in wet, moist areas, including South America, Africa, and the Southeastern United States. Your risks increase if you travel in those areas for a longer period. This condition is found more often in the following people:
Strongyloidiasis can be challenging to diagnose because examining the stool under a microscope does not always show the infection. Doctors may recommend stool tests for five sessions to ensure the diagnosis. It can also sometimes be diagnosed with a blood test and some cases may diagnose by testing fluid from your lungs or small intestine.
Treatment is recommended for all persons found to be infected, whether symptomatic or not, due to the risk of developing hyperinfection syndrome. Additionally, it is suggested that patients be considered for testing before being initiated on any immunosuppressive therapy, particularly corticosteroids.
A sputum or stool culture should be negative for 2 weeks for people with a weakened immune system or hyperinfection syndrome. In some cases, antibiotics are required to treat bacterial infections as well.
Most people do not know when their exposure happened. For those who do, a local rash can occur immediately. Coughing usually occurs several days later and the abdominal symptoms typically occur approximately 2 weeks later, and larvae can be found in the stool about 3 to 4 weeks later.
In countries where sanitation and human waste disposal have improved, strongyloidiasis has been mostly eliminated. Additional strategies to prevent strongyloidiasis include the following:
Ivermectin is a recommended treatment for this condition. It is a disease caused by a roundworm. This drug is effective in treating this kind of condition. It works by paralyzing and inactivating the gut of parasites in humans. It stops the adult one from producing larvae. It kills the newly developed parasite and works to treat the infection.
Inform your doctor right away if you experience this symptom. If you develop other side effects it’s better to visit your doctor. Seek medical attention.
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune and inflammatory disease that causes your immune system to attack the healthy cells in your body by mistake. It leads to inflammation in the affected parts of the body. RA mainly attacks the joints, usually many joints commonly in the hands, wrists, and knees. This damage can cause long-lasting or chronic pain, unsteadiness, and deformity.
As the disease progresses the symptoms spread and affect the wrists, shoulders, elbows, hips, and ankles. About 40% of people who have this condition also experience signs and symptoms that don’t involve the joints. Areas that may be affected include:
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease caused by your immune system that attacks healthy tissue in your joints. It can also cause medical problems with your heart, lungs, eyes, skin, and nerves. There is no specific cause of the condition but in some cases reacts to environmental factors. Here are several risk factors of RA that you should watch out for:
Rheumatoid arthritis has no cure however, clinical studies indicate that remission of symptoms is more likely when treatment begins early with medications. Typical medications are NSAIDs, biological agents, steroids, targeted, and conventional DMARDS. Your doctor may also recommend a physical or occupational therapist to teach you to exercise and keep your joints flexible. Surgery is also permitted for patients if medication and therapy don’t work.
Nabumetone is effective in the treatment of RA and soft tissue injuries. works well to relieve symptoms such as joint pain, swelling, and stiffness. Compared to similar medications, it has lower risks for stomach-related side effects. It usually starts working within a week, but in severe cases, it may take up to two weeks or longer before you start feeling better. Furthermore, it may take several weeks before you feel the full effects of nabumetone.
Probiotics are live microbes that provide specific health benefits. It contains beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria. Though they can have different effects on your body, they still play an important role in your overall being. Healthy gut bacteria can also affect your blood sugar, brain health, and heart health by reducing cholesterol levels, blood pressure, and inflammation. It can help restore healthy gut bacteria, which may improve your heart condition.
Several studies specified certain probiotics are potent in reducing blood cholesterol. There are two main types of cholesterol: high-density lipoprotein (HDL) or good cholesterol and LDL or low-density lipoprotein, which is harmful. Lactobacillus , L. Plantarum and L. Reuteri were particularly effective in reducing cholesterol levels.
This increases their efficacy in people with high cholesterol when taken for a longer period. They can bind with cholesterol in the intestines to stop it from being absorbed. They also help produce certain bile acids, which help metabolize fat and cholesterol in your body.
Heart disease is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Thus, it is important to look after your heart, especially as you get older. Many foods benefit heart health and recent studies have shown that taking probiotics improves heart health.
