Neuropathic pain is often described as a shooting or burning sensation. It can subside on its own but tends to last for days or weeks. Often it is caused by nerve damage or a malfunctioning nervous system, and it is unrelenting and severe at times. Nerve damage affects both the area around the injury and the site of the injury in terms of nerve function.
Anticonvulsants and antidepressant drugs are often the first lines of treatment. Some neuropathic pain studies suggest the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Doctors may also recommend stronger pain killers. So, ensure to discuss the pros and cons of the medicine you take with your doctor.
In the case of another medical condition, such as diabetes, better management of that disorder may help alleviate the pain. Effective management of the condition can also help prevent further nerve damage. An invasive or implantable device may be used by a pain specialist in cases that are difficult to treat. It has been shown that electrical stimulation of the nerves involved in neuropathic pain can significantly reduce pain symptoms.
Tramadol is a narcotic-like pain reliever and not an over-the-counter drug. It works by changing the way your brain senses pain. Your body sends pain messages to your brain when the drug binds with the receptor, just like endorphins in your body.
Chronic pain can be treated round the clock with the extended form, which releases into the body slowly. The immediate release is released into the body right away. Buy Tramadol here at a reasonable price, but ensure to seek advice from your doctor first.
Intermittent claudication is muscle pain that happens when you are active and stops when you rest. The pain may also intensify and can interfere with your simple activities.
Severe symptoms may also occur over time and may result in warning symptoms of peripheral artery disease, usually in more-advanced stages, including:
Atherosclerosis is the common cause of claudication. It causes a buildup of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in and on the artery walls. The plaque or build-up causes the arteries to narrow, blocking blood flow. The plaque can also burst, leading to a blood clot. Other condition that causes claudication includes:
The goal of the treatment for claudication is to reduce the pain and manage the risk factors that contribute to heart and blood vessel disease. Exercise is one of the treatment activities that reduces pain, increases exercise duration, and improves vascular health in the affected limbs. Surgery and other procedure include:
Cilostazol is a medication used to help the symptoms of intermittent claudication in peripheral vascular disease. It increases blood flow and the amount of oxygen that gets to the muscles. Cilostazol also stops platelets from sticking together and prevents them from forming harmful clots.
Doctors often recommend one or more medications to control pain and manage risk factors for cardiovascular disease. It often includes medications for high cholesterol, pain, high blood pressure, and medicine for other cardiovascular risks.
Major depressive disorder is a medical condition that affects your mood and ability to function. This type of disorder may occur only once during your life. During these times, symptoms occur most of the day, nearly every day including feelings of sadness and emptiness. As to what causes major depressive disorder, a variety of factors may be involved.
As with many mental disorders, a variety of factors may be involved, such as:
Depression is a serious illness that can be very difficult to deal with. Without treatment, depression can lead to emotional, behavioral, and health problems that affect every aspect of your life.
People with a major depressive disorder often have medications and psychotherapy to effectively treat the condition.
Psychotherapy is also known as talk therapy or psychological therapy. It is a general term for treating depression by talking about your condition and related issues with a mental health professional.
Medications may include antidepressants such as:
The usually recommended medication for major depressive disorder:
Lung cancer is known to be the leading cause of cancer deaths globally. The major risk factors that research has found may increase your chances of getting lung cancer.
A risk factor is anything that increases a person’s chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, like smoking, can be changed. Others, like a person’s age or family history, can’t be changed.
Lung cancer cells are categorized under the microscope into two major types. Depending on the type of lung cancer you have, your doctor will make treatment decisions.
The two general types of lung cancer include:
The number one risk factor for lung cancer is smoking cigarettes. Cigars and pipes are also tobacco products that increase lung cancer risk. More than 7,000 chemicals are present in tobacco smoke. Smoking increases a person’s risk the longer they smoke and the more cigarettes they smoke each day.
Secondhand smoke (smoking from someone else’s cigarettes, pipes, or cigars) can also cause lung cancer. Inhaling secondhand smoke is like smoking.
In the United States, radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. Water, soil, and rocks all contain radon, a naturally occurring gas. There is no way to see, taste, or smell it. By getting into homes or buildings through cracks or holes, radon can get trapped and build up in the air. Radon levels are high in homes and buildings where people live or work. Lung cancer can be caused by radon over long periods.
There is a risk that you may develop another lung cancer if you are a lung cancer survivor, especially if you smoke. Your risk of lung cancer may be higher if your parents, siblings, or children have had lung cancer. This could be true because they also smoke, or they live or work in the same place where they are exposed to radon and other substances that can cause lung cancer.
A treatment plan is based on several factors such as overall health, the stage of your cancer, and the type. In some cases, you may choose not to undergo treatment. For instance, you may feel that the side effects of treatment will outweigh the potential benefits. When that’s the case, your doctor may suggest comfort care to treat only the symptoms the cancer is causing.
Treatment may include:
Urinary tract infection is caused by a bacteria called Escherichia coli (E. coli). Doctors usually treat urinary tract infections with antibiotics. On the other hand, you can take steps to lessen your chances of getting the infection in the first place.
Urinary tract infection is an infection of your urinary system including kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Most infections may involve the lower urinary tract such as the bladder and the urethra.
The different types of urinary tract infection can include:
This type of infection is caused by micro-organisms, usually bacteria. In the urinary tract, bacteria do not normally live. UTIs occur when bacteria multiply in the urinary tract.
Urinary infections and cystitis can be caused by a variety of germs. Escherichia coli (E.coli) is the most common germ that causes urinary tract infections. The urethra lining can easily become infected with E.coli. When the urine flows back up from the bladder to the kidneys or when the urinary flow is blocked, some people are at greater risk of infection.
Common Symptoms of Urinary Tract Infection
Complications of Urinary Tract Infection
When a urinary tract infection is left untreated, it can have serious consequences such as:
Prevention of Urinary Tract Infection
These prevention tips may be useful in reducing the risk of developing urinary tract infection:
Treatment for Urinary Tract Infection
Urinary tract infections are very serious, especially if you suspect you may have a bladder infection or kidney infection, both of which are very dangerous. It is possible to prevent urinary infections from spreading to the bladder or kidneys if they are treated early.
You will be tested for microorganisms in your urine by your doctor. Antibiotics are usually effective in treating urinary tract infections.
The early signs of heart failure are often very subtle, but it’s dangerous to ignore them. Proper treatment can improve the signs of heart failure and may help some people live longer. Lifestyle changes such as losing weight, exercising, reducing salt in your diet, and managing stress can improve your quality of life.
Heart failure often develops after other conditions have damaged or weakened the heart. However, heart failure can also occur if the heart becomes too stiff.
Heart failure causes the main pumping chambers of the heart to become stiff and not fill properly between beats. The heart muscle may weaken and become damaged in some people. The ventricles can become too stretched to pump enough blood through the body. The heart cannot keep up with the demands placed on it to pump blood over time.
Any of the following conditions can damage or weaken your heart and can cause heart failure. Some of these can be present without your knowing it:
Heart failure signs may include:
See your doctor if you think you might be experiencing signs of heart failure. Call for medical assistance if you have any of the following:
Chronic diseases such as heart failure require lifelong management. In some cases, however, heart failure can improve with treatment, and the heart may become stronger as a result.
The underlying cause of heart failure can sometimes be treated by doctors. Heart failure may be reversed, for instance, by repairing a heart valve or controlling a fast heart rhythm. In most cases, heart failure is treated with a combination of medicines and sometimes with devices that help the heartbeat.
Doctors usually treat heart failure with a combination of medications. Depending on your symptoms, you might take one or more medications. The recommended medication can be:
An acute manic episode is the phase of bipolar I disorder. During acute mania, an individual may experience increased impulsivity that causes them to act in a way that is brash, untimely, or immoral. People with acute mania will also likely have increased energy, get little to no sleep and talk very fast, and often jump from topic to topic. They may experience some symptoms of psychosis, where they are not fully aware of or connected to reality.
The most common cause is bipolar disorder. Those with bipolar disorder be subject to experience cycles of mania and depression over several weeks or months. In several cases, those with bipolar disorder don’t have any predictable mania triggers which makes the onset of manic episodes unpredictable.
In addition to bipolar disorder, acute mania may also be caused by drugs or medications, especially stimulants. Certain other medical conditions, especially thyroid conditions or mental health diseases, may also cause episodes.
The most significant risk factors for the manic episode are the risk factors for bipolar disorder, which commonly causes mania. These include having close relatives with bipolar disorder or having a history of substance abuse. Other risk factors of mania include using drugs recreationally or failing to treat underlying mental health conditions that may cause mania. Drug-induced mania is quite rare but is still something that may be experienced.
A psychiatrist can evaluate a patient for mania by asking questions and discussing symptoms. Direct observations can indicate that a patient is having a manic episode.
The episode must occur for a week or less than a week if the patient is hospitalized. In addition to a disturbed mood, patients must experience at least three of the following symptoms:
An acute manic episode disrupts a person’s life and negatively affects relationships, as well as work or school. Many manic episodes need hospitalization to stabilize the mood of the patient and prevent self-harm. In some instances, hallucinations or delusions are part of manic episodes. For the person’s state to be considered a manic episode, symptoms must not be the result of outside influences, such as abuse of drugs or alcohol.
Usually, acute mania treatment is part of a broader bipolar disorder treatment. The first focus is usually placed on the more short-term mania recovery so that the person suffering from the manic episode can resume normal activities.
Mania management may involve hospitalization and therapy with a psychiatrist. While this may be the typical course of treatment for many people, each person’s situation is unique, and someone with specific questions should seek the advice of a doctor.
Medication usually used:
The cause of stomach ulcers is an infection with H. pylori. Treatment for this condition depends on the cause. Usually, treatment will involve killing the H. pylori bacterium is present, removing or decreasing the use of NSAIDs if possible, and helping your ulcer to heal with medication.
A stomach ulcer is an open sore that develops in your stomach lining. It occurs when the protective mucous lining in your stomach and duodenum has been eroded which allows gastric acids and digestive enzymes to eat away at your stomach and duodenal walls. This eventually causes an open sore that is continually irritated by the acid.
Stomach ulcers are very common in Western countries. Some estimates say that 1 in 10 people will have one at some point in their lives. That’s because many of the causes that contribute to stomach ulcers are common in Western life. Fortunately, these causes are usually easy to trace and reverse, giving ulcers a chance to heal and your stomach lining a chance to repair.
The two most common causes are:
The less common cause of stomach ulcers include:
Treatment for stomach ulcers depends on the cause.
You may find relief from the pain of a stomach ulcer if you:
Recommended medication for stomach ulcers:
Obesity is considered one of the biggest health problems worldwide. When it comes to the cause of obesity, poor nutrition and lack of exercise are important factors.
Obesity occurs when your body accumulates and stores excessive amounts of fat. If you consume high amounts of energy, particularly fat and sugars, but do not burn off the energy through exercise and physical activity, much of the surplus energy will be stored by the body as fat.
Obese people are more likely to develop several potentially serious health problems such as:
The goal of obesity treatment is to reach and stay at a healthy weight. This improves overall health and lowers the risk of developing complications related to obesity.
Weight-loss medication is used along with diet, exercise, and behavior changes. Before selecting a medication, your doctor will consider your health history. Recommended weight loss medication may include:
There are many types of breast cancer and many different ways to define them. The different type of breast cancer is defined by where in the breast they begin and how much they have grown or spread. These types of breast cancer you’ve been diagnosed with will help you and your doctor decide on the best treatment options for you.
Breast cancer is a disease where cells in the breast grow out of control. This type of cancer can begin in different parts of the breast. A breast is made up of three main parts: lobules, ducts, and connective tissue. Most breast cancers begin in the ducts or lobules.
A type of breast cancer is determined by the specific cells in the breast that become cancer.
1. Invasive Breast Cancer
Invasive breast cancer has spread into the surrounding breast tissue. The two most common types of invasive breast cancer are defined by where in the breast they begin to grow:
Some types of invasive breast cancer have features that affect how they develop and how they are treated.
2. Non-Invasive Breast Cancer
When breast cancer is called non-invasive it means it has not spread beyond the breast tissue where it started. There are two main types of non-invasive breast cancer:
3. Cancerous Phyllodes Tumors of the Breast
Phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare. Most phyllodes tumors are benign but about 25% are cancerous.
Treatment for breast cancer depends on the type of breast cancer you have. Your doctor also considers your overall health and your preferences. Most women undergo surgery for breast cancer and many also receive additional treatment after surgery. Chemotherapy might also be used before surgery in certain situations.
The medication you can use if you have breast cancer:
Doctors usually recommend antibiotics to cure Streptococcus Pneumoniae. Antibiotic treatment for serious infections typically includes broad-spectrum antibiotics until results of antibiotic sensitivity testing are available.
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the bacteria responsible for pneumococcal disease. When someone with this disease coughs or sneezes, the bacteria spreads. Pneumococcus bacteria can cause infections in many parts of the body including:
Symptoms of Streptococcus Pneumoniae depend on the part of the body affected. Symptoms can include:
In severe cases, pneumococcal disease can cause hearing loss, brain damage, and death.
Children at Risk for Streptococcus Pneumoniae
Children at increased risk for this disease include those younger than 2 years old and those with:
Adults at Risk for Streptococcus Pneumoniae
Adults 65 years or older are at increased risk for the disease. Adults of all ages are also at increased risk if they have:
Adults who smoke cigarettes are also at increased risk for the disease. Chronic lung illnesses that increase the risk of an adult for the Streptococcus Pneumoniae include asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, and emphysema.
If doctors suspect Streptococcus Pneumoniae is serious, they will collect blood or cerebrospinal fluid samples. In the brain and spinal cord, cerebrospinal fluid surrounds them. You can see how lumbar puncture fluid is collected in the illustration below. A laboratory tests the samples after they have been collected by doctors. By growing the bacteria in the laboratory, it is possible to identify the specific type of bacteria that is causing the infection. A doctor can select the right antibiotic based on the cause, including the type of infection.
Adults can be diagnosed using a urine test. The diagnosis of ear and sinus infections is usually based on the history and physical examination findings that support the diagnosis.
It is common for broad-spectrum antibiotics to be used as the first line of treatment for serious infections until results of antibiotic sensitivity testing are available. Antibiotic sensitivity testing shows which antibiotics will be most successful. Broad-spectrum antibiotics work against a wide range of bacteria. Once the sensitivity of the bacteria is known, doctors may choose a more targeted antibiotic. The most recommended medicine is:
Osteoarthritis is the most common type of Rheumatic Disorder. This affects about 27 million adults in the United States alone. Osteoarthritis is a chronic condition characterized by the breakdown of the joint’s cartilage.
The breakdown of cartilage causes the bones to rub against each other, causing stiffness, pain, and loss of movement in the joint. Patients who have been diagnosed with Osteoarthritis are generally cared for by an Orthopedic Specialist.
The rheumatic disorder can develop in people of any age, sex, or race. There are several different forms of rheumatic disorder and some people are more susceptible to some than others. Some contributing factors to the disease include age, gender, genetics, and environmental factors. Some people are at higher risk for developing a rheumatic disorder, including those people who carry the PTPN22 gene, women, Hispanics, and African Americans.
In many cases, the cause depends on the type of rheumatic disorder. But researchers believe that some or all of the following may play a role:
Diagnosis of rheumatic disorder begins with a discussion of your medical history. Your doctor will talk with you about your symptoms, including:
Various types of medication are prescribed to treat rheumatic disorder. Some drugs only treat symptoms like pain and inflammation, while others can alter the course of the disease.
Depending on the condition, medication may include:
Medicine that is usually recommended for rheumatic disorder:
Besides medication, various other types of treatments may be prescribed for a rheumatic disorder such as:
Prevention and treatment of hypertension start with a basic understanding of blood pressure. The American Heart Association defines blood pressure as the force exerted by the heart on the artery walls as it beats. From the heart, blood flows to all parts of the body through arteries. When the blood pressure in the arteries is too high during heartbeats, the artery walls are damaged, which can contribute to heart disease.
Even if blood pressure readings reach dangerously high levels, many people with high blood pressure have no symptoms.
Symptoms of high blood pressure may include headaches, shortness of breath, or nosebleeds, but these aren’t specific and usually appear only after high blood pressure has reached a severe or life-threatening level.
Hypertension has many risk factors including:
The following lifestyle changes to help prevent and treat hypertension:
Medication used for Hypertension:
The treatments used for Candidiasis vary substantially and are based on the anatomic location of the infection, underlying disease and immune status, risk factors for infection, the specific species of Candida responsible for the infection, and, in some cases, the susceptibility of the Candida species to specific antifungal drugs.
Candida albicans (Monilia albicans) is a harmless yeast fungus that causes candidiasis. In healthy people, yeast is supposed to be present. However, chemotherapy or broad-spectrum antibiotics that suppress the bacterial flora present in the body may cause the fungus to multiply in the mouth or bowels. Candida infections may also be caused by other health conditions, such as pregnancy or diabetes.