High blood pressure is another leading risk factor for heart disease but it can be lowered through supplementation. Several studies have shown that certain strains can significantly reduce blood pressure. One of these large studies found a decrease in blood pressure, especially under the following conditions:
It may help reduce blood triglycerides that contribute to heart disease when their levels are too high. Lactobacillus curvatus and Lactobacillus Plantarum strains knowingly reduced blood triglycerides.
Inflammation occurs when your body’s immune system fights infection or heals a wound. These conditions can also happen as a result of a bad diet, smoking, or an unhealthy lifestyle. If left untreated, these will lead to heart disease. Taking Lactobacillus reuteri strains for nine weeks significantly reduced the inflammatory chemicals.
It is essential to understand that probiotics are not a replacement for all your medications. Probiotics for adults are permissible for daily intake rather than a quick-fix option. Talk to your doctor to determine the risk and benefits of taking supplements along with your daily medications.
Probiotics for adults are live microbes that have certain health benefits. Several studies show that healthy strains reduce cholesterol, blood pressure, and inflammation. Nevertheless, most of the study participants already had high blood pressure or cholesterol.
Moreover, not all strains are the same and only some may benefit heart health. Overall, if you have high cholesterol or blood pressure, it may be useful to have supplementation along with medicines, diet, and lifestyle changes.
Epilepsy is a chronic disease of the brain that affects around 50 million people worldwide. It is characterized by recurrent seizures, which are brief episodes of involuntary movement that may involve a part of the part or the entire body. It is sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness and control of bowel or bladder function.
It usually starts during childhood. However, it can also affect adults. This affects both the left and right sides of the brain. Additionally, these may be either motor, which involves physical movement, or non-motor, which does not. Symptoms involve:
These may include these symptoms:
This can feel like an uneasy feeling in the stomach, similar to the feeling of riding a rollercoaster. They can start in one area and move to others. As the seizure progresses, a person can experience motor and non-motor symptoms such as:
Some non-motor symptoms of focal seizures include:
Someone with combination epilepsy has both generalized and focal seizures. The symptoms described above can therefore be mixed together.
Symptoms of non-motor and motor epilepsy can be present in people with this type. Motor seizures often present as tonic-clonic. These can have the following symptoms:
Non-motor symptoms include:
Patients tend to have the same type of seizure each time, so the symptoms will be similar.
The causes may vary for each person, and some people have no identifiable cause. Some cases are linked directly to genetics, trauma, autoimmune disorders, metabolic abnormalities, or infectious diseases. Causes include:
To diagnose your condition, your doctor will review your symptoms and medical history. Your evaluation may include:
Doctors may recommend you take one anti-seizure medication to decrease the frequency and intensity of their attacks by taking a combination of medications. Gabapentin is very effective in treating and managing the condition. It reduces abnormal excitement in the brain and relieves pain by changing the way the body senses discomfort.
Hypothyroidism is a common disorder that is also known as an underactive thyroid. This condition causes your thyroid gland to produce less hormone. The role of the thyroid is to control how your body’s cells use energy from food or also known as metabolism. With an underproduction of thyroid hormone, your body’s processes slow down.
Although it most often affects middle-aged and older women, anyone can develop the condition, including infants. When newborns do have problems with this condition, the signs and symptoms may include:
Children and teens who develop this condition generally experience the same symptoms as adults, but they may also experience:
It is caused by insufficient production of thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism may be due to several factors, including:
An underactive thyroid can be diagnosed if you feel increasingly tired, have dry skin, constipation, and weight gain, or if you have previously experienced thyroid problems or goiter. It is diagnosed based on your symptoms and the results of blood tests that measure the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and sometimes thyroxine.
A low level of thyroxine and a high level indicates an underactive thyroid. The TSH test can also be used to diagnose a condition called subclinical hypothyroidism, which usually causes no outward symptoms. In this condition, you have normal blood levels of triiodothyronine and thyroxine, but higher than normal levels of TSH.
Treatment involves the daily use of synthetic thyroid hormone to restore adequate hormone levels, reversing the signs and symptoms of underactive thyroid. The medication gradually lowers cholesterol levels elevated by the disease and may reverse any weight gain.