Types of Candidiasis
There are several types of Candidiasis:
Thrush (Oropharyngeal Candidiasis)
When the candida yeast spreads in the mouth and throat, it can cause an infection called thrush. This type of Candidiasis is most common in newborns, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems. Symptoms of Thrush may include:
Genital Yeast Infection (Genital Candidiasis)
This happens when too much yeast grows in the vagina. A yeast infection typically happens when the balance in the vagina changes. This can be caused by:
Diaper Rash from Yeast Infection
Diaper rashes are usually caused by leaving a dirty or wet diaper on too long, but once your baby’s skin becomes irritated, infection becomes more likely. Check to see if their bottom is red and sensitive and if there’s a raised red border around the sores if their diaper rash doesn’t go away. Check for candidiasis with your pediatrician if this is the case. Antifungal creams can be applied to treat it. Preventing diaper rash and candidiasis starts with keeping your baby’s bottom clean and dry.
If candida yeast enters the bloodstream, it can travel to the heart, brain, blood, eyes, and bones. This can cause a serious, life-threatening infection. Invasive Candidiasis happens most often in people who have recently been admitted to a hospital or live in a health care facility. The symptoms include fever and chills. Since it’s likely a person with this infection is already sick with another condition, it can be hard to diagnose.
Treatment for Candidiasis
When thinking about treatment for a yeast infection, it is important to know that there are many different types of yeast. Your healthcare provider may discuss different types of treatment depending on the type of yeast infection.
The most common medication recommended is:
Sexual Dysfunction occurs during any phase of the sexual response cycle. This prevents you from experiencing satisfaction from sexual activity. People of all ages experience sexual dysfunction, although the chances increase as you age.
Sexual dysfunction is generally classified into four categories:
Sexual dysfunction usually does not occur overnight. For example, pain during intercourse or ejaculatory/orgasmic challenges be susceptible to have their roots in other conditions that affect the body. Listed below are likely causes of sexual dysfunction.
Most of the time, you realize something is interfering with your enjoyment (or your partner’s enjoyment) of a sexual relationship. A complete history of symptoms and physical examination are usually the first steps your provider takes. Diagnostic tests may be ordered to rule out medical problems that may be contributing to the dysfunction. In most cases, lab testing plays a very limited role in the diagnosis of sexual dysfunction.
It helps a clinician understand the underlying cause of the problem and recommend the most appropriate treatment if attitudes about sex and other contributing factors are evaluated and help diagnose the problem.
Most types of sexual dysfunction can be addressed by treating the underlying physical or psychological problems. Other treatment strategies include:
The most common causes of excessive sleepiness are sleep deprivation and disorders such as insomnia and sleep apnea. Uncontrollable yawning, heavy eyelids and the prevailing impulse to doze off during the day are signs of excessive sleepiness. Struggling to stay awake can drag down performance in daily activities, put a strain on social and personal relationships, and create serious risks especially when driving.
Excessive sleepiness is not a condition in itself instead, it is a symptom caused by an underlying problem.
Sleep deprivation may be short-term or chronic and can itself be caused by numerous sleep disorders and other medical conditions:
Treatment depends on what is causing your sleepiness. There are both lifestyle changes and medication approaches:
The causes of Urinary Obstruction depend on their type. Some types of Urinary Obstruction are present at birth and are called congenital. This condition occurs if there is a blockage in one or both of the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. Urinary Obstruction is treatable, but if left untreated, symptoms can quickly move from mild to severe.
There are various signs and symptoms of Urinary Obstruction. Patients who have stones may experience severe pain. A gradual blockage usually develops slowly and builds over time. At first, symptoms can seem mild, but can quickly worsen. The following symptoms may indicate a blocked ureter or urinary tract obstruction:
Different types of Urinary Obstruction have different causes including:
Urinary Obstruction treatment aims to remove blockages if possible. There are several ways to treat the condition including:
1. Drainage Procedures
A Urinary Obstruction that causes severe pain may need an immediate procedure to remove urine from your body and temporarily relieve the problems caused by a blockage.
2. Surgical Procedures
Urinary obstruction surgery may be performed through one of these surgical approaches:
Treatment might include antibiotics to clear associated infections. However, there is a drug usually recommended to treat Urinary Obstruction:
This medicine helps relax the muscles in the prostate and the opening of the bladder. As a result, the drug may help increase the flow of urine and lessen the symptoms.
Laryngitis is caused by an inflammation of the voice box (larynx). Swelling of the voice box can be triggered by an infection, such as bronchitis, cold, or flu. The problem could also be something as simple as overuse.
With proper treatment, Laryngitis should go away in no more than 3 weeks. Sometimes, this condition lasts longer and becomes chronic, but there are ways to help yourself feel better.
In most cases, the symptoms of laryngitis last less than a couple of weeks and are caused by something minor. Less often, laryngitis symptoms are caused by something more serious or long-lasting. Laryngitis symptoms can include:
There are two types of Laryngitis with different causes:
Most cases of laryngitis are temporary and improve after the underlying cause gets better. Causes of acute laryngitis include:
Chronic laryngitis lasts longer than three weeks. This type of laryngitis is generally caused by exposure to irritants over time. Chronic laryngitis can cause vocal cord strain and injuries or growths on the vocal cords. Chronic laryngitis can be caused by:
Less common causes of chronic laryngitis include:
Other causes of chronic hoarseness include:
Laryngitis is characterized primarily by hoarseness. Voice changes can range from mild hoarseness to almost complete voice loss, depending on the severity of infection or irritation. Symptoms and medical history may be reviewed by your doctor if you have chronic hoarseness. Your doctor may listen to your voice and examine your vocal cords, and you may be referred to an ear, nose, and throat specialist.
These techniques sometimes are used to help diagnose laryngitis:
Laryngitis often gets better on its own within a week. Self-care measures, such as voice rest, drinking fluids, and humidifying your air, also can help improve symptoms.
Medication used for this condition:
Metastatic Breast Cancer is known as stage IV which has spread to another part of the body, most commonly to the bones, lungs, brain, or liver. Breast cancer can have different signs for different people. Most don’t notice any signs at all. The most common sign is a lump in your breast or armpit. Others include skin changes, pain, a nipple that pulls inward, and unusual discharge from your nipple.
Without treatment, breast cancer can spread to other parts of your body. You may have:
A cancerous cell can invade nearby lymph nodes or blood vessels. The cancer cells then travel through lymph vessels or blood vessels throughout the body. Fluids and blood flow through these vessels. Small tumors can form when cancer cells migrate to new locations.
Some people are at higher risk for metastatic breast cancer after finishing certain cancer treatments. The risk depends on various features of cancer including:
If you have a history of breast cancer and develop any signs of metastatic breast cancer, your doctor may recommend one or more of the following tests to see if cancer has returned:
The main treatment for metastatic breast cancer is a systemic therapy. This treatment cures the entire body. Systemic therapy may be linked with a combination of:
Your health care team will plan your treatment based on:
Medication can be used for Metastatic Breast Cancer:
This medicine is a hormone-based drug that works by binding to estrogen receptors and blocking the effects of estrogen, a natural female hormone in the breast tissue. This slows down the growth and multiplication of breast cancer cells. As a result, it slows the progression of metastatic breast cancer.
Rheumatism treatment helps slow the progression of many rheumatic diseases. It is recommended to seek an early diagnosis as rheumatism is painful and progressive which means they worsen over time.
Rheumatism is classified as several diseases under rheumatic disorders. Several diseases are classified under rheumatic disorders. The term rheumatism is a loosely used layperson term to describe rheumatoid arthritis.
Rheumatoid disorders include those that affect joints, muscles, and bones. They are common and have a huge impact on the health of a vast population worldwide. The more severe conditions lead to inflammatory rheumatic diseases that cause joint and organ destruction. These are a leading cause of severe pain, disability, and even death that affects the quality of life and may lead to several comorbidities or associated ailments.
Symptoms of Rheumatism may include:
Early rheumatism tends to affect your smaller joints first, mainly the joints that attach your fingers to your hands and your toes to your feet. As the condition progresses, the symptoms often spread to the wrists, elbows, shoulders, knees, ankles, and hips. In most cases, symptoms occur in the same joints on both sides of your body.
Causes of Rheumatism
Rheumatism is caused by the immune system that attacks the healthy body tissue. The immune system normally makes antibodies that attack bacteria and viruses that help fight infection. If rheumatism attacks, your immune system mistakenly sends antibodies to the lining of your joints, where they damage the tissue surrounding the joint.
This causes the thin layer of cells that covers the joints to become inflamed and sore and releases chemicals that damage nearby:
If rheumatism is not treated, these chemicals slowly cause the joint to lose its shape and alignment. Eventually, it can destroy the joint completely.
Treatment for Rheumatism can help reduce inflammation in the joints, relieve pain, prevent or slow down joint damage, lessen disability and allow you to be as active as possible. There are medications available to help stop Rheumatism from getting worse and lessen your risk of further problems.
Even though there’s no cure for rheumatism, early treatment, and support including medicine, lifestyle changes, supportive treatments, and surgery can reduce the risk of joint damage and limit the impact of the condition.
Medications usually used:
Medicine mostly recommended to manage Rheumatism:
This medicine is in a class of medications called opiate (narcotic) analgesics. Tramadol works by changing the way the brain and nervous system respond to pain.
Malaria is a tropical disease transmitted by mosquitoes. Without early diagnosis and treatment, it can be fatal. People who have acute malaria usually feel sick with chills.
The world health program distributes preventive drugs and insecticide-treated bed nets to protect people from mosquito bites to reduce malaria infections. WHO recommends malaria vaccines for children who live in malaria-prone countries.
The mosquito becomes infected when it bites someone with malaria. When a mosquito bites someone else, it transmits a parasite to the other person’s bloodstream. From there, the parasite multiplies. Various parasites may infect humans with malaria.
Malaria can be transmitted to an unborn child in rare cases when the mother is pregnant and has the illness. It’s possible, but unlikely, for malaria to be passed through blood transfusions, organ donations, and hypodermic needles.
Signs and symptoms of acute malaria are similar to the symptoms of flu including:
As malaria worsens, it causes jaundice and anemia. The most severe form of malaria is known as cerebral malaria which may progress to a coma.
Malaria symptoms usually appear 10 days to one month after the person was infected. Depending on the type of parasite, symptoms can be mild. Some people don’t feel sick for up to a year after the mosquito bite. Parasites can sometimes live in the body for several years without causing symptoms.
Diagnosis for Acute Malaria
You will be asked about your symptoms and travel history by your health care provider. It is important to share the information about the countries you have visited recently so that your health care provider can identify your risk.
Your health care provider will take a sample of your blood and send it to a lab to see if you have malaria parasites. The blood test will tell your health care provider if you have malaria and will also identify the type of parasite that causes your symptoms. Your health care provider will use this information to decide the right treatment.
It is recommended to seek treatment right away if you have malaria. Your doctor will prescribe you medications to kill the malaria parasite. Some medications are given along with other drugs.
Psychosis is a condition that affects the way your brain processes information. This might involve seeing or hearing things that other people cannot see or hear and believing things that are not true. Psychosis should be treated as soon as possible, as early treatment can be more effective. The doctor may ask you some questions to help determine what’s causing your psychosis.
Hallucinations could include:
Many people have beliefs that lots of other people don’t share, but a delusion is usually a belief that nobody else shares and which other experiences show can’t be true. It is natural for delusions to feel completely real to you when you are experiencing them.
You might think that you are a very important person. For instance, you may believe that you are powerful and rich or that you can control the weather or the stock markets. These kinds of beliefs are sometimes called delusions of grandeur. Some delusions can also be very frightening and can make you feel endangered or unsafe. For example, you might feel that something or someone is trying to control, harm, or kill you. These ideas are sometimes called paranoid delusions.
3. Disorganized Thinking and Speech
Hallucinations and delusions can make your thoughts and emotions feel confused and disorganized, but disorganized thinking can also be a specific type of psychosis.
Mental health experts may use the following terms to describe what you are experiencing:
Several people find that they experience racing thoughts and a flight of ideas at the same time. If you have disorganized thinking you might:
If you are experiencing symptoms of psychosis you should see a medical doctor right away. Psychosis must be treated as soon as possible, as early treatment can be more in effect.
The medical doctor may ask you some questions to help define what’s causing your psychosis. They should also refer you to a mental health specialist for further assessment and treatment.
Treatment for psychosis may involve using a combination of:
Some people are recommended to take antipsychotics on a long-term basis. The medicine usually recommended is:
There are several risk factors for heart disease and each one has its symptoms and treatment. Heart disease describes a range of conditions that affect your heart including a disease of the heart muscle and blood vessel diseases such as coronary artery disease. Heart disease may also include heart rhythm and congenital heart defects. Several forms of heart disease can be prevented and treated with healthy lifestyle choices.
Heart disease is easier to treat when detected early, so talk to your health care provider about your concerns regarding your heart health. This is especially important if you have a family history of heart disease.
The type of treatment you receive depends on the type of heart disease you have. In general, treatment for heart disease usually includes:
Medications that can be taken for heart disease may include:
Anxiety and insomnia are not the same conditions, but people with insomnia could have anxiety. Insomnia is characterized by difficulty falling asleep, trouble staying asleep, and/or early waking. Anxiety and stress are closely linked, and they are among the chief causes of insomnia. Anxiety-related Insomnia may have several factors and treatment may vary depending on the condition.
Anxiety is a normal part of life. The causes of anxiety disorders aren’t fully understood. Life experiences such as traumatic events seem to trigger anxiety in people who are already prone to anxiety. Inherited traits also can be a factor.
Insomnia is a sleep disorder that is marked by problems getting to sleep, staying asleep through the night, and sleeping as long as you would like into the morning. Common causes of insomnia include stress, an irregular sleep schedule, mental health disorders like anxiety, poor sleeping habits, depression, physical illnesses and pain, neurological problems, medications, and specific sleep disorders. For many people, a combination of these factors can initiate and aggravate insomnia.
Constant worry during the day often carries over into night which can cause mental hyperarousal. It can keep you from falling asleep.
Once you do get to sleep, anxiety also can prevent you from staying asleep long enough to feel fully rested. Anxiety has been compared to your body’s alarm system, it can help keep you safe and out of potentially dangerous situations. However, if that alarm goes off all the time and for no real reason, it can keep you from getting enough deep sleep. All of this can create stress over not being able to get to sleep or get enough sleep which can lead to even more anxiety.
It may take some trial and error to discover which treatments work best for you. For an appropriate prescription, it is best to consult your doctor.
Chronic pain can come in many different types and appear across your body. This kind of pain is a very common condition, and one of the most common reasons why someone seeks medical care. Treatment for chronic pain has a variety of options including medications.
Chronic pain may last for over three months. The pain can be there all the time, or it may come and go. It can happen anywhere in your body. The pain can interfere with your daily activities. It can lead to anxiety, depression, and trouble sleeping, which can make your pain worse. This response creates a cycle that’s difficult to break.
The body has three main types of chronic pain. There is not always a known cause of chronic pain, whereas other times, the pain is a lingering symptom of an injury or accident.
1. Neuropathic Pain
Neuropathic pain is a result of tissue injury or nerve damage. The damaged nerve fibers change the nerve function and send incorrect signals to the brain. These signals are sometimes faulty because of a malfunction in the way nerves transmit pain signals to the brain. Chronic pain occurs when these nerves are injured or diseased. Neuropathic pain is caused by:
2. Nociceptive Pain
Nociceptive pain is caused by an injury, inflammation of a body part, or physical pressure. There are two types of nociceptive pain: somatic pain and visceral pain.
Your healthcare provider may physically examine your body and order tests to look for the cause of the pain. The following tests may include:
Health care providers treat chronic pain in several ways. The approach depends on various factors including the type of pain you have and the cause of pain. Your age and overall health may also be the basis of the treatment. Your health care provider may recommend certain medications to relieve chronic pain including:
On the onset of the warning signs of a heart attack, call 911 or the local emergency team immediately. A heart attack is caused by reduced or blocked blood flow to the heart. Blockages in coronary arteries are typically caused by fat, cholesterol, and other substances accumulating. Plaques consist of fatty deposits, which contain cholesterol. There is a possibility that a plaque may rupture and produce a clot. This may cause the heart muscle to be damaged or destroyed. Heart attacks are also known as myocardial infarction.
1. Uncomfortable Pressure
This is the first symptom of a heart attack which is an uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, fullness, or pain in the center of your chest. This discomfort may come in waves lasting more than a few minutes at a time.
2. Pain in Other Areas of the Body
Heart attack pain can occur in places other than the chest, like the shoulders, arms, back, neck, or jaw. Considering the vagus nerve is connected to not only the heart, but also the brain, chest, neck, and abdomen, you may feel those pain signals in other areas of the body aside from the heart area.
Lightheadedness or dizziness coupled with shortness of breath and chest pain may signify a reduction in blood volume and a drop in blood pressure, which means a heart attack could be on its way.
Feeling exhausted after a sleepless night or a stressful day is normal. This sign is especially prominent in women.
5. Nausea or Indigestion
Gastric symptoms develop when the heart and other areas of the body aren’t receiving enough blood supply. It can be misjudged as acid reflux or heartburn, so it’s important to reach out to your doctor.