If you have subclinical hypothyroidism, discuss treatment with your doctor. If your TSH is relatively mild, thyroid hormone therapy is unlikely to be helpful, and treatment may even be harmful. Conversely, thyroid hormones may improve your cholesterol levels, heart pumping ability, and energy level if you have a higher TSH level.
Thyroxine Sodium is a synthetic thyroid hormone that is prescribed for the treatment of this condition. Thyroxine is an important hormone released by the thyroid gland into the bloodstream. It plays an important role in the functioning of the heart, digestion, muscles, and brain development.
Hypertension is blood pressure that is higher than normal. Note that the blood pressure changes throughout the day based on your activities. Having blood pressure measures consistently above normal may result in a diagnosis of hypertension.
Blood pressure is written as two numbers. The systolic or the first number that represents the pressure in blood vessels when the heart contracts or beats. The diastolic or second number represents the pressure in the vessels when the heart rests between beats.
Severe high blood pressure causes these symptoms:
Typical signs and symptoms of hypertension include:
For severe conditions, seek immediate help or call your doctor. Health screening is essential, especially for people with a higher risk of strokes and heart disease.
For most adults, there is no specific cause of hypertension. However, it has two categories that may help you determine the typical triggers of the condition. The first one is known as primary hypertension. It develop gradually over many years. It is caused by the buildup of plaques in the arteries.
Secondary hypertension, on the other hand, is caused by an underlying condition. It tends to appear suddenly and cause higher blood pressure than primary hypertension. Conditions and medicines that can lead this category are:
For some patients, ensure to be watchful of the triggers and risk factors such as:
Along with medications, doctors may also recommend changing your lifestyle to control and manage hypertension. These include eating a healthy diet with less salt and proper exercise. Avoiding smoking and limiting alcohol also helps maintains healthy BP levels.
Dealing with cholesterol also reduces your risk of hypertension caused by fats. Using Ezetimibe lowers the level of total cholesterol in your blood and alleviates related signs and symptoms of hypertension. You can take this along with other prescription medications.
Sometimes lifestyle changes are not enough to treat high blood pressure. If they don’t help, your provider may recommend medicine to lower your blood pressure such as water pills, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, and Angiotensin II receptor blockers.
Enalapril Maleate is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used in the treatment of hypertension and some types of chronic heart failure. It works by blocking a substance in the body that causes the blood vessels to tighten. This lowers blood pressure and increases the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart.
A stroke occurs when something blocks the blood supply to part of the brain or when a blood vessel in the brain bursts. It can cause lasting brain damage, long-term disability, or even death. There are several types of stroke that you should be aware of to respond immediately to medical emergencies.
The warning signs of stroke are recognized through the FAST method. Call 911 if you spot these:
This typically happens when a blood vessel supplying blood to your brain gets blocked by a blood clot. One of the causes of this condition is the buildup of unhealthy cholesterol that collects and narrows the arteries. Symptoms include:
Typical causes include:
This happens when an artery in the brain leaks blood or ruptures. The leaked blood puts too much pressure on brain cells, which damages them. The common causes and risk factors are:
Symptoms of this condition are:
This is known as a mini-stroke. TIA is caused by a temporary blockage in blood flow to your brain. The symptoms usually last for just a few minutes or may go away in 24 hours. Symptoms include:
The causes and risk factors of TIA are the same as in an ischemic stroke. A TIA can sometimes be a warning sign that you have an attack soon. Seek immediate help or go to the nearest medical facility for emergency response.
This can affect both sides of the body. This may occur without the hallmark sign of weakness on one side of the body. Causes and risk factors include:
Symptoms are as follows:
This is also known as a stroke of unknown cause. The possible causes or risk factors are:
Most of the causes and risk factors of this condition are high cholesterol levels. If your doctor recommends maintenance medications, ensure that you take your prescriptions every day to reduce your risk of an attack. A typical prescription drug to maintain your cholesterol level is Lovastatin. It works by lowering the cholesterol and triglyceride levels in your blood and treating other conditions as determined by your doctor.