Unless you have just exercised, breaking out into a cold sweat or perspiring extremely could signal a heart attack. During a heart attack, your nervous system activates a fight or flight response that puts you in survival mode and might cause sweating.
7. Heart Palpitations
The heart can begin to get irritable when it lacks nutrient-filled blood, which leads to the sensation of heart palpitations. If you feel like you’re having heart palpitations, make sure you contact your doctor right away.
8. Shortness of Breath
Walking up the stairs used to be a breeze, but if you recently have been finding it harder and harder to make the climb, seek medical attention immediately. Although this doesn’t certainly mean you’re about to have a heart attack at this moment, it could be a sign that your heart is in danger.
Treatment for Heart Attack
Each minute after a heart attack, more heart tissue is damaged or dies. Urgent treatment is necessary to fix blood flow and restore oxygen levels. Oxygen is given straightaway.
Medications to treat a heart attack or its symptoms might include:
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic disorder of the digestive system that affects the large intestine. People with this condition experience abnormal inflammation which may result in open sores called ulcers inside the colon and rectum.
Five types of Ulcerative Colitis are identified largely by where they are located in the body or their severity.
1. Ulcerative Proctitis
This is usually the mildest form of Ulcerative Colitis. It is limited to the rectum and rectal bleeding may be the only sign or symptom.
This type affects the lower end of the colon along with the rectum and is sometimes called the sigmoid colon. Symptoms include abdominal cramps/pain and bloody diarrhea.
3. Left-Sided Colitis
This type causes cramps on the left side of the abdomen that affects the rectum and the portion of the colon on the left side of the body. Signs and symptoms include weight loss and bloody diarrhea.
Pancolitis can affect the entire colon which causes multiple symptoms including major weight loss, bloody diarrhea, pain, abdominal cramps, and fatigue.
5. Acute Severe Ulcerative Colitis
This condition is rare but affects the entire colon. Symptoms include pain, fever, and bloody diarrhea.
How To Diagnose Ulcerative Colitis?
To diagnose ulcerative colitis, doctors review your symptoms and medical and family history and perform a physical exam and tests. Medical tests may include stool tests, blood tests, and endoscopy of the large intestine.
Ulcerative colitis treatment usually involves either drug treatment or surgery.
1. Anti-inflammatory drugs
3. Immune System Suppressors
5. Other Medications
Even when you are not experiencing symptoms, take your medication as prescribed. You may experience flare-ups if you skip the medications you’re supposed to take. The best way to manage ulcerative colitis is to follow your treatment plan and talk to your healthcare provider on a regular basis.
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects more than just the joints. Some people can suffer damage to many different body systems, including the skin, eyes, lungs, heart, and blood vessels.
The immune system mistakenly attacks your body’s tissues when rheumatoid arthritis occurs. Rheumatoid arthritis, in contrast to osteoarthritis, causes swelling of your joints that can eventually result in bone erosion and joint deformity, instead of the wear-and-tear damage associated with osteoarthritis.
The inflammation associated with rheumatoid arthritis can also damage other parts of the body. While new treatments for severe rheumatoid arthritis have improved dramatically, they still can lead to severe disabilities.
Symptoms of Rheumatoid Arthritis may include:
Early rheumatoid arthritis tends to affect your smaller joints first, particularly the joints that attach your fingers to your hands and your toes to your feet. As it progresses, the symptoms often spread to the shoulders, hips, elbows, ankles, knees, and wrists. In most cases, symptoms occur in the same joints on both sides of your body.
Factors that may increase your risk of rheumatoid arthritis include:
Rheumatoid arthritis can be difficult to diagnose in its early stages because the early symptoms imitate those of many other diseases. There is no one blood test or physical finding to confirm the diagnosis. During the physical exam, your doctor will check your joints for swelling, redness, and warmth. Your doctor may also check your reflexes and muscle strength.
There is no specific cure for rheumatoid arthritis. However, clinical studies indicate that remission of symptoms is more likely when treatment begins early with medications known as disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
Medications can be used for rheumatoid arthritis:
The types of medications recommended by your doctor will depend on the severity of your symptoms and how long you’ve had rheumatoid arthritis. Always ask for instructions when taking certain medications.
Type 2 Diabetes is a common type of diabetes. It is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose is too high. Blood glucose or blood sugar is the main source of energy and comes mainly from the food you eat.
A hormone made by the pancreas called insulin helps glucose get into your cells to be used for energy. Your body doesn’t produce enough insulin or doesn’t use it efficiently if you have type 2 diabetes. In this case, too much glucose remains in your blood and not enough reaches your cells.
Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes often develop slowly. You can be living with this disease for years and not know it. When symptoms are present, they may include:
You are more likely to develop Type 2 Diabetes if you:
Complications of High Blood Sugar Levels
Potential complications of high blood sugar levels from Type 2 diabetes can include:
These steps will help keep your blood sugar level closer to normal, which can delay or prevent complications.
1. Healthy Eating
2. Physical Activity
Exercise is important for losing weight or maintaining a healthy weight. It also helps with regulating blood sugar levels.
3. Weight Loss
Blood sugar levels, cholesterol levels, triglycerides, and blood pressure are better controlled with weight loss. Overweight people may notice improvements in these factors after losing as little as 5% of their body weight. As you lose weight, you will see a greater impact on your health and disease management.
4. Monitoring Your Blood Sugar
Your doctor will direct you on how often to check your blood sugar level to make sure you remain within your target range. You should keep a record of your measurements to share with your doctor.
5. Diabetes Medications
Diabetes medications that help lower insulin levels or insulin therapy may be prescribed by your doctor if diet and exercise are not sufficient to maintain your target blood sugar level. Diabetes medications that help lower insulin levels include the following.
Anemia is a condition where you lack enough healthy red blood cells to carry sufficient oxygen to the tissues in your body. Having anemia means you also have low hemoglobin which can make you feel weak and tired.
There are several forms of anemia, each with its cause. Anemia can be temporary or long-term and can range from mild to severe. In most cases, anemia has more than one cause. See your doctor if you suspect that you have anemia. It can be a warning sign of a serious disorder.
Different types of anemia have different causes. They include:
Symptoms of anemia vary depending on the cause and severity of anemia. If symptoms occur, they may include:
As anemia worsens, symptoms can also worsen.
Anemia treatment depends on the cause.
Treatment for Alopecia is crucial. Before pursuing it, you may need to talk with your doctor about the cause and the treatment options.
Alopecia is a condition that causes hair loss which may affect just your scalp or your entire body. This condition can be the result of hormonal changes, heredity, medical condition, or a normal part of aging. Alopecia is more common in men.
Alopecia can appear in many different ways. It can come on suddenly or slowly and might affect just the scalp or the whole body.
Symptoms may include:
See your doctor if you are troubled by persistent hair loss in you and want to pursue treatment. For women who are experiencing a receding hairline, talk with your doctor about early treatment to avoid significant permanent baldness. Also, talk to your doctor if you notice sudden or patchy hair loss or more than usual hair loss when combing or washing your hair. Sudden hair loss can signal an underlying medical condition that requires treatment.
Hair loss is typically related to one or more of the following factors:
Before making a diagnosis, your doctor will likely give you a physical exam and ask about your hair care routine, your diet, and your medical and family history. You might also have tests such as:
Effective treatments for some types of hair loss are available. You might be able to reverse hair loss, or at least slow it. Treatments for hair loss include medications and surgery.
Treatment for Eye cataracts may include cataract surgery if you have impaired vision that interferes with your usual activities. The surgery is generally safe and effective.
A cataract is a clouding of the lens of your eye. For people with cataracts, seeing through cloudy lenses is a bit like looking through a frosty or fogged-up window. Clouded vision caused by cataracts can make it more difficult to drive a car, read, or see the expression on a friend’s face. Most cataracts develop slowly and don’t disturb your eyesight early on. But with time, cataracts will eventually interfere with your vision.
If you have any changes in your vision, make an appointment for an eye exam. Also, see your doctor right away if you develop sudden vision changes, eye pain, or headache.
Factors that may increase your risk of eye cataracts may include:
To diagnose a cataract, your doctor will review your medical history and symptoms, and perform an eye examination. Your doctor may conduct several tests including:
Surgery is the only way to get rid of a cataract, but you may not need to get surgery right away.
1. Home treatment
2. New glasses or contacts
Most people don’t need to rush into surgery. Talk about your options with your doctor. Waiting to have surgery usually won’t harm your eyes or make surgery more difficult later.
Crohn’s disease symptoms and treatment vary depending on what’s causing your symptoms and how severe they are for you. This disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease. Crohn’s disease causes your digestive tract to become swollen and irritated. If you have the disease, you might experience symptoms like diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, and rectal bleeding.
Crohn’s disease can affect any part of your small or large intestine, and it can involve multiple segments of your intestine. In some cases, the disease is confined to the colon, which is part of the large intestine. Mild to severe Crohn’s disease symptoms are possible. The symptoms usually develop gradually, but sometimes suddenly appear without warning. There may also be periods without symptoms.
When the disease is active, symptoms may include:
People with severe Crohn’s Disease may also experience:
See your doctor if you have persistent changes in your bowel habits or if you have any of the symptoms of Crohn’s disease, such as:
Certain factors may increase your risk of developing Crohn’s Disease, including:
Your healthcare provider may recommend one or more of these treatments for Crohn’s disease:
Immune system suppressors
Most people with Crohn’s disease first see a doctor because of ongoing diarrhea, unexplained weight loss, or belly cramping. To find the cause of your symptoms, your doctor may order one or more of these tests:
Symptoms of Presbyopia may develop gradually. You may first notice the symptoms after the age of 40.
Presbyopia is a condition that causes gradual loss of the ability of your eye to focus on nearby objects. This condition is usually noticeable in your early to mid-40s and continues to get worse until around the age of 65.
What Causes Presbyopia?
Light reflected from objects is focused by the cornea and the lens to form an image in your eye. The closer the object is, the more the lens bends.
The lens is somewhat flexible, unlike the cornea, and can change shape as a result of a circular muscle surrounding it. The circular muscle relaxes when you view something from a distance. The muscle constricts as you look at something nearby, allowing the relatively elastic lens to curve and change its focus.
With age, your lens hardens, causing presbyopia. Your lens can no longer change shape to focus on close-ups as it becomes less flexible. As a result, these images appear out of focus.
You may notice these symptoms are worse if you are tired or are in an area with dim lighting.
Seek medical care right away if these occur:
How To Diagnose Presbyopia?
To diagnose Presbyopia, you need to have a basic eye exam. Your doctor may use various instruments and ask you to look through several lenses to test your distance and close-up vision. During your eye health exam, your eye doctor may put drops in your eyes to dilate your pupils. Several hours after the exam, you may experience increased sensitivity to light. Dilation enables your doctor to more easily view the inside of your eyes.
Treatment for Presbyopia
Treatment for Presbyopia includes wearing corrective eyeglasses or contact lenses, undergoing refractive surgery, or getting lens implants for presbyopia. However, if you are a good candidate for presbyopia surgery the first step to see is to have a comprehensive eye exam and a consultation with a refractive surgeon who specializes in the surgical correction of presbyopia.
Vuity (Pilocarpine Hydrochloride) is an approved eye drop used to treat presbyopia. It is a cholinergic muscarinic receptor agonist that works to improve near and intermediate visual acuity by contracting the iris sphincter muscle to constrict the pupil.
Symptoms of glaucoma may vary depending on the type of glaucoma a person has. Most people have open-angle glaucoma and angle-closure glaucoma, the most common types of glaucoma.
Glaucoma is an eye condition that damages the optic nerve. The damage is often caused by abnormally high pressure in your eye. Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness for people over the age of 60. It can occur at any age but is more common in older adults.
The signs and symptoms of glaucoma vary depending on the type and stage of your condition. For example:
Acute Angle-Closure Glaucoma
If glaucoma is left untreated, it will eventually cause blindness. Even with treatment, about 15% of people with glaucoma become blind in at least one eye within 20 years.
Chronic forms of glaucoma can destroy vision before any symptoms are apparent. Be aware of these risk factors:
To diagnose glaucoma, your doctor will review your medical history and conduct a comprehensive eye examination. However, there are several tests including:
Treatment and regular checkups can help slow or prevent vision loss, especially if you catch the disease in its early stages.
Glaucoma is treated by lowering your eye pressure. Depending on your situation, your options may include prescription eye drops, oral medications, laser treatment, surgery, or a combination of any of these.
Some of the eye drop medication is absorbed into your bloodstream, you may experience some side effects unrelated to your eyes. To lessen this absorption, close your eyes for one to two minutes after putting the drops in.
If you have been prescribed multiple eye drops or you need to use artificial tears, space them out so that you are waiting at least five minutes in between types of drops. Ask your health care provider for proper instructions.
The causes of Cryptorchidism are not yet clear and vary in several factors. Cryptorchidism is also known as an undescended testicle. It is a testicle that hasn’t moved into its proper position in the bag of skin hanging below the penis before birth. This type of condition is uncommon in general, but common among baby boys born prematurely.
Not seeing or feeling a testicle where you would expect it to be in the scrotum is the main symptom of an undescended testicle.
About 80% of undescended testicles are tangible. The testicle is usually located at the end of the inguinal canal, a channel that carries the spermatic cord towards the penis and scrotum.
The exact cause of cryptorchidism is not known. However, a combination of genetics, maternal health, and other environmental factors might disrupt the hormones, physical changes, and nerve activity that influence the development of the testicles.
In their early stages, all fetuses contain structures that can develop into male or female reproductive organs. Children inherit their sex chromosomes from their parents. According to researchers, the testicles may start to develop incorrectly at this point. Other causes and risk factors may include:
Treatment aims to move the undescended testicle to its right position in the scrotum. Treatment before 1 year of age might lower the risk of complications of an undescended testicle. Earlier is better, but it’s recommended that surgery takes place before the child is 18 months old.
Eye redness or also called the bloodshot eye. The appearance of red eyes can vary widely. It can look like there are several squiggly pink or red lines on the sclera or the entire sclera may appear diffusely pink or red.
What Are The Common Causes Of Eye Redness?
Allergies affect the eyes which may lead becoming red and swollen. Other symptoms that you may experience include:
2. Dry Eyes
Dry eyes are common. If you have dry eyes, you may notice that your eyes appear red. Symptoms may include:
This occurs when the membrane covering the insides of your eyelids and the conjunctiva becomes inflamed. Inflammation of the conjunctiva causes the whites of your eyes to appear pink or red.
This occurs when your eyelids become inflamed. It can cause your eyelids or eyes to appear red and swollen. Some other symptoms may include:
This is an inflammation that occurs in the middle part of your eye called the uvea. Inflammation because of uveitis can lead to eye redness.
Scleritis is when inflammation affects the sclera. When this occurs, the white of your eye can become red and swollen.
7. Subconjunctival Hemorrhage
This occurs when a blood vessel in an eye can break and leak blood on the surface of your eyes. Subconjunctival hemorrhage may look serious but it’s often benign and goes away on its own in 1 to 2 weeks.
8. Eyelid Stye
A stye is a blockage of the meibomian gland in the eye that causes inflammation. It might affect the outside or inside of your upper or lower eyelid.
9. Angle-Closure Glaucoma
Glaucoma is an illness where the pressure in your eye increases because the eye produces more fluid than the normal rate. This can damage your optic nerve and potentially may lead to vision loss.
10. Corneal Ulcers
Corneal ulcers are ulcers or sores that affect the outer part of your eye. This condition is also called keratitis. Several things can cause corneal ulcers to develop:
Sustaining an injury that affects your eye may cause it to become red, frequently because of bleeding or irritation.
12. Contact Lens Wear
Individuals who wear contact lenses have to touch their eyes and the surrounding area more often than those who don’t wear contact lenses. For this reason, they are at an increased risk of eye redness because of a variety of factors.
Medications for eye redness are wide-ranging. Oftentimes, rest, cool compresses over closed eyes, gently washing the eyelids, lightly massaging the eyelids, or over-the-counter eye drops can relieve the symptoms.
Medications may include:
A generalized seizure occurs when electrical activity on both sides of the brain is disturbed, leading to loss of body control and, often, consciousness. A generalized seizure may have a variety of symptoms.
Seizures are likely to last only a few seconds or minutes. If a seizure lasts longer than this, it is important to seek medical attention right away. The affected person will typically return to normal after it has taken place, but complications can arise, such as injury from collapsing or an inability to regain consciousness.
1. Absence Seizures
This is known as petit mal seizures. These are staring spells that start suddenly and might be mistaken for simple daydreaming. The individual may have an absence seizure for 15 seconds or less, typically not moving and just staring in one direction. The episode resolves on its own, and even though the person may not recall what happened during the seizure, their normal state of alertness returns right away afterward.
2. Atonic Seizures (Drop Attacks)
Drop attacks involves a sudden reduction in muscle tone which causes a person’s body to go limp, slump or collapse, possibly causing injury. This type of seizure characterizes certain epilepsy syndromes such as Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.
3. Myoclonic Seizures
This is characterized by sudden body jolts or an increase in muscle tone as if the person had been jolted with electricity.
4. Tonic and Clonic Seizures
If a person is affected by symptoms consistent with a seizure, then it is recommended that they visit a medical professional. Several tests can be run to check whether a person may be epileptic.