The prostate is a small gland in men that produces semen. It is located below the bladder in front of the rectum, and it wraps around the tube that carries urine and semen out of the body. The prostate tends to grow larger as you get older. But, if your prostate gets too large, it can cause several health issues including prostate enlargement.
Less common signs and symptoms include:
Prostate growth is a normal part of aging. At the age of 25, the adult prostate begins to enlarge slowly. The condition is called benign prostatic hyperplasia, but it has nothing to do with cancer. Around the age of 50, many men begin to have uncomfortable symptoms as a result of prostate enlargement.
The signs and symptoms of prostate enlargelemt are accompanied by frequent urination at night or often difficulty getting a strong stream started or emptying the bladder. This happened because the prostate gland surrounds the tube that carries urine from the bladder and out through the penis. As the prostate grows, it compresses that tube, and that makes urination tough.
Studies show that men can develop microscopic signs of benign prostatic hyperplasia as early as in their 20s and 30s. In contrast, BPH or enlarged prostate is very rare in men in their 20s. Typically, urinary symptoms in men during their 20s are caused by other problems. Prostate enlargement may cause symptoms but it’s usually from infection rather than from growth.
The prevalence of symptomatic BPH is low in men aged 30-39, but there are a significant number of men starting to exhibit symptoms of an enlarged prostate at this age. In most cases, symptoms are mild, but they can also be moderate or severe enough to require treatment.
Most men have continued prostate growth throughout life. Prostate enlargement can cause urinary symptoms or substantially block urine flow in many men as a result of this continued growth. Risk factors for prostate gland enlargement include:
Dutasteride is a recommended medication for prostate enlargement. This is used to treat a disorder known as benign prostatic hyperplasia found in men. It inhibits and lowers the amount of the hormone that causes prostate growth. Discuss with your doctor the benefits and risks of taking this medication to ensure a successful treatment.
Medications play a vital role in managing and treating ADHD. Doctors will work together to figure out which medication works for you along with the proper schedule and dosage. ADHD treatment requires a combination of medication, therapy, behavior changes, and skills training.
Choosing the best ADHD medication for you or your child, or deciding whether to medicate at all, is an incredibly personal decision. The ADHD medications prescribed to both children and adults are broadly categorized as follows:
Antidepressants are also used but the FDA has not specifically approved antidepressants for the treatment of hyperactivity disorder. However, healthcare providers sometimes prescribe them alone or in combination with a stimulant. The antidepressants providers typically prescribe for ADHD work on the dopamine and norepinephrine levels in your brain.
Prescriptions work in various ways depending on the type and severity of your condition. However, all medications regardless of the category increase the levels of important chemicals in your brain and improve the symptoms of ADHD, including increasing attention span and reducing hyperactivity. Both stimulants and non-stimulant drug also controls impulsive behavior and manage other executive dysfunction.
Some side effects associated with non-stimulants include:
ADHD is a neurological disorder, resulting from the deficiency of neurotransmitters in specific areas of the brain. Stimulant medications used to treat ADHD stimulate specific cells within the brain to produce more of this deficient neurotransmitter.
Younger patients under the age of 12 and pregnant patients should avoid using stimulants. Patients who are susceptible to stimulants should either avoid using or minimize their dose depending on doctors’ recommendations. Stimulants are also not permissible to patients who have:
Non stimulant is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor that works by increasing concentrations of norepinephrine and dopamine in the prefrontal cortex. It regulates behavior and thus helps with ADHD symptoms.
An example drug for this condition is Atomoxetine. It is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). It works by causing a selective inhibition of the pre-synaptic norepinephrine transporter. The dose of this prescription should be reduced in patients with hepatic or renal dysfunction.
The recommended starting dosage of Atomoxetine should be initiated at a total daily dose of 0.5 mg/kg and increased after a minimum of 3 days. It should be administered either as a single daily dose in the morning or as evenly divided doses in the morning and late afternoon or early evening. Seek immediate help in cases of unexpected side effects.