A doctor will typically be unable to confirm a diagnosis of epilepsy until at least a second seizure has taken place. What appears to be a generalized seizure may sometimes be down to another, non-epileptic condition, such as a panic attack or Tourette’s syndrome
There are various types of medication are used to control seizures. These medications may include:
In certain cases, doctors may recommend stopping the use of anti-seizure medication, for instance, if several years have passed since a seizure has taken place.
Hives are a skin reaction that causes bumps, raised patches, or both to suddenly appear on the skin. The bumps and raised patches are often itchy and may look swollen. Fortunately, you cannot get hives by touching someone with hives or being around someone who has hives. However, some people develop hives when they have a contagious disease like the common cold or strep throat.
1. Allergic Reactions
This the most common types of hives. Allergic reactions can be caused by any allergen you might be sensitive to.
This is a severe type of hives that can be life-threatening. In this condition, hives are often accompanied by breathing difficulties, nausea or vomiting, severe swelling, and dizziness.
3. Chronic Hives
A chronic hive is an ongoing case that doesn’t have an identifiable cause. Chronic hives are marked by recurring hives that can interfere with your lifestyle. This condition may last between six weeks and several months. You may suspect chronic hives if you have welts that don’t go away within six weeks.
Dermatographism is considered mild. Unnecessary scratching or continuous pressure on the skin causes it. This condition usually clears up on its own in a short period without treatment.
5. Temperature-Induced Hives
A change in temperatures can induce hives in people who are sensitive to such changes.
6. Infection-Induced Hives
Both bacterial and viral infections can cause hives. Common bacterial infections causing hives include urinary tract infections and strep throat. Viruses that cause infectious mononucleosis, hepatitis, and colds often cause hives.
Triggers that most commonly cause hives to include:
Avoid The Triggers
If the cause of hives can be identified, the best treatment is to avoid the trigger or eliminate it:
Medication Used For Hives
Your doctor will likely recommend you first treat your symptoms with home remedies. If self-care steps don’t help, talk with your doctor about finding the prescription medication or combination of drugs that works best for you. Usually, effective treatment can be found. These medications may include:
HIV infection is a chronic, potentially life-threatening condition. HIV is a virus that damages the cells in your immune system and weakens your ability to fight everyday infections and diseases.
This infection can spread in different ways:
The symptoms of HIV infection vary depending on the phase of infection:
1. Primary Infection (Acute HIV)
Some people infected by HIV develop a flu-like illness within 2 to 4 weeks after the virus enters the body. This illness may last for a few weeks. Possible symptoms may include:
2. Clinical Latent Infection (Chronic HIV)
HIV is still present in the body and white blood cells at this stage of infection. However, during this time, many people may not have any symptoms.
3. Symptomatic HIV infection
As the virus continues to grow and destroy immune cells, you may develop mild infections or chronic symptoms such as:
4. Progression to AIDS
If HIV is left untreated, it typically turns into AIDS in about 8-10 years. You have a severely damaged immune system when you have AIDS. You’re more likely to contract diseases that would not normally cause illness in a person with a healthy immune system. Symptoms of these may include:
HIV infection can be diagnosed via blood or saliva testing. Available tests include:
Discuss which HIV test is best for you with your health care provider. You may still need a follow-up test to confirm the results if any of these tests are negative.
Various medications can control HIV and prevent complications. These medications are called antiretroviral therapy (ART). Everyone diagnosed with HIV should be started on ART, regardless of their stage of infection or complications. Each class of drugs blocks the virus in different ways. Treatment involves combinations of drugs from different classes to:
The classes of anti-HIV drugs include:
A virus is a small piece of material that looks for a host to live inside and multiply. Unlike bacteria, they can survive on their own while viruses need a living host to survive. When a virus enters the host cell, it takes over the command center of the cell and starts to imitate the copies of itself.
The viral infection occurs when a virus infects a host cell and begins replicating. The infection may be localized, known as a localized infection, or may spread throughout the body, known as a systemic infection.
Viral infections can affect different areas and systems of the body, the most common of which is the respiratory system. The following are some examples of common viral infections may include:
1. Viral Respiratory Infections
2. Viral Infections with Skin Rashes
3. Viral Sexually Transmitted Infections
4. Other Viral Infections
Several viral infections can be completely avoided by a simple vaccine. Vaccines are currently available for:
Practicing good personal hygiene and lifestyle habits is another effective strategy for preventing disease. This includes:
Symptom management is usually used to treat viral infections. Over-the-counter pain relievers can be used to ease pain and reduce fever while resting for fatigue until the virus is gone. Viral infections are difficult to treat. Hepatitis C, for instance, requires a strict medication regimen for several weeks up to a few months before the virus is cleared from your body. If you take medications early enough after being exposed to other viruses, you may speed up your recovery. The medications in this category include those that treat influenza and shingles (herpes zoster). While HIV medications keep the virus under control, they do not cure it. Their primary role is to prevent it from replicating and causing more damage.
Medications used for viral infections may include:
For viral infections, their lots of things that you can do over the counter to help your symptoms. Unfortunately, there is no medication that we can give that will speed your recovery, so mainly it’s making you feel better while your body’s fighting off the infection over about a week.
Triggers of Irritable bowel syndrome affect the large intestine. Cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, gas, and diarrhea or constipation are the signs and symptoms of IBS. Only a small number of people with IBS have severe signs and symptoms. Some people can control their symptoms by managing their diet, lifestyle, and stress. More severe symptoms can be treated with medication and counseling.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome symptoms can be triggered by:
During the first visit, your doctor will likely conduct a complete medical history, a physical examination, and tests to rule out other conditions. Your doctor will most likely use one of the following sets of diagnostic criteria for IBS once other possible causes have been ruled out:
The following types of drugs are used to treat IBS:
The rabies virus spreads to humans through the saliva of infected animals. Most often, the virus is transmitted through bites.
Rabies is most often transmitted by bats, coyotes, foxes, raccoons, and skunks in the United States. Most rabies cases in developing countries are caused by stray dogs.
A person with rabies will almost always die once they show signs and symptoms of the disease. For this reason, anyone who may have a risk of contracting rabies should receive rabies vaccinations for protection.
The rabies virus causes a rabies infection. The virus can spread via the saliva of infected animals which can spread the virus by biting another animal or a person.
In rare cases, rabies can be spread when infected saliva gets into an open wound or the mucous membranes, such as the eyes or mouth. This could happen if an infected animal licked an open cut on your skin.
Signs and Symptoms of Rabies
The first signs and symptoms of rabies may be very similar to those of the flu and may last for days. Later signs and symptoms may include:
Diagnosis of Rabies
There is no way to know whether the animal has the rabies infection at the time a potentially rabid animal bites you. Also, it is common not to find bite marks. Your doctor may recommend several tests to detect the rabies virus. However, they may need to be repeated later to confirm whether you are carrying the virus.
Your doctor will likely recommend treatment as soon as possible to prevent the rabies virus from infecting your body if there’s a chance you may have been exposed to the rabies virus.
Treatment for Rabies
If you have been bitten by an animal that is known to have rabies, you will receive shots to prevent the rabies virus from infecting you. If the animal that bit you can’t be found, it may be safest to assume that the animal has rabies. However, this will depend on several factors, such as the type of animal and the situation in which the bite occurred.
Rabies shots include:
If rabies is left untreated, it is almost always fatal. When someone with rabies starts experiencing symptoms, they usually do not survive. This is why it is very essential to seek medical attention right away following an animal bite, especially if the bite is from a wild animal.
A lazy eye is also known as amblyopia. This condition is characterized by a reduced vision in one eye caused by abnormal visual development early in life. The lazy eye often wanders inward or outward. This condition usually develops from birth up to age 7 years. It is the leading cause of decreased vision among children. Rarely, lazy eye affects both eyes.
Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent long-term problems with your child’s vision. The eye with poorer vision can usually be corrected with glasses or contact lenses, or patching therapy.
The symptom of the lazy eye may include:
See a doctor if you notice an eye wandering after the first few weeks of life. A vision check is especially important if there’s a family history of crossed eyes, childhood cataracts, or other eye conditions.
A lazy eye develops as a result of abnormal visual experiences early in life which alter the nerve pathways between the thin layer of tissue behind the eye and the brain. Weakened eyes are less sensitive to visual stimuli. As the ability of the eyes to work together diminishes, the brain suppresses or ignores input from the weaker eye. Lazy eyes can be caused by anything that blurs a child’s vision or causes the eyes to cross or turn out. Among the most common causes are:
A doctor will perform an eye exam to check for eye health, wandering eyes, differences in vision between both eyes, or poor vision in both eyes. The eyes are usually dilated with eyedrops. It is common for eye drops to cause blurred vision for several hours to a day. The method used to test vision depends on your child’s age and stage of development:
Treatment options depend on the cause of the lazy eye and on how much the condition is affecting the vision. Your doctor might recommend:
For most children with lazy eyes, proper treatment improves vision within weeks to months. Treatment might last from six months to two years.
Parkinsonism is a condition that causes a combination of the movement abnormalities seen in Parkinson’s disease. These include slowness, stiffness, tremor, and imbalance. However, not everyone who has Parkinsonism has Parkinson’s disease.
The most common form of Parkinsonism is Idiopathic Parkinson’s. A person who has Parkinsonism will also have another disorder that causes additional neurological symptoms, ranging from dementia to the inability to look up and down.
People with Parkinsonism usually start to develop symptoms at anywhere from age 50 to 80. Parkinson’s disease can cause varying and progressive symptoms throughout its course. Some of the most common symptoms associated with the disease include:
A person with Parkinsonism may have some of these symptoms. Other symptoms of the disease may include:
Parkinsonism can be caused by Parkinson’s disease itself as well as another underlying condition. Other causes may include:
These medications are related to dopamine and can increase the amount of dopamine available in the brain. However, people with Parkinsonism not only have problems producing dopamine but also have damaged or destroyed cells that cannot respond to dopamine. Doctors can find Parkinsonism challenging to treat because the symptoms of the condition do not always respond as well or at all to medications that boost dopamine.
Parkinsonism treatment usually helps reduce the symptoms whenever possible to help them maintain independence. Doctors often recommend physical and occupational therapy because they can help a person keep their muscles strong and improve balance.
Measles is a childhood infection caused by a virus that can now almost always be prevented with a vaccine. This infection is also called rubeola. Measles can be serious and even fatal for small children. For more than a decade, the infection hasn’t been widespread in the U.S. as they have a high vaccination rate in general.
Most of the measles cases originated outside the country and occurred in people who were unvaccinated or who didn’t know whether or not they had been vaccinated.
Measles is caused by an extremely contagious virus called morbillivirus. If 10 people weren’t vaccinated in a room with someone with measles, 9 of them would get measles. This infection is spread by:
The signs and symptoms of measles appear around 10 to 14 days after exposure to the virus. The signs and symptoms usually may include:
Your doctor can usually diagnose measles depending on the characteristics of the disease. However, many doctors have never seen measles, and the rash can be confused with several other illnesses. If needed, a blood test can confirm whether the rash is truly measles. The measles virus can also be established with a test that usually uses a throat swab or urine sample.
There’s no exact treatment for established measles infection. However, some measures can be taken to protect vulnerable individuals who have been exposed to the virus.
Medications used for measles:
You should not give aspirin to children or teenagers who have measles symptoms. Though aspirin is approved for use in children older than age 3, children and teenagers recovering from chickenpox or flu-like symptoms must never take aspirin. Aspirin has been linked to Reye’s syndrome, a rare but potentially life-threatening condition, in such children.
Recent research shows that about 1 in 8 women experience symptoms of postpartum depression. Also, a recent analysis found the rate of depression diagnoses at delivery is increasing and it was seven times higher in the present years.
Having a baby is challenging and every woman deserves support. If you are experiencing emotional changes or think that you may be depressed, make an appointment to talk to your health care provider as soon as possible. Most people get better with treatment and getting help is the best thing you can do for you and your baby.
Symptoms usually develop within the first few weeks after giving birth, but may begin earlier, during pregnancy, or later up to a year after birth. Women with postpartum depression have intense feelings of sadness, anxiety, or despair that prevent them from being able to do their daily tasks. This condition may be mistaken for baby blues at first, but the symptoms are more intense and last longer, and may eventually interfere with your ability to care for your baby and handle other daily tasks.
Postpartum depression cannot be prevented or avoided. However, if you have a history of depression or postpartum depression after giving birth to other children, you can prepare for it by keeping your mind and body healthy. Eat healthy during your pregnancy, exercise, and learn stress reduction strategies. Once your baby is born, stay away from alcohol and caffeine. Continue to make healthy lifestyle decisions.
Effective depression treatment can include a combination of medication therapy, counseling, and referrals. When discussing medications with your provider, let her or him know if you are pregnant, thinking about becoming pregnant, or breastfeeding. You and your provider can decide if taking medicine while pregnant or breastfeeding is right for you.
See your doctor earlier in your pregnancy or sooner after giving birth if you are worried you will have postpartum depression. Postpartum depression is treated much like any other depression. Support, counseling or talk therapy, and prescription medicines such as antidepressants can help.
HPV Infection is a viral infection that causes skin or mucous membrane growths. There are more than 100 varieties of human papillomavirus (HPV). Some types of infection cause warts and others might cause certain types of cancer.
HPV is transmitted to your body through a cut, abrasion, or small tear in your skin. It is mainly transmitted through direct skin contact. HPV infections in the genital region can be contracted through sexual activity, anal sex, and another skin-to-skin contact. In some cases, HPV infections resulting in oral or upper respiratory lesions can be contracted through oral sex.
Your baby may get an infection if you have an HPV infection with genital warts while you are pregnant. A noncancerous growth in the baby’s voice box (larynx) may be caused by the infection.
In most cases, your body’s immune system defeats an HPV infection before it creates warts. When warts do appear, they vary in appearance depending on which kind of HPV is involved:
Risk factors for HPV infection include:
Medications to reduce the infection are usually applied directly to the lesion and usually take many applications before they are successful. Examples include:
Contact Dermatitis is an itchy rash that is caused by direct contact with a substance or an allergic reaction to it. The rash is not contagious or life-threatening, but it can be very uncomfortable. Many substances can cause such reactions including plants, jewelry, fragrances, cosmetics, and soaps.
For successful treatment of Contact Dermatitis, you need to categorize and avoid what causes your reaction, if you can avoid certain substances, the rash will eventually clear up in 2-4 weeks.
Contact dermatitis usually occurs on areas of your body that have been directly exposed to the reaction-causing substance. The rash usually develops within minutes to hours of exposure and can last 2-4 weeks.
Symptoms of contact dermatitis may include:
See your doctor if any of the following occurs:
Seek medical care right away if the following situations happen:
Contact dermatitis is caused by a substance that you’re exposed to which can irritate your skin or might trigger an allergic reaction. The substance could be one of the thousands of known allergens and irritants. Some people react to strong irritants after a single exposure. Others may develop symptoms after repeated exposures to even mild irritants, while some people develop a tolerance to the substance over time.
Lifestyle and Home Remedies
To help lessen itching and soothe the infected skin, try these self-care approaches:
As the prostate enlarges, the gland presses against and pinches the urethra. The bladder wall becomes thicker. In due course, the bladder may weaken and lose the ability to empty which leaves some urine in the bladder. The narrowing of the urethra and urinary retention is the failure to empty the bladder because of many of the problems associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia.
The severity of BPH symptoms varies in people, but it tends to worsen gradually. Common symptoms of BPH may include:
It is not known what causes benign prostatic hyperplasia. This condition is mostly found in older men. When a man’s testicles are removed before puberty, BPH does not develop. Researchers believe benign prostatic hyperplasia may be caused by factors related to aging and the testicles.
The male body produces testosterone throughout their lives, as well as small amounts of estrogen, a female hormone. When men age, they lose active testosterone from their blood, leaving more estrogen in their blood. Researchers suggest that benign prostatic hyperplasia occurs because a high level of estrogen within the prostate causes substances that promote prostate cell growth to be more active.
Another theory involves dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a male hormone that affects prostate development and growth. There is some evidence that even when blood testosterone levels drop, older men continue to produce and accumulate high levels of DHT in the prostate. As a consequence, prostate cells may continue to grow. Researchers have noted that men without DHT do not develop benign prostatic hyperplasia.
A wide variety of treatments are available for enlarged prostate. The best treatment choice for you depends on several factors, including:
However, medication is the most common treatment for mild to moderate symptoms of prostate enlargement. The options include:
The medicine usually recommends to treat BPH is:
Jock Itch is a fungal infection that causes a red, itchy rash in warm and moist areas of the body. The rash often affects the groin and inner thighs and may be shaped like a ring.
This infection is usually not serious even though it can often be uncomfortable and bothersome. Treatment for Jock Itch may involve keeping the groin area clean and dry and applying topical antifungal medications.
Jock itch is caused by organisms that thrive in damp, confined environments. A fungus causes jock itch, which spreads from person to person or through the sharing of towels or clothing. An athlete’s foot fungus often causes this condition. Fungi can travel on your hands or a towel from your feet to your groin, spreading the infection.