The thyroid gland is a small organ that’s located in the front of the neck, wrapped around the trachea. It creates and produces hormones that play a role in many different systems throughout the body. When there is too much or less production of essential hormones, it is known as thyroid disease or thyroid issues.
Aside from gluten, soy, and caffeine, people with hyperthyroidism should avoid eating excessive amounts of iodine-rich foods, such as:
· Fish and shellfish
· Seaweed or kelp
· Iodized salt
· Dairy products
· Food products containing red dye
· Egg yolks
· Blackstrap molasses
· Baked goods with iodate dough conditioners
These foods show evidence that aids in thyroid function. If you have hypothyroidism, you can eat:
· Roasted seaweed such as nori and wakame
· Salted nuts such as macadamia, hazelnuts, and brazil nuts
· Baked fish such as sea bass, cod, salmon, and perch
· Dairy products such as milk and yogurt
· Fresh eggs
Thyroid issues can be difficult to diagnose since they can be mistaken for other health issues. Nonetheless, there are early warning signs of thyroid issues that you should be aware of.
1. Fatigue. It can be easy to use fatigued interchangeably, but the fatigue experienced by those with thyroid disorders is significantly different, and complete sleep cannot fix it.
2. Weight gain. The thyroid helps in regulating your metabolism. Having thyroid issues may reduce your metabolic rate and may lead to weight gain.
3. Weight loss. For some people, thyroid problems may lead to excessive weight loss. In these cases, your BMR results would be much higher than usual.
4. Slower heart rate. Hypothyroidism results in insufficient thyroid hormone, leading to a slower heart rate. Over time, insufficient thyroid hormone can also cause your arteries to lose elasticity, which can result in high blood pressure due to it taking more work for blood to circulate.
5. Rapid heart rate. Hyperthyroidism causes the overproduction of hormones that causes faster heartbeats, and harder, and occur at irregular rhythms. Rapid heart rate may cause irregular beats to occur in the upper chambers of the heart and palpitations.
6. Sensitivity to heat. Sensitivity to heat is a common symptom of an overactive thyroid. This can cause people with hyperthyroidism to experience abnormal sweating and even anxiety due to feeling hot.
7. Sensitivity to cold. People with hypothyroidism often experience cold hands and feet. This can even occur in rooms where everyone else feels hot. This happens due to your body not producing enough hormones causing your metabolism to slow down.
Your doctor may test for an underactive thyroid if you feel increasingly tired, have dry skin, constipation, and weight gain, or have had previous thyroid problems. Blood tests measure TSH and sometimes the thyroid hormone thyroxine is used to diagnose hypothyroidism based on your symptoms and the results of blood tests. Underactive thyroid is indicated by low thyroxine levels and high TSH levels.
Standard treatment for hypothyroidism involves daily use of the synthetic thyroid hormone Thyroxine Sodium. It restores adequate hormone levels, reversing the signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism. Treatment with levothyroxine will likely be lifelong, but because the dosage you need may change, your doctor is likely to check your TSH level every year. For subclinical hypothyroidism discuss treatment with your doctor.
A feeling of pressure behind your eyes doesn’t always stem from a problem inside your eyes. It usually starts in another part of your head. Although eye conditions can cause pain and vision problems, they rarely cause pressure. Pressure does not accompany glaucoma, caused by a buildup of pressure in the eye.
This condition usually refers to any situation in which the pressure inside the eye, called intraocular pressure, is higher than average. Glaucoma, on the other hand, is a severe disease that causes vision loss and can lead to blindness if left untreated.
Not all people with ocular hypertension will develop glaucoma. However, people with this condition have an increased risk of glaucoma. Therefore, regular examination of your eyes is imperative if you have ocular hypertension.
9.5 percent of condition have patients develop glaucoma in 5 years, and 22% build glaucoma at 13 years. However, proper treatment reduces 50% of your risk of glaucoma.
An eye examination is a primary method to diagnose ocular hypertension. Since condition have significantly increases the risk of glaucoma, your doctor will also check the optic nerves for damage. The optic nerve is monitored using various imaging techniques, such as a nerve fiber analyzer or optical coherence tomography.
Glaucoma may affect peripheral vision, which may go unnoticed in its early stages, so it is essential to have your doctor check your peripheral vision. A gonioscopy can also be performed as part of an eye examination to examine the eye’s internal drainage system.
Ocular hypertension is treated with prescription eye drops that can help aqueous humor drain from your eye or lower the amount of aqueous humor your eye produces. Latanoprost is an eye drop used as a long-term aid for open-angle glaucoma and condition have. Eye surgery is also recommended for eye conditions that do not respond to medications.
Cholesterol is a fatty substance known as a lipid. It is vital for the normal functioning of the body. However, having an excessively high level of lipids in your blood can affect your health. High cholesterol increases your risk of heart disease, hypertension, and stroke.
Evidence strongly indicates that high cholesterol can increase the risk of life-threatening diseases. Reducing your cholesterol level may also prevent you from health risks such as stroke and heart attack. Healthy cholesterol levels lower your risk of atherosclerosis, mini-stroke, and peripheral arterial disease.
High-fat levels can build up in the artery wall, restricting the blood flow to your heart, brain, and the rest of your body. It also increases the risk of a blood clot developing somewhere in your body. Lowering HDL reduces pain in your chest or arm during stress or physical activity.
Atorvastatin is a recommended medication to reduce high cholesterol in the blood. It works by blocking an enzyme needed by the body to make cholesterol, thereby reducing the amount of cholesterol in the blood.
Obstructive sleep apnea is the most common sleep-related breathing disorder. It causes you to repeatedly stop and start breathing while you sleep. It occurs when your throat muscles irregularly relax and block your airway during sleep.
These conditions are associated with this condition:
For milder cases of obstructive sleep apnea, your doctor might recommend lifestyle changes which includes losing weight, exercising, and quitting smoking. Other treatment method includes therapy and surgery. Modafinil is also a medication used for obstructive sleep apnea.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental disorder. It typically appears in early childhood before a child turns seven. ADHD makes it difficult for children to inhibit their spontaneous responses from movement to speech to attentiveness.
While many children are naturally quite active, kids with attention deficit disorder hyperactive symptoms are always moving. They may try to do several things simultaneously, bouncing around from one activity to the next. Other common signs and symptoms include:
In addition to genetics, other possible causes and risk factors also include:
Anxiety, depression, sleep problems, and learning disabilities can all have symptoms similar to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and there is no single test to diagnose these. One step involves having a medical exam, including hearing and vision tests, to rule out other problems with symptoms like ADHD. ADHD is diagnosed by rating symptoms and taking a history of the child from the parents, teachers, and sometimes, the child himself.
Standard treatments for ADHD in children include medications, behavior therapy, counseling, and education services. These treatments can relieve many Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms but do not cure them. Doctors may also recommend Atomoxetine to reduce impulsiveness and hyperactivity in children and adults with ADHD. It is crucial to make sure your child takes the right amount of the prescribed medication.
According to a meta-analysis published in the American Journal of Preventive Cardiology, vegetarians reduce the risk of death from ischemic heart disease. Vegetarian diets, including vegan eating patterns, were associated with a 30% reduced risk of death from ischemic heart disease compared to non-vegetarian diets.
A plant-based diet is more healthful for the heart than a meat-heavy one. Vegetables are rich in fiber and phytonutrients, which reduce inflammation and oxidative stress. Fiber fights high cholesterol. The vegetarian diet is high in fiber from fruits, vegetables, beans, and grains, which is suitable for managing cholesterol.
Vegetables have fewer calories for a healthy weight and are extra antioxidants. A vegetarian diet eliminates fats from animal products and replaces them with high-fiber foods, which fill you up more so you eat less, lowering your risk of obesity. Eating more fruits and vegetables means you are getting more of the nutrients, like antioxidants, that protect against heart disease.
Aside from healthy eating, taking your medications for hypertension, cholesterol, and heart health is also essential in managing heart disease. Take your maintenance pills to ensure healthy and improved heart health. The typical prescription drugs for heart and blood pressure-related conditions are:
Pityriasis Versicolor is a common fungal skin infection. The fungus interferes with the normal pigmentation of the skin, resulting in small, discolored patches. These patches may be lighter or darker in color than the surrounding skin and most commonly affect the trunk and shoulders.