The symptoms of Jock itch usually begin with a reddened area of skin in the crease in the groin. It often spreads to the upper thigh in a half-moon shape. The rash may be ring-shaped and bordered with a line of small blisters. It may burn or feel itchy, and the skin may be flaky or scaly.
See your doctor if your rash is painful or you develop a fever. Also, see your doctor if the rash has not improved after a week of treatment or if it has not cleared up completely after three weeks of treatments.
You’re at greater risk of jock itch if you:
Your doctor can often diagnose Jock Itch by looking at the rash. If the diagnosis isn’t precise, your doctor may take skin scrapings or samples from the infected area for study under a microscope.
Reduce your risk of jock itch by taking these steps:
For mild jock itch, your doctor may suggest first using over-the-counter antifungal medication. Apply the medication as your doctor recommends for one to two weeks even if the rash clears up quickly.
Medications usually used for fungal infections:
Prostatitis is a condition of the prostate gland usually accompanied by inflammation. This condition often causes difficult or painful urination, and pain in the groin, genitals, or pelvic area. Bacterial infections cause some but not all cases of Prostatitis. The prostate gland is about the size of a walnut located below the bladder in men. It surrounds the top portion of the tube that drains urine from the bladder.
Symptoms of Prostatitis depend on the type of disorder. They may include:
Causes of Prostatitis vary depending on their type:
Risk factors for prostatitis include:
The symptoms of Prostatitis can be caused by various conditions. Your doctor will conduct a physical exam, review your symptoms and medical history, and order tests to identify the cause and rule out certain conditions.
Antibiotics can kill the bacteria that cause Prostatitis. Rarely, men may also need surgery to drain an abscess on the prostate. The entire course of antibiotic treatment is usually 4 to 6 weeks or longer in some cases. Taking all the prescribed medication is important for eliminating the infection and reducing the risk of chronic bacterial prostatitis.
Medications used for the treatment of Prostatitis and managing its symptoms:
In addition, your health care provider may recommend psychotherapy with a mental health care professional to help you manage stress, anxiety, and depression that may be associated with chronic pain.
Polio is also called poliomyelitis which is a highly contagious disease caused by a virus that attacks the nervous system. This disease can take several different forms:
Polio is transmitted by direct contact with infected feces. Viruses can also be transmitted by objects like toys that have been in contact with infected feces. The virus lives in the throat and intestines, so it can be spread by sneezing or coughing. This is a rare occurrence.
People living in areas with limited access to running water or flush toilets often contract polio from drinking water contaminated by infected human waste. In addition, people with a weakened immune system, pregnant women, and young children are the most susceptible to polio.
If you have not been vaccinated, you can increase your risk of contracting polio when you:
Polio causes a variety of symptoms. Depending on the severity of the case, the symptoms may include:
Polio is often diagnosed by its symptoms, such as neck and back stiffness, abnormal reflexes, and difficulty swallowing and breathing. Samples of your throat secretions, stool, and cerebral spinal fluid (a colorless liquid that surrounds your brain and spinal cord) are tested for poliovirus to confirm the diagnosis.
Doctors can only treat polio symptoms while the infection runs its course. Since there’s no cure, the best way to treat polio is to prevent it with vaccinations.
The most common supportive treatments include:
Medications usually used for polio:
Whipworm infection is an infection of the large intestine. This infection also known as trichuriasis develops after ingesting water or dirt contaminated with feces containing whipworm parasites. Anyone who has come into contact with contaminated feces can also contract a whipworm infection.
The infection most often occurs in children. It is also more common in people who live in regions with hot, humid climates and areas with poor hygiene and sanitation.
The symptoms of Whipworm Infection can range from mild to severe. They may include:
Whipworm Infection is commonly caused by Trichuris trichiura. It is a parasite that is shaped like a whip that has a thick section on one end that resembles the whip handle and a narrow section on the other end that looks like a whip.
People often get this infection after consuming dirt or water contaminated with feces that has whipworm parasites or their eggs. The eggs of whipworms can get into the soil when contaminated feces are used in fertilizers. You can also get the infection when an infected person or animal defecates outside.
Someone might unknowingly consume the whipworm parasites or their eggs when they:
Whipworm Infection occurs in anyone. Conversely, people may be more likely to contract this infection if they:
A stool test is usually the initial test that doctors mostly recommend. You may need to give a sample of your feces to a lab for testing. The stool test can determine whether there are whipworms or whipworm eggs in your intestines and feces. Make sure to wash your hands thoroughly after the test.
For infants, the diaper can be lined with plastic wrap to collect the sample. The sample will be sent to a lab, where it will be analyzed under a microscope for the presence of whipworms and their eggs.
Whipworm Infection’s most common and effective treatment is an antiparasitic medication:
This medicine belongs to the anthelmintic group of drugs that improves the patient’s condition by killing the parasite.
Herpes is a common virus that causes sores on your genitals or mouth. It can be annoying and painful, but it usually doesn’t lead to serious health problems. This infection is easily spread from skin-to-skin contact with someone who has the virus.
Primary symptoms occur when a person first develops the infection. Alongside sores or blisters, herpes may cause:
Herpes symptoms come and go, but that doesn’t mean the infection goes away or that you can’t spread it to other people. Once you have herpes, it might stay in your body for life.
What Causes Herpes?
Herpes infection is caused by herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. These viruses are contagious and transmitted from one person to another through the skin to skin contact. Touching or kissing is the main cause of herpes simplex virus type 1 and sexual contact is the main cause of herpes simplex virus type 2 transmission.
Lifestyle Risk Factors of Herpes
Herpes is a common virus and there is an especially high risk of exposure associated with certain activities including:
How to Diagnose Herpes?
Herpes can be diagnosed based on the appearance of lesions and laboratory tests. In general, if you don’t have any symptoms, there is no need for you to have any diagnostic testing for herpes simplex virus type 1. However, if you may have been exposed to the herpes simplex virus type 2, you may need to be tested even if you do not have lesions. The two types of herpes may cause visible skin lesions. You must see a healthcare provider, especially if you’ve never had an outbreak before.
Certain symptoms of herpes such as blisters typically improve on their own, without medical treatment. But if you experience severe or frequent outbreaks, a doctor can prescribe antiviral medications. Options include:
Fungal infections can affect anyone, and they can affect a wide range of body parts. This infection can be caused by a variety of fungi. Occasionally, fungi that are normally present on or inside your body can multiply out of control and lead to an infection.
Infections caused by fungi can be contagious. They can be transmitted from person to person. Disease-causing fungi can also be caught from infected animals or soil that is contaminated. If you develop signs or symptoms of a fungal infection, make an appointment with your doctor.
1. Athlete’s foot
It’s a type of fungal infection that can affect the skin on your feet, as well as your hands and nails. The infection is caused by dermatophytes, a group of fungi that can thrive in the warm and humid areas between your toes.
Common symptoms may include:
2. Jock itch
It’s a fungal infection that can affect the skin on your groin area, as well as your inner thighs and buttocks. This type of infection mostly affects men and boys, but women and girls can develop it too.
The symptoms of Jock itch are:
This affects the skin and scalp. Ringworm is also part of a group of fungi that grow on the skin, particularly in damp and humid parts of your body. This usually starts as a scaly, itchy rash. Over time, patches of ringworm can spread and form red rings.
4. Yeast infection
It is normal for lesser quantities of candida Albicans to be present on your skin and in your body. But when these fungi grow too much, they can cause an infection known as a yeast infection. In women, vaginal yeast infections are relatively common. They can cause:
5. Onychomycosis, or fungal infection of the nail
This usually starts as a small light-colored spot on your nail. Over time, it can cause your nail to become thicker and more brittle.
Common symptoms may include:
Diagnosis of fungal infection will begin with a physical exam and discussion of your symptoms. For fungal infections affecting other parts of the body, your physician may take a sample of bodily fluids, including:
In some cases, your physician may take a biopsy of the affected organ. In the case of fungal masses in the respiratory system, an X-ray can help determine the amount of tissue damage.
Some types of medications can reduce your body’s ability to ward off fungal infections. For example, antibiotics destroy helpful bacteria along with harmful bacteria. Antibiotics you can use include:
Pneumonia is a common lung infection where the air sacks of the lungs are inflamed. These sacs may also be filled with cellular debris, pus, and fluid.
Bacterial Pneumonia may involve just one small section of the lung or might include both lungs. The condition can make it tough for your body to get sufficient oxygen to your blood which may cause cells not to function well.
This type of pneumonia can be mild or serious. The severity of your condition may depend on:
Bacterial pneumonia is caused by bacteria that enter the lungs and multiply. It can develop independently or as a result of another illness, such as a cold or the flu.
People who are at higher risk for pneumonia include:
People who have these conditions may also be at an increased risk for pneumonia:
Doctors classify bacterial pneumonia based on whether it developed inside or outside a hospital.
The most common symptoms of bacterial pneumonia are:
Older adults will share all the symptoms with younger adults, but are much more likely to experience dizziness and confusion. Older adults may also be less likely to have a fever.
During your doctor’s first visit, he or she will ask about your medical history and perform a physical exam. A stethoscope will be used to listen to your lungs for abnormal crackling or bubbling sounds that could indicate pneumonia.
If pneumonia is suspected, your doctor may recommend the following tests:
If you’re older than age 65 and have serious symptoms or health conditions, your doctor might order additional tests. These may include:
As part of pneumonia treatment, the infection must be cured and complications avoided. In most cases, community-acquired pneumonia can be treated at home with medication. Symptoms usually go away within a few days or weeks, but the tiredness can last for a month or more.
Medications recommended for the treatment of Bacterial Pneumonia include:
Parkinson’s disease is a progressive nervous system disorder that affects movement. The symptoms begin slowly and sometimes it starts with a barely noticeable tremor in just one hand. Tremors are common but the disorder also commonly causes stiffness or slowing of movement. Some people with Parkinson’s disease are detected when they are 60 years old or older, but early-onset Parkinson’s disease also occurs.
Here are some early signs of Parkinson’s disease:
Other common symptoms may include:
Certain nerve cells in the brain slowly break down if you have Parkinson’s disease. Several symptoms occur due to a loss of neurons that produce a chemical messenger in your brain called dopamine. When its level is decreased, it causes abnormal brain activity which may lead to impaired movement and other symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.
Several factors may be the cause of this disease, including:
Your doctor will diagnose Parkinson’s disease based on your medical history, a review of your symptoms, as well as neurological and physical examination. Your doctor may suggest some tests including:
Sometimes it takes time to diagnose Parkinson’s disease. Doctors may recommend regular follow-up appointments with neurologists trained in movement disorders to evaluate your condition and symptoms over time and diagnose Parkinson’s disease.
Parkinson’s disease doesn’t have a certain cure, but medications can help control your symptoms. In some more advanced cases, surgery may be advised.
Medications your doctor may prescribe include:
A dental infection begins in a tooth or its supporting structures and may spread to surrounding tissues. Typically, dental infections are caused by bacteria invading the pulp and spreading to the surrounding tissues. Also, infections can affect the gums, causing gingivitis, which leads to periodontitis later on.
Anything that creates an opening for bacteria to get into the tooth or surrounding tissues can lead to dental infection. Causes may include:
If your tooth is infected, you may be:
Other symptoms of infection include:
You may also experience generalized symptoms such as:
You are more likely to develop dental infections if you:
Along with examining the tooth and surrounding tissue for signs of infection, your dentist may:
Treatment for dental infection may remove the infection and prevent complications. Treatment options include:
Medications usually used for the treatment of dental infection include:
Autism is also known as an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that refers to a broad range of conditions characterized by repetitive behaviors, challenges with social skills, speech, and nonverbal communication.
Several factors might influence the development of autism, and it is often accompanied by sensory sensitivities and medical issues such as:
ADHD is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood. It is usually first diagnosed in childhood and often lasts in adulthood. Children with this disorder may have trouble paying attention, may act without thinking about what the result will be, or be overly active.
Autism and ADHD are related in several ways. ADHD is not on the autism spectrum, but they have some of the same symptoms. Having one of these conditions increases the chances of having the other. These conditions are related genetically as well. A person with autism has a bigger chance of having a close relative with ADHD.
Kids with autism and ADHD can have similar signs, some of the ways to help with one can be helpful for the other. For example, kids with both usually benefit from sticking to a routine and knowing what to expect. However, there are big differences in the type of therapy recommended for each. Treatment for autism can help with communication skills. It can also help decrease repetitive behaviors, which is one of the hallmarks of autism. The treatment of ADHD is geared toward improving attention and organization.
Here are some of the symptoms and challenges that people with ADHD and autism often share:
It is important to note that these symptoms, while they look similar, may result from different causes.
The first step to getting the proper support to those with autism and ADHD is getting a correct diagnosis. You may need to seek out a child behavior disorder specialist.
There is a wide range of treatments for autism depending on particular needs. The most common treatment may include:
Most people with ADHD are treated, at least partially, with pharmaceuticals to help lessen impulsivity and increase focus. These medications may be stimulants or non-stimulants, and the choice of treatment may depend on the age of the patient. In addition, treatments may include:
The modern world is stressful, and that is unlikely to change anytime soon. You will likely experience some level of stress from the moment your alarm clock wakes you up until you’re done for the day. Stress may take the form of anxiety or other psychological pressures, or physical stress, such as eye and neck strain from sitting at a computer for long periods. Stress is tolerable in small amounts, but too much can harm your health.
Everyday stress can bring on headaches in a variety of ways because stress causes us to change our behavior without even realizing it.
Regular exercise and relaxation techniques can help reduce stress.
Additionally, living a healthy lifestyle may help prevent headaches:
Using medications along with stress management techniques may be more effective than either treatment alone in lessening your headaches.
Medications used may include:
These medications help you to relieve headaches. Your doctor may prescribe medicines to lessen the frequency and severity of attacks, especially if you have frequent or chronic headaches that aren’t relieved by pain medication and other therapies.
Whooping cough is a highly contagious respiratory tract infection. The name of the disease comes from the whooping noise you might make when you try to breathe in after coughing. Whooping cough is very contagious and can affect anyone. But it can be especially serious in babies who did not yet get the vaccine. About half of babies under age one who get whooping cough need care in the hospital.
A type of bacteria called Bordetella pertussis causes whooping cough. If a person with whooping cough sneezes, coughs, or laughs, small droplets that have the bacteria may fly through the air. If you breathe in the droplets, you may get sick.
When the bacteria get into your airways, they attack the tiny hairs in the lining of the lungs. The bacteria then causes swelling and inflammation which may lead to a long-lasting cough and other cold-like symptoms.
When you are infected with whooping cough, it may take 7-10 days for the symptoms to appear. They’re usually mild at first and resemble those of a common cold:
After a week or two, symptoms worsen. Thick mucus accumulates inside your airways which may cause uncontrollable coughing. Severe and prolonged coughing attacks may:
Whooping Cough diagnosis in the early stages can be difficult because the symptoms resemble those of other common respiratory illnesses. Sometimes, doctors diagnose this condition simply by asking about the symptoms and listening to the cough. Medical tests may be needed to confirm the diagnosis including:
Infants are usually hospitalized for treatment because whooping cough is more dangerous for that age group. If your child can’t keep down liquids or food, intravenous fluids may be needed. Your child will also be isolated from others to prevent the infection from spreading. Treatment for older children and adults usually can be managed at home.
Medications that can be used for whooping cough:
Antibiotics kill the bacteria causing whooping cough and help speed recovery. Exposed family members may be given preventive antibiotics.
Chest Tightness may appear in several forms that range from a sharp stab to a dull ache. Sometimes, it feels crushing or burning. In most cases, the pain travels up the neck, into the jaw, and then spreads to the back or arms.
Although chest pain is often associated with heart disease, there are several patients with the disease who say that they have a vague discomfort that isn’t necessarily identified as pain. In general, chest discomfort related to a heart attack or another heart problem may be described by or associated with one or more of the following:
Chest pain has many possible causes, all of which need medical attention.
1. Heart-related causes
2. Digestive causes
Chest pain can be caused by disorders of the digestive system, including:
3. Muscle and bone causes
Some types of chest pain are along with injuries and other problems affecting the structures that make up the chest wall, including:
4. Lung-related causes
Many lung disorders can cause chest pain, including:
Chest pain can also be caused by:
Chest pain is not always a signal of a heart attack, but that’s what doctors in the emergency room usually test for first. It is because it can be potentially the most immediate threat to life.
Some of the first tests your doctor may order when evaluating chest pain include:
Depending on the results from the initial tests for chest pain, you may need follow-up testing, which may include:
Based on your specific situation, your doctor will be able to explain the recommended treatment options and the outlook for your condition. A variety of treatment options are available, from simple lifestyle changes to medication or a detailed treatment plan.
Drugs used for the treatment of some of the most common causes of chest pain may include:
A muscle cramp happens when a muscle contracts suddenly and uncontrollably. These cramps can occur in one or more muscles at a time. Muscle cramps can be a symptom of various medical issues. They are often linked with muscle strain, but they can also be a sign of medical conditions such as liver disease or circulation problems.