Pityriasis Versicolor results from a type of yeast that naturally lives on your skin. When the yeast grows out of control, the skin disease appears as a rash. Malassezia’s yeast that causes tinea versicolor grows on normal, healthy skin. This condition is not contagious but may affect people of any skin color.
The fungus that causes Pityriasis Versicolor can be found on healthy skin. It only starts causing problems when the fungus overgrows or is triggered by humid weather, hormonal changes, and oily skin. The patches most often occur on the chest or back. They also stop the skin from tanning evenly and often appear as lighter spots on tan skin.
To help prevent the condition from returning, your doctor can prescribe a skin or oral treatment that you use once or twice a month. You may need to use these just during warm and humid months or when you are at high risk of the condition.
You can apply an over-the-counter antifungal lotion, cream, ointment, or shampoo for a mild condition. Wash and dry the affected area when using creams, ointments, or lotions. Then apply a thin product layer once or twice a day for at least two weeks. If you’re using shampoo, rinse it off after waiting five to ten minutes. Some products that are typically recommended for treatment are:
Type 2 diabetes is an impairment in how the body regulates and uses sugar as a fuel. It is a chronic condition that results in too much sugar circulating in the bloodstream. Eventually, high blood sugar levels can lead to circulatory, nervous, and immune disorders.
Here are some examples of nutritious foods that your diet should include:
Aside from a healthy diet and exercise, you can also manage type 2 diabetes through recommended medications. The goal of the treatment is to maintain healthy blood sugar and reduce the effects of its symptoms. Monitoring your blood sugar and taking Metformin to utilize glucose and enhance insulin-mediated glucose disposal in muscle and fat.
Restless leg syndrome is a disorder in the nervous system that causes an overpowering urge to move your legs. It comes along with an uncomfortable sensation at nighttime or when lying down.
The specific trigger of restless leg syndrome is not known yet. However, several factors cause the condition and may trigger its attack. Aside from genetic risk factors, restless leg syndrome is also triggered by the following factors:
The first line of defense against restless legs syndrome is to avoid substances or foods that may aggravate or worsen the problem. Your doctor will determine the medication for restless leg syndrome after a careful medical assessment.
Prolactin is a hormone made by the pituitary gland that the breasts to grow and make milk during pregnancy and after birth. Prolactin levels are normally high for pregnant women and new mothers. Levels are normally low for nonpregnant women and for men. If prolactin levels are higher than normal, it often means there is a type of tumor of the pituitary gland, known as prolactinoma.
Hyperprolactinemia means you have higher-than-normal levels of prolactin in your blood. This is typically caused by a benign tumor in your pituitary gland known as a prolactinoma. Prolactinoma also reduces the level of sex hormones.
High prolactin levels in women cause the following:
High prolactin levels in men cause:
There are no specific causes of high prolactin levels in women. But, several factors contribute to your risk of this condition. Some causes include:
If you experience the signs and symptoms of prolactinoma, your doctor will recommend the following diagnostic method:
The goal of treating prolactinoma is to return the production of prolactin to within the standard range and reduce the size of the prolactinoma. Oral medications known as dopamine agonists are generally used to treat prolactinoma. Cabergoline is a recommended medication for this condition. It is considered the most effective dopamine agonist that lowers prolactin levels in approximately 90 percent of people who have prolactinomas.
What is ED?
ED or Erectile Dysfunction is the inability to achieve and keep a firm erection enough for sex. Having erection trouble is not a major concern but, it causes stress, affects your self-confidence, and contributes to relationship problems.
Some approaches that people can try include:
If you have erectile dysfunction, your doctor will make sure you are receiving the right treatment for any underlying health conditions. There may be a variety of treatment options available to you depending on the cause and severity of your erectile dysfunction and any underlying health conditions.
Each treatment is explained to you by your doctor, who will consider your preferences and explain the risks and benefits. Sildenafil Suhagra is a potent medication for erectile dysfunction. It allows the muscles to relax and allow blood supply, thereby resulting in an erection.