Muscle cramps can interfere with your daily activities because they often happen at night which affects your sleep. As a result, they may reduce your quality of life. But in most cases, muscle cramps are not serious. Muscle cramps occur most often in the:
Several medical conditions may contribute to cramping such as;
A physical exam may be recommended if you have frequent or severe muscle cramps. When you have cramps, your doctor will feel the affected areas and move them to check for muscle issues. Your doctor may also assess your activities or work to determine the trigger.
Blood and urine tests may also be used to determine the cause of muscle cramps. It detects underlying conditions such as liver or kidney disease that can cause cramps. If leg cramps are caused by neurologic problems, your doctor may order an MRI to diagnose them.
Muscle cramps can usually be treated with self-care measures. You can do stretches with your doctor to reduce the likelihood of getting muscle cramps. Making sure you stay well-hydrated also can help. For recurrent cramps that disturb your sleep, your doctor might prescribe a medication to relax your muscles.
Yeast is a fungus usually found on your skin and in your digestive system. If you’re a woman, you also have yeast in your vaginal area. When too much yeast grows on your skin or other areas, it can cause an infection. This infection is also called candidiasis.
Discomfort and itchiness are the main symptoms of yeast infection. You may also experience any of the following:
See your doctor if you think you have a yeast infection before treating yourself. The symptoms of yeast infections are similar to other, more serious conditions, including sexually transmitted infections and bacterial vaginosis. An accurate diagnosis is important so you can get the best treatment.
Yeast infection occurs when the healthy yeast that normally lives in your vagina grows out of control. It often leads to itching and other irritating symptoms. The medical name for this infection is candidiasis because they’re usually caused by a type of yeast called candida.
If your vaginal chemistry gets thrown off balance, the normal yeast that lives in your vagina can grow too much and might lead to an infection. Some things that can cause changes in your vagina’s environment are:
Your doctor may assess you on certain things to diagnose a yeast infection. It includes:
To lessen your risk of yeast infections, wear underwear that has a cotton crotch and does not fit too tightly. It might also help to avoid:
Over-the-counter antifungal creams, ointments, or suppositories with Clotrimazole or Miconazole are the most common ways to treat yeast infections.
Your doctor may also choose to prescribe an oral antifungal medication, such as:
You need to know that some yeast infection medications weaken condoms or diaphragms. That makes it easier for you to get pregnant or contract a sexually transmitted disease. Be sure to read instructions and warnings before using.
Sinusitis is an inflammation or swelling of the sinuses. The sinuses are four pairs of cavities in the head. These cavities are connected by narrow channels. A thin mucus drains from the sinuses into the nasal channels. The mucus keeps the nasal passages clean and free of bacteria. The sinuses are normally filled with air but can become blocked and filled with fluid. As a result, bacteria can grow and cause an infection.
Common symptoms of sinusitis include:
The sinuses can become inflamed and blocked by a virus, bacteria, or fungus. A few specific causes include:
Other causes may include:
You may be asked about your symptoms by your doctor. A physical exam will involve feeling for tender spots on your nose and face and examining your nose. Methods for diagnosing chronic sinusitis include:
Sinusitis is treated in several ways, each depending on how severe the case of your condition is.
A simple sinusitis infection is treated with:
If symptoms of sinusitis don’t improve after 10 days, your doctor may prescribe:
Long-term sinusitis may be treated by focusing on the underlying condition. This is usually treated with:
Medications can be used for sinusitis:
Kidney Infection is a serious infection that needs to treat right away. When bacteria or viruses get into your kidneys, usually through your urinary tract, they can cause a kidney infection. If a kidney infection is not treated, it can get worse and sometimes cause permanent kidney damage.
The viruses or bacteria that cause kidney infections usually come from another part of your urinary tract, such as your bladder, ureters, or urethra, and spread to your kidneys. Less commonly, the viruses or bacteria come from an infection elsewhere in your body.
Kidney infection can also happen if the flow of urine through your urinary tract is blocked. This can happen because of:
Symptoms of a kidney infection may include:
If you notice any of these symptoms, call your doctor right away. If you are currently taking medication for the treatment of urinary tract infection, but you are still having any of these symptoms, call your doctor.
To know if you have a kidney infection, doctors may do tests such as:
Doctors treat most kidney infections with antibiotics. Doctors will prescribe an antibiotic medicine based on:
If you have a very serious infection, you may need to stay in the hospital to get antibiotics through an IV. You may also get pain medicine.
2. Pain Killers
It is very important to get medical treatment for kidney infections as soon as possible. You should not wait for it to go away on its own. Kidney infections that are not treated soon enough can cause permanent kidney damage or can spread to other parts of your body.
Ringworm is a common skin infection defined as a circular rash that is usually red and itchy. This infection goes by many names. The medical terms are tinea or dermatophytosis. Other names for ringworm are based on its location on the body.
You can catch it in any of the following ways:
Your doctor will diagnose ringworm by checking your skin. Depending on the type of fungus, it may sometimes fluoresce or glow under black light. Your doctor may confirm a diagnosis of ringworm by requesting certain tests:
Your doctor may recommend both lifestyle changes and medications to treat ringworm. Your doctor may recommend that you care for the infection at home by:
Some severe cases may be treated with oral medications. Before using any medications, it is important to consult your doctor first and get the appropriate diagnosis and treatment.
Emesis is a medical term used to refer to vomiting. Throwing up or vomiting means releasing the contents of the stomach and proximal small intestine from the mouth. A feeling of nausea, in which you feel like vomiting, usually precedes emesis. The most common causes of nausea and vomiting are motion sickness, food poisoning, concussions, and tumors. Despite this, excessive vomiting can cause serious consequences, such as dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and malnutrition.
Vomiting is usually triggered by problems with the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the central nervous system (CNS). Vomiting is typically caused by gastroenteritis and/or the consumption of drugs or toxins. Gastroenteritis occurs when the lining of the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine becomes inflamed. CTZ can be triggered by drugs in the bloodstream. Food poisoning can be caused by pathogens in ill-prepared food.
Besides the most common causes, vomiting can be caused by a variety of conditions, including motion sickness, viral or bacterial infections, pregnancy, gallbladder disease, and post-surgical complications. When the inner ear becomes sensitive to certain movements, motion sickness occurs. Rides in moving cars or boats can affect balance and induce vomiting. Emesis is caused by a viral or bacterial infection in the stomach, where the irritants cause contractions in the stomach and induce emesis. An increase in hormones during pregnancy often causes nausea and vomiting during morning sickness. Among the causes of drug-induced vomiting is anesthesia during surgery and chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer. Vomiting can also be caused by a brain tumor or a concussion alone.
Treatment for emesis includes:
This medicine is used to prevent and treat nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. Dimenhydrinate is in a class of medications called antihistamines that works by preventing problems with body balance.
The medicine comes as a tablet for oral use. When taking this medicine, you should consult your doctor first and get the appropriate dosage for you. Dimenhydrinate should not be given to children younger than 2 years of age unless your doctor has told you to do so. Always take this medication as exactly as directed by your health care provider for the best benefit from it.
Bladder infections have a way of catching your attention. No matter how many times you go to the bathroom, you feel like you have to go again. You feel burning or stinging every time you pee once you’re in there, instead of going about your business mindlessly.
Infections of the bladder can lead to cystitis, which is when your bladder swells and becomes inflamed. That’s what causes the symptoms. A bladder infection is one of the most common types of urinary tract infections.
Women get bladder infections much more than men do. Usually, the infections are more annoying than they are serious. They can travel up the ureters to the kidneys and cause more severe complications, so it’s important to treat them right away.
Bladder infections often occur when bacteria get into the urethra, the tube that carries urine out of the body, and then move into the bladder. Bacteria in the bladder can stick to the lining and cause it to become inflamed, a condition called cystitis. Bacteria can also travel from the bladder into the kidneys, causing kidney infection. When the bacteria stick to the bladder lining, the bladder becomes inflamed, a condition known as cystitis. Bacteria can also move from the bladder into the kidneys, resulting in kidney infection.
The symptoms of bladder infection vary depending on the severity. You’ll immediately notice changes during urination. Some of the most common symptoms may include:
Your doctor can do some simple tests to find out if you have one, and they are usually easy to treat. If you get bladder infections often, your doctor may want to do more advanced tests to find the cause.
To find the cause of a bladder infection, your doctor can use:
Mild bladder infections usually resolve on their own within a few days. Antibiotics are usually taken if they don’t. You will usually feel better in a day or two, but be sure to take all the medicine as directed.
Women with basic infections usually take antibiotics for 3 to 7 days, though some doctors may prescribe a single-dose antibiotic. If you are prone to infections, or if you get them frequently, you may need antibiotics for seven to ten days. Additionally, if you have another health condition, such as diabetes, you may be prescribed a stronger antibiotic to take for a longer period.
Antibiotic medications you can take:
Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) is an infection that is commonly acquired by sexual contact. Most are fairly common and effective treatment is available, especially in the early.
Some STDs are benign, but others may lead to severe complications without treatment. This infection may affect anyone, regardless of the individual’s sexual orientation or hygiene standards. Lots of STDs can spread through non-penetrative sexual activity.
STDs have a range of symptoms, including no symptoms at all. That’s why they may go unnoticed until complications occur or a partner is diagnosed.
Symptoms that may indicate STD may include:
These symptoms may appear a few days after being exposed to the infection. However, it might take years before you have any noticeable complications.
Infections, including STDs, can take many forms. STDs caused by bacteria include chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. STDs caused by viruses include HIV, genital herpes, genital warts (HPV), and hepatitis B. Trichomoniasis is caused by parasites.
STD-causing germs can be found in semen, blood, vaginal secretions, and sometimes saliva. Vaginal, anal, or oral sex is the most common way for these organisms to spread, but some, such as those that cause genital herpes and genital warts, may spread through skin contact. Hepatitis B can be contracted by sharing personal items, such as toothbrushes or razors, with someone who has it.
Anyone who is sexually active risks some degree of exposure to an STD. factors that may increase the risk may include:
If your sexual history and current symptoms suggest that you have STD, your doctor will do a physical or pelvic exam to look for signs of infection.
Laboratory tests may identify the cause and detect coinfections you may also have. Tests may include:
STDs caused by bacteria are commonly easier to treat. Viral infections can be managed but are not always cured. Treatment for STD usually consists of the following depending on the infection:
2. Antiviral Drug
If you’ve had this infection, ask your doctor how long after treatment you need to be retested. Getting retested will make sure that the treatment worked and that you haven’t been reinfected.
Focal Seizures occur in just one area of the brain. This can be simple or complex. Based on the seizure description, physicians may be able to identify in which part of the brain the seizures are originating.
1. Simple Focal Seizures
These are also known auras that occur in one area on one side of the brain that may spread but may spread from there. The person does not lose consciousness during a simple focal seizure. Doctors usually break simple focal seizures down in the following areas:
2. Complex Focal Seizures
This is often preceded by a simple focal seizure. People with complex focal seizures may stare blankly into space or experience automatisms such as gulping, lip-smacking, blinking, or shouting.
Symptoms that may occur during a focal seizure include:
A seizure can sometimes be difficult to detect. Seizures may make a person appear confused or as if they are staring at something that isn’t there. People suffering from other kinds of seizures may fall, shake, and lose awareness of their surroundings.
A focal aware seizure’s cause is often unknown. Anyone can experience focal aware seizures. Families sometimes experience them together.
Potential causes of focal seizures include:
Doctors can diagnose a seizure and will figure out whether the seizure was focal. Doctors will also take note of any potential triggers for a seizure. If they are unable to identify any, they will assess a person’s likelihood of another seizure. If there are risk factors for another seizure, the doctor might decide if an individual would benefit from medication.
During the physical examination, doctors will look for signs that may indicate a condition that causes seizures. They may also recommend blood tests, imaging scans, and spinal taps. There are also options for neuroimaging and electroencephalography, a procedure that monitors brain activity.
Doctors prescribe medications for the treatment of Focal Seizures and help prevent future occurrences. Doctors use antiepileptic medications to prevent seizures. Several options are available for focal seizures. They come in two categories including broad-spectrum antiepileptic medications and narrow-spectrum antiepileptic medications.
Broad-spectrum antiepileptic medications may include:
Narrow-spectrum antiepileptic medications may include:
Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most common type of ovarian cancer. The epithelial tissue, a thin lining covering an ovary, becomes infected with this type of cancer. The lining of the fallopian tube can also develop cancer. Alternatively, it can begin in the peritoneum, which covers the abdominal organs. Fallopian tube cancers and primary peritoneal cancers are considered epithelial ovarian cancers. The diseases share many similarities, including treatment approaches.
Ovarian cancer is a group of cancers that begin in your ovaries. These organs are part of the female reproductive system. Most females have two ovaries that produce eggs and hormones. From your ovaries, eggs travel through your fallopian tubes to your uterus.
Most cancers including Epithelial Ovarian Cancer develop for no known reason. Studies have shown that many ovarian cancers start in cells at the end of the fallopian tubes. As a result, it spreads to the ovaries.
In the early stages of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer, it rarely causes symptoms. As the disease progresses, symptoms become more noticeable. As it spreads, into your peritoneum, fluid accumulates in your abdomen. In addition, you may also experience the following symptoms:
Call your doctor right away if you experience:
There are no screening tests available to detect ovarian cancer early. Tests may only be performed if you have symptoms or are at high risk. During your pelvic exam, your healthcare provider may check for unusual growths or enlarged organs. You might have a CA-125 blood test to check for elevated levels of a protein called cancer antigen 125 (CA-125). High levels may mean you need more testing.
These imaging tests help detect ovarian cancer:
A laparoscopy is also an option. This less invasive procedure lets your surgeon view your reproductive organs. Your doctor may take tissue samples of a tumor to biopsy for cancer cells. A biopsy is the only way to definitively diagnose ovarian cancer.
Depending on the cancer type, you may get one or more of these treatments after surgery:
Medications used to help with certain symptoms of Ovarian Cancer:
At some point in our lives, we’ve all felt the symptoms of a headache. Usually, they are a minor annoyance that can be relieved using over-the-counter pain medication. Headaches can be more complicated than most people realize. Different kinds can have their own set of symptoms, happen for unique reasons, and need different treatments.
Once you know the type of headache you have, you and your doctor can find the treatment that’s most likely to help and even try to prevent them.
The pain you feel if you have a headache comes from a mix of signals between your brain, blood vessels, and nearby nerves. Certain nerves in your blood vessels and head muscles switch on and send pain signals to your brain.
Common causes of headaches:
You can start an appropriate treatment plan for your symptoms if your headache were diagnosed correctly. The first step is to talk to your doctor about your headaches. They’ll give you a physical exam and ask you about the symptoms you have and how often they happen. It’s important to be as complete as possible with these descriptions. Give your doctor a list of things that cause your headaches, things that make them worse, and what helps you feel better.
Most people don’t need special diagnostic tests. But sometimes, doctors suggest a CT scan or MRI look for problems inside your brain that might cause your headaches. An EEG (electroencephalogram) is also unnecessary unless you’ve passed out when you had a headache. If your headache symptoms get worse or happen more often despite treatment, ask your doctor to refer you to a headache specialist.
Your doctor may recommend different types of treatment to try. They also might suggest more testing or refer you to a headache specialist.
The type of headache treatment you need depends on a lot of things, such as:
Some people don’t need medical help at all. But those who do might get medications, counseling, electronic medical devices, stress management, and biofeedback. Your doctor will make a treatment plan to meet your specific needs.
Medications can be used for headaches:
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in the United States. Although this cancer may occur in both men and women, it’s far more common in women.
Breast cancer is cancer that starts in breast tissue. It happens when cells in the breast change and grow out of control. The cells usually form a tumor. Sometimes cancer does not spread any further. It may just spread to nearby tissues and lymph nodes. Or cancer may metastasize through the lymph system or the blood.
Doctors know that breast cancer occurs when certain breast cells grow abnormally. The cells multiply more rapidly than healthy ones do, forming lumps or masses as they accumulate. Your breast cancer cells may spread (metastasize) to your lymph nodes or other parts of your body.
Most breast cancers start in the milk-producing ducts (invasive ductal carcinoma). Invasive lobular carcinoma may also develop in the glandular tissue called lobules (breast cancer).
Several factors can increase your risk of breast cancer, including hormonal, lifestyle, and environmental factors. However, it is not known why some people with no risk factors develop cancer while others with risk factors never do. Breast cancer is likely caused by a combination of your genetic makeup and the environment you live in.
Factors that are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer include:
Tests and procedures used to diagnose breast cancer include:
Depending on your situation, other tests and procedures may be used.
Almost all women who have breast cancer undergo surgery, and many also receive additional treatment, such as chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or radiation. Chemotherapy is sometimes used before surgery as well.
You may feel overwhelmed as you make complicated decisions about breast cancer treatment. Consider seeking a second opinion from a breast specialist in a breast center or clinic. Talk to other women who have faced the same decision.
Medications used for Breast Cancer:
Genetic Ovarian Cancer diagnosis is considered when there are multiple cases of ovarian cancer on the same side of the family. The chance of having the disease increases in any of these situations:
What Causes Genetic Ovarian Cancer?
The gene mutation is the most common cause of hereditary ovarian cancer. Mutations in other genes are also associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer, but scientists have not identified all of the genes involved.
Genes are instructions made from DNA that tell our cells how to function. Every cell in our body contains genes that decide and control how it functions, grows, and appears. Genes are duplicated in each person, one from the mother and one from the father.
Genes enable our cells to function normally. Occasionally, inherited genes may have small changes, known as mutations or alterations. The alteration or mutation of one of our genes can sometimes result in an increased risk of developing certain illnesses, compared to people who do not have the genetic change. The chances of passing on a gene mutation to a child are 50%.
Other Causes and Risk Factors
Risk factors for ovarian cancers in addition to genetic mutations include:
Diagnosis of Genetic Ovarian Cancer
People with new signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer lasting longer than 2 weeks must see a doctor for testing. These may include:
The doctor may use various tests to diagnose ovarian cancer including ultrasound, MRI scan, and CT scan. Diagnosis can also involve blood tests, colonoscopy, or biopsies. Early detection is vital to successfully treating ovarian cancer.
Treatment for Genetic Ovarian Cancer
Doctors will recommend treatment options based on the severity of cancer and the overall health of the patient. Ovarian cancer is usually treated with a combination of surgery to remove the cancerous tissue and chemotherapy to kill the remaining cancerous cells.
Targeted therapy is sometimes used by doctors. It involves identifying and attacking specific cancer cells with drugs. Chemotherapy typically causes more side effects.
Leg cramps are a common and usually harmless condition where the muscles in your leg suddenly become tight and painful. It usually occurs in the calf muscles, although it can affect any part of your leg, including your feet and thighs. After the cramping has passed, you may have pain and tenderness in your leg for several hours.
In most cases, people don’t know the exact cause of leg cramps even though there are several theories.
Sometimes, leg cramps are caused by an underlying condition relating to the nervous system, metabolism, circulation, or hormones. Also, some medications may increase the risk. The conditions that may cause cramps to include:
You may want to get rid of leg cramps the moment it strikes. You may be awakened in the middle of the night or finishing your exercise routine and unfortunately, no magical injections that can instantly relieve your pain. However, there are eight steps to take to possibly get rid of leg cramps:
Experts can’t promise that you’ll never have a leg cramp again, but there are some steps you can take that might reduce your risk.
Medications that may help with leg cramps:
Living with ovarian cancer may make you wonder about the prognosis. While knowing the prognosis could be helpful, it is important to know that it is only a general guideline. The individual outlook depends on several factors such as age and overall health or wellbeing.
Survival rates can give you an idea of what percentage of an individual with the same type and stage of cancer are still alive a certain amount of time after they were diagnosed. They can’t tell you how long you will live, but they may help give you a better understanding of how likely it is that your treatment will be successful.
A relative survival rate compares people with the same type and stage of cancer to people in the overall population. For instance, if the 5-year relative survival rate for a certain stage of ovarian cancer is 80%, it means individuals who have that cancer are, on average, about 80% as likely as people who don’t have that cancer to live for at least 5 years after being diagnosed.
These rates are adjusted to account for women with ovarian cancer who die of other causes.
Your outcome depends on the stage of cancer when it was diagnosed. This means how big it is and whether it has spread. The type and grade of ovarian cancer affect your likely survival. Grade means how abnormal the cells look under the microscope. Your likely survival can be affected as well by whether the surgeon can remove all the tumors during the initial surgery.
Your overall health and fitness may also be affected by your survival. Doctors have a way of grading how well you are. This is called performance status. Women who have a good performance status have a better outlook. In addition, age may also affect the outcome and survival.
About the survival rates and what you might expect, you may ask your healthcare provider. Keep in mind that statistics are based on large groups of people. They cannot be used to say what will happen to you. No two people are exactly alike. Treatment and how well people respond to treatment vary.
Eating disorders are serious, complex mental health issues that affect both one’s emotional and physical health. People who suffer from eating disorders develop a negative relationship with food, their weight, or their appearance. These are all types of eating disorders: anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating. Treatment for eating disorders is available. Untreated people can develop potentially life-threatening conditions.
Symptoms of eating disorders vary by type. It may be difficult to spot an eating disorder as it often mimics dieting. If you or a loved one has an eating disorder, you may notice these changes:
Other changes may also include:
A mix of environment, genetics, and social factors play a role in the development of the eating disorder. Some people with this disorder may use extreme measures to control food when they feel like other aspects of their lives are out of control. An obsession with food becomes an unhealthy way of coping with painful feelings or emotions. Thus, eating disorders are more about finding a healthy way to manage your emotions than about food.
An eating disorder can develop at any age. Certain factors may make you more prone to developing an eating disorder such as:
Other factors may include:
An eating disorder is diagnosed based on symptoms and eating habits. Your doctor will likely perform an exam and request tests to help pinpoint a diagnosis. You may see both your primary care provider and a mental health professional for a diagnosis.
Tests generally may include:
Treatment for eating disorders varies depending on your needs. Even if you don’t have a diagnosed eating disorder, an expert can help you address and manage food-related issues. Treatment may include:
Strep Throat is an infection of the throat and tonsils. It can make your throat feel sore and scratchy. This infection accounts for only a small portion of sore throats. If left untreated. Strep throat can cause complications such as rheumatic fever or kidney inflammation.
Strep throat is most common in children, but it affects people of all ages. If you have signs and symptoms of strep throat, see your doctor for promo testing and treatment.
Strep Throat is caused by infection with a bacterium known as Streptococcus pyogenes or known as group A streptococcus. These types of bacteria are contagious. The spread through droplets when someone with the infection sneezes or coughs, or through shared drinks or foods.
Strep throat can also be contracted by coming into contact with an object contaminated with group A strep bacteria, such as a doorknob or faucet, and then touching your eyes, nose, or mouth. This is also a way that kids can catch strep throat by putting things in their mouths.
Several factors can increase your risk of strep throat:
Your doctor will conduct a physical exam, check for symptoms, and might have more tests such as:
Your doctor will likely prescribe an oral antibiotic if strep throat is developed. As long as antibiotics are taken within 48 hours of the onset of the illness, they reduce the duration and severity of symptoms, as well as the chances of complications and the likelihood of infection spreading. The patient should start feeling better in a day or two after treatment. After 48 hours, call your doctor if they don’t feel better.
Lists of antibiotics you may use:
A brain tumor is the growth of abnormal cells in the brain. Any growth inside such a restricted space can cause problems. Brain tumors can be cancerous or noncancerous. When benign or malignant tumors grow, they can cause the pressure inside your skull to increase. This can cause brain damage which may be life-threatening.
Brain tumors can begin in your brain (primary brain tumors) or they can begin elsewhere in your body and spread to your brain as secondary (metastatic) brain tumors. The growth rate of a brain tumor can vary greatly. Your nervous system’s function is affected by a brain tumor’s growth rate and location. Treatment options for brain tumors depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor.
Common signs and symptoms caused by brain tumors may include:
Changes in genes may cause cells in the brain to grow uncontrollably which causes a tumor. The only known cause of brain tumors is having exposure to large amounts of radiation from X-rays or previous cancer treatment. Some types of brain tumors occur when hereditary conditions are passed down among family members.
People who have a higher risk of brain tumors include those who have:
Doctors use various types of tests to confirm the presence of brain tumors. These tests may include:
When the brain tumor is cancerous, the doctors will classify the tumors into four grades as part of the diagnosis. The grade assigned indicates how fast it’s growing and its likelihood of spreading. By grading the tumor, your doctor can determine the most effective treatment options.
Brain tumor treatment depends on the location and type of the tumor. Your doctor often uses a combination of therapies to treat a tumor. Your treatment options may include:
Approved medications for brain tumor:
In addition to these medications, you may also use Zofran (Ondansetron). This is an antiemetic used to prevent nausea and vomiting following chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery. It blocks the action of serotonin, a natural substance that may cause nausea and vomiting.
Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain. The swelling occurs as a result of the inflammation. Changes in the nervous system of the infant cause confusion, altered behavior, and seizures. Encephalitis often occurs at the same time as meningitis. The membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord become inflamed during meningitis. Both conditions are serious and life-threatening and should be treated as soon as possible.
These symptoms can be like other health conditions. Take your child to their healthcare provider right away for a diagnosis.
The main cause, according to researchers, is viruses. Infant receives vaccinations against a variety of viruses, including measles, mumps, rubella, and chickenpox. The rate of encephalitis associated with these diseases has greatly decreased as a result. However, it can still be caused by other viruses. Some of the diseases include the West Nile virus, rabies, and herpes simplex.
Viral illnesses can also cause encephalitis. It can be an upper respiratory infection or an illness that causes diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. Encephalitis can also occur when someone has Lyme disease, tuberculosis, or syphilis. It can also happen after an infection caused by parasites, such as toxoplasmosis.
Autoimmune reactions are another cause. This is when the immune system of the body attacks the brain tissues. For example, an antibody made against a protein called an NMDA receptor or others may cause encephalitis. This may be triggered by an infection or tumor.
An infant is more at risk if they have one of these:
The doctor will ask about your child’s symptoms and health history. This includes questions about the vaccine history of your child. Tell the doctor if your child has recently had a cold, a digestive illness, or other respiratory illness. Also, tell the doctor if your child has recently has traveled or had a tick bite, been around pets or other animals.
Your child may also have tests such as:
Treatment for encephalitis is needed right away. A child needs to stay in the hospital where they can be closely watched. Treatment will depend on the symptoms, age, and general health and severity of the condition.
The goal of treatment is to lessen the swelling in the head and to prevent complications. Your child may need to take medicines to stop the infection and control seizures or fever. In severe cases, your child may need to use a breathing machine. It is important to talk with your child’s healthcare providers about the risks, benefits, and possible side effects of all treatments.
Encephalitis is an inflammation of the membranes that surround the spinal cord and brain. This type of infection causes problems with the function of the spinal cord and brain. The inflammation causes the brain to swell which may lead to changes in the neurological condition of the child including seizures and mental confusion.
The symptoms of Encephalitis may depend on the age of your child, the part of the brain that is inflamed which causes the inflammation, and the degree of inflammation. Every child in the same situation may show symptoms differently. Some of the most common symptoms of Encephalitis may include:
Encephalitis means that the brain tissue has become inflamed, and this can be caused by different things:
There are some viruses that we know may cause Encephalitis:
Your child’s treatment begins with an accurate diagnosis. Your child’s doctor will ask about your child’s medical history, including their immunization history, and whether they have been exposed to viruses that cause encephalitis through activities or anywhere else.
Some of the procedures used to diagnose encephalitis include:
Specific treatment for Encephalitis will determine by the doctor of your child based on:
Your child will be treated for 2-3 days with IV medications to fight certain bacteria and the herpes simplex virus. Doctors may recommend medications depending on your child’s condition, such as:
Otitis media is an infection of the middle ear, the air-filled space behind the eardrum in which the tiny vibrating bones are located. This infection is more common in children than in adults.
Ear infections often clear up on their own, so treatment begins with pain management and monitoring. Sometimes, antibiotics are needed to clear the infection.
The following are the most common symptoms of otitis media. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
Infections of the middle ear are usually caused by a malfunction of the Eustachian tube, a canal that connects the middle ear with the throat. By equalizing the pressure between the outer and middle ear, the Eustachian tube helps prevent hearing loss. When this tube does not function properly, it prevents normal drainage of fluids from the middle ear, leading to a buildup of fluid behind the eardrum. When this fluid cannot drain, bacteria and viruses can grow in the ear, causing acute otitis media. The following are some of the reasons that the Eustachian tube may not work properly:
Several factors may increase your child’s risk of developing an ear infection, although any child can develop it:
The health care provider of your child will inspect the outer ear and eardrum using an otoscope. This diagnosis is usually done along with a complete medical history and physical examination. A pneumatic otoscope blows a puff of air into the ear to test eardrum movement.
Another test is tympanometry which can be performed in most health care providers’ offices to help determine how the middle ear is functioning. It does not tell if the child is hearing or not, but helps to detect any changes in pressure in the middle ear. This is a difficult test to perform in younger children because the child needs to remain still and not cry, talk, or move. A hearing test may be performed for children who have frequent ear infections.
In some cases, ear infections resolve without antibiotic treatment. Depending on your child’s age and the severity of symptoms, you should consider what’s best for him or her.
In addition, your doctor will advise you on treatments to lessen pain from an ear infection. These may include the following:
These may be used to relieve pain if the eardrum doesn’t have a hole or tear in it.
Lung cancer is the third most common cancer. This type of cancer occurs when cells divide in the lungs uncontrollably which causes tumors to grow. These can decrease a person’s ability to breathe and spread to other parts of the body. Cancer causes changes in the cells that are otherwise healthy. The cells grow too fast, without dying off.
There are two main types of lung cancer are small-cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. It depends on how they appear under a microscope. Anyone can develop lung cancer, but cigarette smoking and having exposure to smoke, inhaled chemicals, or other toxins can increase the risk.
People with lung cancer may not have symptoms until a later stage. If symptoms do appear, they can resemble those of a respiratory. Some possible symptoms include:
In time, a person may also experience more severe symptoms such as:
A risk factor is anything that increases a person’s chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, like smoking, can be changed. Others, like a person’s age or family history, can’t be changed.
But having a risk factor, or even several does not mean that you will get the disease. Also, some people who get the disease may have few or no known risk factors.
Several risk factors can make you more likely to develop lung cancer. These factors are related to the risk of lung cancer in general:
An annual lung cancer screening using low-dose CT scanning may be beneficial for people at increased risk of lung cancer. An elderly person who has smoked heavily for a long time or has given up smoking in the past 15 years is generally offered a lung cancer screening. Consult your doctor about your lung cancer risk. Depending on your risk, lung cancer screening might be of great help.
Your doctor will recommend a treatment plan based on your overall health, the type and stage of your cancer, and your preferences. In several cases, you may choose not to undergo treatment. For instance, you may feel that the side effects of treatment will outweigh the potential benefits. When that’s the case, your doctor may suggest comfort care to treat only the symptoms the cancer is causing, such as pain or shortness of breath.
Medication used for lung cancer treatment:
Migraine without Aura is the most common type of migraine. Aura is a warning sign of a migraine. It is most commonly a symptom that affects your sight. If you have a migraine without aura, you won’t get a warning sign that a migraine attack is about to start.
Migraine without Aura attack usually lasts between four hours and three days especially if the treatment is not effective. The frequency of these attacks varies. They could happen every few years or several times a week.
There is no clear reason why some people are prone to migraines while others are not, but there is a genetic component to the illness. Some factors can trigger migraines such as stress, lack of sleep, changes in routine, caffeine, certain foods, the environment, computer screens, and others. There are many patients, however, for whom a clear trigger is unknown.
Migraine without aura is a clinical diagnosis. While there is no surefire test for detecting the presence of migraine, there are several symptoms and factors that doctors can point to so they can make a diagnosis.
The diagnosis is reached by reviewing the patient’s and family’s medical history, studying symptoms, and conducting an assessment. Usually, the doctors do not diagnose migraine or any other type of headache based on imaging. If there are any atypical features or red flags in a patient’s history or examination, further testing may be warranted.
There are currently a variety of treatments that people with migraine without aura can try, but fortunately, it is a debilitating neurological disorder. Treatment plans for migraine without aura include:
Medication classes shown to help prevent migraine include:
A migraine without aura can be disabling, preventing you from working or attending social events, and making it difficult to care for your loved ones. There are numerous online and in-person support groups available for migraine sufferers, their families, and caregivers. Your healthcare provider can assist you in finding support groups.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is a condition in which the ovaries produce an abnormal amount of androgens, a male sex hormone that is usually present in women in small amounts.
Treatment for PCOS is often done with medication. This can’t cure PCOS, but it helps reduce symptoms and prevent some health problems.
Factors that might play a role include:
What are the symptoms of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)?
Signs and symptoms of PCOS vary. A diagnosis is made when you experience at least two of these signs:
PCOS cannot be definitively diagnosed with a test. During the first appointment, your doctor will likely ask about your medical history, including your menstrual cycle and weight changes. Check for signs of excess hair growth, insulin resistance, and acne during a physical exam.
Your doctor might then recommend:
If you have a diagnosis of PCOS, your doctor might recommend additional tests for complications. Those tests can include:
Your doctor may recommend weight loss through a low-calorie diet combined with moderate exercise activities. Losing weight may also increase the effectiveness of medications your doctor recommends for PCOS. It also helps with infertility.
To regulate your menstrual cycle, your doctor may recommend:
To help you ovulate, your doctor may recommend:
To lessen excessive hair growth, your doctor might recommend:
Migraine with Aura is also called classic migraine which is a recurring headache that occurs after or at the same time as sensory disturbances called an aura. The disturbances include blond spots, flashes of light, and other vision changes or tingling in your face or hand.
Researchers have found that it may be caused by a slow wave of altered brain activity called cortical spreading depression. Temporary changes in the brain’s chemicals, nerves, and blood flow result from this, affecting how the brain works and possibly causing pain.
The discovery of new drugs that could prevent migraine attacks will be made easier by better understanding how these changes in the brain contribute to headaches.
The symptoms of migraine with aura include temporary visual disturbances that usually strike before other migraine symptoms such as nausea, intense head pain, and sensitivity to sound and light.
This condition usually occurs within an hour before head pain begins and usually lasts less than 60 minutes. Sometimes migraine with aura occurs without headache.
Visual signs and symptoms:
Other temporary disturbances sometimes associated with migraine aura include:
Triggers for migraine with aura include:
A migraine with aura may be diagnosed based on your signs, symptoms, medical and family history, and a physical exam. Depending on whether your aura is accompanied by head pain, your doctor may recommend tests to rule out more serious conditions, such as a transient ischemic attack (TIA).
Assessments might include:
For migraine with aura, just as with migraine alone, treatment is aimed at relieving migraine pain.
Medications for relief:
Ask your doctor if these medications are appropriate for you. Some of these medications are not safe to take during pregnancy. If you’re pregnant or trying to get pregnant, don’t use any of these medications without first talking with your doctor.
HIV can affect the health of a woman in unique ways. You may get more infections or changes in your menstrual cycle. You may also get menopause symptoms earlier than other women. Knowing what to expect and taking care of yourself can help you live a healthy, full life.
If you take your treatment correctly, it will lower the amount of HIV in your body. In some people, the amount of HIV in their bodies can be reduced to such low levels that it is said to be undetectable. This means that you can plan to have a vaginal delivery because the risk of passing on HIV to your baby during childbirth will be extremely small.
If you don’t have an undetectable viral load, you may be offered a cesarean section, as this carries a smaller risk of passing HIV to your baby than a vaginal delivery. If your HIV test result comes back positive, there are several things you can do to reduce the risk of passing HIV to your baby.
HIV is spread from infected body fluids, such as blood, semen, and breast milk. It’s a sexually transmitted disease because it is contracted through unprotected sexual contact with an infected individual.
HIV is the virus that leads to AIDS. People with AIDS get sick with diseases that the immune system normally can fight, like pneumonia and certain cancers and infections. It may take months or years for HIV to develop into AIDs.
If you are planning to become pregnant, talk to your physician right away. Your doctor can talk with you about how HIV affects your health during pregnancy and your unborn baby’s health. Your doctor can work with you to prepare for a healthy pregnancy before you start trying to become pregnant.
Everyone living with HIV is recommended to take HIV medications to stay healthy. If you are thinking about becoming pregnant and are not taking HIV treatment, it is important that you begin, because this will lower your chances of passing the virus to your baby when you become pregnant. There are ways for you to get pregnant that will limit your partner’s risk of HIV infection. You can ask your doctor about ways to get pregnant and still protect your partner.
Some medications for HIV aren’t appropriate to take during pregnancy. If you have HIV and become pregnant, contact your local HIV clinic. This is important because:
However, if you are taking HIV medication and you become pregnant, do not stop taking your medication without first speaking to your doctor. Always check with your doctor before taking any medicine when you’re pregnant.
Treatment during pregnancy has two goals:
There are various combinations of drugs used to manage HIV infection. This is called a drug regimen. Anti-HIV drugs decrease the amount of HIV in the body. It will help you and your unborn baby lessen the risk to spread the virus.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a chronic, potentially life-threatening condition that is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). By damaging your immune system, HIV interferes with the ability of your body to fight diseases and infections.
HIV is a sexually transmitted infection that can spread by contact with infected blood or from mother to child during childbirth, pregnancy, or breastfeeding. Without medications, it may take years before HIV weakens your immune system to the point that you’ll develop AIDS.
The signs that you have AIDS include:
CD4 T cells – white blood cells that play an important role in fighting disease – are destroyed by HIV. You will have a weak immune system if you have fewer CD4 T cells.
A person can be infected with HIV for years with few or no symptoms before they develop AIDS. If you have an AIDS-defining complication, such as a severe infection or cancer, or your CD4 T cell count drops below 200, you will be diagnosed with AIDS.
Anyone of any age, race, sex or sexual orientation can be infected with AIDS. However, you are at greatest risk of AIDS if you:
AIDS is not passed on easily from one person to another. The virus does not spread through the air like cold and flu viruses. The infection lives in the blood and some body fluids. To get it, one of these fluids from someone with the infection has to get into your blood. The body fluids that contain enough HIV to infect someone are:
Other body fluids like sweat, saliva, or urine, do not contain enough of the virus to infect another person.
This disease cannot be cured, but there are very effective treatments that allow most people with the virus to live a long and healthy life.
The treatment for AIDS is called antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART involves taking a combination of medicines every day. ART is recommended for everyone who has the infection. It cannot cure HIV, but medications help people live longer and healthier lives. ART also reduces the risk of transmission.
Leukemia is a broad term for cancers of the blood cells. The type of leukemia depends on the type of blood cell that becomes cancer and whether it grows slowly or quickly. This disease occurs most often in adults older than 55, but it is also the most common cancer in children younger than 15.
Doctors classify leukemia based on its speed of progression and the type of cells involved.
The second type of classification is by type of white blood cell affected:
The major types of leukemia are:
The treatment for leukemia can be complex which depends on the type of leukemia and other factors. However, some strategies and resources can help make your treatment successful.
In general, leukemia is thought to occur when some blood cells acquire changes in their genetic material or DNA. A cell’s DNA has the instructions that tell a cell what to do. Usually, the DNA tells the cell to grow at a set rate and to die at a set time. In leukemia, the mutations tell the blood cells to continue dividing and growing.
If this occurs, blood cell production becomes out of control. Over time, these abnormal cells can crowd out healthy blood cells in the bone marrow leading to fewer healthy red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets that cause the signs and symptoms of leukemia.
Symptoms of leukemia may vary depending on the type. Symptoms may include:
Factors that may increase your risk of developing leukemia include:
Doctors may find leukemia in a routine blood test before symptoms begin. If this occurs or if you have symptoms, you may undergo the following diagnostic exams:
Leukemia treatment depends on many factors. Your doctor determines your treatment options based on your overall health. Common treatments used to fight the disease may include:
Chronic constipation is infrequent bowel movements or difficult passage of stools that persists for several weeks or longer.
Constipation is technically defined as having less than three bowel movements in a week. Many people have bowel movements several times a day, while others have them only once or twice a week. If you don’t stray too far from your regular pattern, whatever your bowel movement pattern is, it’s unique and normal for you.
Other key features that usually define constipation include:
The most common cause of constipation is slow digestion or an inability to eliminate waste from the rectum, resulting in the hard and dry stool. Chronic constipation has many possible causes.
Need help to empty your rectum, such as using your hands to press on your abdomen and using a finger to remove stool from your rectum
Factors that may increase your risk of chronic constipation include:
Diagnosis for Chronic Constipation
Along with a general physical exam and a digital rectal exam, doctors use the following tests and procedures to diagnose chronic constipation and try to find the cause:
Constipation is generally treated by making dietary and lifestyle changes that will increase stool passage speed. You may need to see a doctor if those changes do not help.
If over-the-counter medications don’t help your chronic constipation, your doctor may recommend prescription medication, especially if you have irritable bowel syndrome:
Lymphoma is a general term for cancers that begins in the lymph system. The two main types of lymphoma are:
Lymphoma cancer can occur in adults, teens, and children of any age.
Lymphoma is caused by a mutation in a disease-fighting white blood cell called a lymphocyte. A mutation causes the cell to multiply rapidly, leading to many diseased lymphocytes that continue to multiply.
Mutations also allow the cells to continue to live when other normal cells would die. Having too many diseased and ineffective lymphocytes in your lymph nodes causes swelling in your lymph nodes, spleen, and liver.
The symptoms of Lymphoma may include:
Factors that increase the risk of Lymphoma include:
Tests and procedures used to diagnose lymphoma may include:
Depending on your situation, other tests and procedures may be required. To develop an effective treatment plan, you need to know what type of lymphoma you have. Expert pathologists review biopsy samples to improve the chances of an accurate diagnosis, according to research. Ask a specialist for a second opinion to confirm your diagnosis.
Your lymphoma treatment choices depend on the type and stage of your disease, your overall health, and your preferences. During treatment, the goal is to destroy as many cancer cells as possible and bring the disease into remission.
Treatment for lymphoma include:
Medications approved to use in Lymphoma:
1. Bone marrow stimulant – helps bone marrow produce new blood cells.
2. Steroid – modifies or simulates hormone effects, often to reduce inflammation or for tissue growth and repair.
Paraphilia is a disorder defined as sexually arousing urges, fantasies, or behaviors that are recurrent, intense, occur over at least 6 months. This disorder may cause significant distress or interfere with important areas of functioning.
The number of people who suffer from paraphilia is difficult to gauge for several reasons. Several people with one of these disorders suffer in secret or silence out of shame, and some engage in sexually offensive behaviors. Therefore, many of the estimates on the prevalence of paraphilic disorders come from the number of people involved with the criminal justice system due to pedophilia.
The sexual stimulant desired by the paraphilia sufferer depends on the specific condition, but the illness generally has very similar characteristics. People with this condition tend to be aroused by stimulants to the exclusion or near exclusion of more common sources of sexual interest, like attractive people of a similar age. Sometimes the intensity of the sexual attraction becomes overwhelming. Symptoms of guilt and fear of punishment are frequently associated with paraphilia due to their unusual or forbidden nature.
Paraphilia can be marked by an obsessive preoccupation that may interfere with a person’s ability to think about other things or engage in more conventional sexual activity with an age-appropriate partner. A paraphilia sufferer may experience depression or anxiety that is temporarily alleviated by engaging in paraphilic behavior, which leads to an addictive cycle.
It is best to consult a family physician or psychiatrist who has experience with your issue. Doctors must find out the person’s motive for having a paraphilia and suggest alternate techniques to control the urges and impulses. A good past and personal history, and any past or present medical conditions, should be gathered and recorded.
Various types of treatment are available, including psychotherapy, medication, and counseling. You should be checked for alcohol or drug abuse or psychiatric conditions like depression or anxiety, and these should be treated accordingly.
Several types of psychotherapy exist, including:
Drug treatment includes:
Seasonal Allergy is also called allergic rhinitis or hay fever. This allergy is a common condition that affects millions of Americans. Seasonal Allergy is from an allergic reaction to the growth cycle for mold and plants. As they grow, plants, and mold release pollen and spores into the air. When you breathe in spores and pollen, it causes irritation and inflammation.
Pollen is a common cause of seasonal allergies. A high pollen count means you’re much more likely to have worse allergy symptoms.
Mold typically appears as black, white, or green splotches on damp surfaces. It commonly grows in bathrooms and basements. Like pollen, mold spores are carried through the air. But unlike some allergens, mold easily travels on both wet and dry days.
Dust mites are microscopic bugs that live in warm and humid environments. Their skin droppings are what cause an allergic reaction.
Contrary to what many people may think, animal fur or hair alone doesn’t cause allergies. It’s the animal’s dander that usually triggers allergies.
Diagnosis for Seasonal Allergy
A doctor or an allergy specialist can provide an official allergy diagnosis. And to do so, they will typically recommend an allergy test.
A skin prick test is the most common way to test for allergies. During the test, your skin is lightly pricked with suspected allergens and then monitored for allergic reactions. A variety of allergens can be tested.
Suffering from seasonal allergies can be miserable. There are several ways to treat your allergies, before and after they start acting up.
There are various over-the-counter treatment options for seasonal allergies. Many can be easily built into your daily routine to help relieve symptoms. Below are the treatment options you may use:
2. Nasal steroid sprays
Other ways to reduce allergens in your home:
Ovarian cancer is a malignant growth of cells within the ovaries. These cells reproduce rapidly, causing damage to healthy tissues.
There are two ovaries in the female reproductive system, one on either side of the uterus. Each ovary is about the size of an almond, and it produces eggs (ova) and hormones such as estrogen and progesterone. In most cases, ovarian cancer is treated with surgery and chemotherapy.
Scientists believe ovarian cancer is caused by cells located in or close to the ovaries that become mutated (changed). A cell’s DNA carries instructions for its function. Cancer cells grow and multiply rapidly when they are altered, forming a mass of cancer cells. At the same time, healthy cells die, cancer cells live on. Cancer cells can break off from an initial tumor and invade nearby tissues so they can spread to other parts of the body (metastasize).
As ovarian cancer develops, it may not cause any noticeable symptoms. This disease is usually attributed to other more common conditions when the symptoms occur. The symptoms of ovarian cancer may include:
Factors that increase your risk of ovarian cancer include:
Tests and procedures used to diagnose ovarian cancer include:
Your doctor will assign a stage to your cancer once you’ve been diagnosed with ovarian cancer. The stages range from 1 to 4, which are often denoted with Roman numerals I to IV. The lowest stage indicates that the cancer is confined to the ovaries.
There are no exact ways how you can prevent ovarian cancer, but there may be ways to lessen your risk:
Treatment of ovarian cancer usually involves a combination of surgery and chemotherapy. Other treatments may be used in certain situations.
Medications approved to use for the treatment of ovarian cancer include:
Mold allergy commonly causes coughing, itchy eyes, and other unpleasant symptoms. Those with mold allergies experience an overreaction when they breathe in mold spores. In people who suffer from mold allergies, exposure can cause restricted breathing and other symptoms related to airway obstruction.
The best way to protect yourself from mold allergies is to reduce your exposure to the types of mold that trigger your reaction. Mold allergy medications can help control your symptoms.
The immune system responds to mold allergies in the same manner as it responds to other allergies. Mold spores inhaled through the air cause your body to produce allergy-causing antibodies to combat them. Exposure to mold spores can cause a reaction right away, or the reaction can be delayed.
Some molds are common indoors and outdoors. Only certain kinds of mold cause allergies. Being allergic to one type of mold doesn’t mean you’ll be allergic to another. Some of the most common molds that cause allergies include Aspergillus, Alternaria, Cladosporium, and Penicillium.
A mold allergy causes the same symptoms that occur in other types of upper respiratory allergies. The symptoms of this type of allergy may include:
Mold allergy symptoms vary from person to person and range from mild to severe.
If you have a sneezing, stuffy nose, shortness of breath, watery eyes, wheezing or other bothersome symptoms that persist, see your doctor.
Besides considering your symptoms, your doctor may conduct a physical assessment to distinguish or exclude other medical problems. Tests used to identify an allergy may include:
1. Nasal corticosteroids
4. Oral decongestants
5. Decongestant nasal sprays
Colorectal Cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the large intestine which is the final part of the digestive tract. This cancer typically affects older adults, even though it can occur at any age. It usually begins as small, noncancerous clumps of cells called polyps that form on the inside of the colon. Over time some of these polyps can become colon cancers. Colon cancer is sometimes called colorectal cancer, which is a term that combines colon cancer and rectal cancer, which begins in the rectum.
Colorectal cancer begins when healthy cells in the colon develop changes in their DNA. A cell’s DNA has a set of directions that tell a cell what to do. Healthy cells grow and divide in an orderly way to keep your body functioning normally. However, when a cell’s DNA is damaged and becomes cancerous, cells continue to divide even when new cells are not necessary. The cells form a tumor as they accumulate.
With time, the cancer cells can grow to invade and destroy normal tissue nearby. Cancerous cells can also travel to other parts of the body to form deposits there.
Signs and symptoms of colon cancer include:
Several people with colon cancer experience no symptoms in the early stages of the disease.
If your signs and symptoms indicate that you could have colon cancer, your doctor may recommend one or more tests and procedures, including:
Treatments for colorectal cancer depends on the severity of the condition, its stage, and your other health concerns. Treatment for colon cancer usually involves surgery to remove cancer. Other treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy, might also be recommended. Your doctor will also recommend some anti-cancer medications for specific treatment period.
Dysentery is an infection in your intestines that causes bloody diarrhea. It can be caused by a parasite or bacteria.
There are two main types of dysentery:
What type you have depends on what caused your infection.
Children are most at risk of Dysentery, but anyone can get it at any age. It’s easily spread through person-to-person contact and by contaminated food and drink.
This infection mostly spreads among people who are in close contact with an infected person, such as people:
Dysentery is primarily spread by eating contaminated food or drinking contaminated water in tropical areas that have poor sanitation.
Seek medical assistance if you or your child has symptoms of dysentery. At your appointment, your doctor will review your symptoms and any recent travels. You should note any travels outside of the country. This information can help your doctor narrow down the possible cause of your symptoms.
Several conditions can cause diarrhea. If you don’t have other symptoms of dysentery, your doctor will order diagnostic testing to determine which bacteria are present. This includes a blood test and a lab test of a stool sample. Your doctor may also perform additional testing to decide whether an antibiotic will help.
Symptoms can show up 1 to 3 days after you get infected. In some people, the symptoms take longer to appear. Others never get symptoms.
The most common symptoms of dysentery are related to disturbances of the digestive system and include:
To determine if you have dysentery, your doctor may ask you to provide stool samples for laboratory testing.
Antibiotic therapy is the mainstay of treatment for dysentery because of bacterial organisms and is highly effective. It is essential to follow your treatment plan for dysentery specifically and to take all of the antibiotics as instructed to avoid recurrence.
Antibiotic medications that are effective in the treatment of dysentery include: