Epilepsy is a brain condition that causes repeated seizures due to abnormal electrical activity. These seizures can vary from brief moments of changed awareness to strong convulsions. It’s important to know that epilepsy includes different types of disorders. Each type has its own unique causes and ways they show up.
Epilepsy’s origins are multifaceted.
· Genetic predisposition significantly influences epilepsy, as it can be inherited within families.
· Traumatic brain injuries stemming from accidents or infections can act as triggers.
· Developmental disorders, brain tumors, and strokes also elevate the risk of epilepsy.
Identifying the root cause is crucial for precise diagnosis and effective management.
Symptoms primarily revolve around seizures. These seizures emerge from abnormal electrical discharges in the brain. Seizures display a diverse array of manifestations. It is broadly categorized into focal (partial) seizures and generalized seizures.
1. Focal seizures originate in a specific brain region. This can potentially lead to:
· altered awareness
· peculiar sensations
· repetitive movements
2. Generalized seizures involve both brain hemispheres, inducing:
· loss of consciousness
· pronounced muscle contractions
Many things can cause epileptic seizures. Finding and handling these causes well is important to reduce how often seizures happen. Common triggers are:
This condition is treated with special drugs called antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). These drugs help calm down the unusual electrical activity in the brain to prevent or reduce seizures.
Choosing the right AED involves thinking carefully about things like:
· the kind of seizures you have
· possible side effects
· how your body responds
Your doctor will monitor your progress and may change the dosage to control seizures and reduce side effects..
Proactively averting seizures involves careful planning and lifestyle adaptations:
1. Medication Adherence: Maintaining consistent adherence to prescribed medications is very important.
2. Healthy Lifestyle: Healthy lifestyle contribute to overall well-being and indirectly impact seizure control. This includes:
· Engaging in regular physical activity
· consuming a balanced diet
· ensuring adequate hydration
3. Stress Management: Incorporating stress-reduction techniques can aid in minimizing seizure triggers. This includes:
· relaxation exercises
4. Optimal Sleep Habits: Prioritize your regular sleep patterns. Adequate sleep duration helps reduce the risk of seizures.
5. Safety Precautions: If you have epilepsy, be careful in situations with potential hazards like:
· swimming alone
· operating machinery without safety measures
6. Effective Communication: Openly discussing epilepsy fosters understanding and support. Thus, reducing stress and anxiety.
Epilepsy is a complex neurological condition that can significantly impact individuals’ lives. From understanding its causes to adopting preventive measures, individuals can empower themselves to navigate the challenges posed by epilepsy.
A seizure is an abrupt and uncontrolled surge of electrical activity within the brain. This phenomenon can manifest in a multitude of ways including behavior, movements, emotions, and levels of awareness.
Their diversity ranges from subtle alterations in consciousness to full-blown convulsions. When an individual experiences two or more seizures occurring at least 24 hours apart, without an identifiable cause, it falls under the classification of epilepsy.
Seizures are broadly classified into two categories:
Now, why do seizures happen? Well, there’s a whole bunch of reasons:
Symptoms can manifest diversely based on type and severity:
For individuals experiencing this condition, medication plays a pivotal role:
Several elements heighten this condition’s susceptibility:
Seizures can’t always be prevented. However, several measures can reduce the risk and impact of this condition, especially for individuals with epilepsy:
1. Medication Adherence: Consistently taking prescribed medications as directed by a healthcare provider. This can significantly decrease the likelihood of this condition.
2. Healthy Lifestyle: Healthy lifestyle can contribute to overall brain health and reduce triggers. This includes:
· getting adequate sleep
· managing stress
· maintaining a balanced diet.
3. Seizure Action Plan: Those with epilepsy should work with their healthcare providers to develop a seizure action plan. This plan outlines steps to take when this condition occurs. The plan can help ensure a prompt and appropriate response from caregivers or bystanders.
4. Safety Precautions: Removing potential hazards from the environment can minimize the risk of injury during an attack. This includes sharp objects or open flames.
5. Regular Medical Check-ups: Regular visits to healthcare providers to:
· monitoring seizure frequency
· adjusting medication as needed
· addressing any concerns
6. Avoiding Triggers: Identifying and avoiding personal triggers can help reduce the likelihood of this condition such as:
· certain medications
7. Educating Others: Informing family members, friends, teachers, and coworkers about the condition and appropriate responses to this condition can create a supportive and safe environment.
Though complex, this condition can be managed and understood with the right information and support. With awareness and effective strategies, those with this condition can lead fulfilling lives.
Celiac disease is a significant medical condition that deserves our attention. It’s a condition in which your immune system destroys your own tissues after eating gluten. This destroys your gut (small intestine), preventing your body from adequately absorbing nutrients. Coeliac disease can produce a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, stomach pain, and bloating.
Celiac disease is not simply an ordinary health concern. It is a result of a multifaceted interplay of genetic and immune factors. Key causes include:
Symptoms can be both distressing and debilitating. Common symptoms include:
Fortunately, the management of this disease is achievable through a combination of dietary adjustments and medical support:
Several factors contribute to an individual’s susceptibility to this disease, including:
The road to effective management and prevention rests on a foundation of awareness and informed decisions:
Celiac disease is a significant health concern that demands attention and understanding. By recognizing its causes, symptoms, and treatment options, individuals can take proactive steps towards effective management.
As medical research advances and awareness spreads, the path to early diagnosis and improved quality of life becomes clearer. With a combination of informed choices, genetic awareness, and a vigilant approach to health, those facing celiac disease can navigate its challenges with resilience and empowerment.
Ultimately, this journey is about embracing knowledge and making choices that lead to a brighter future for individuals affected by this autoimmune disorder..
Vitamins are essential for our bodies to work well. One vitamin, Vitamin K, is particularly important as it helps with many vital functions that people often forget about.
Its importance becomes even clearer when we see what happens if we don’t get enough of it – can lead to vitamin k deficiency.
Vitamin K, often referred to as the “clotting vitamin,” is a fat-soluble nutrient. Its primary function lies in blood clotting, which prevents excessive bleeding after injuries.
However, its impact extends far beyond this critical role. Vitamin K also plays a pivotal role in:
· Maintaining bone health by assisting in the synthesis of osteocalcin. Osteocalcin is a protein responsible for binding calcium in bones and teeth.
· Contributes to heart health by preventing the calcification of arteries. Thus, reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Vitamin K deficiency can arise due to several factors, both dietary and non-dietary.
Identifying a vitamin K deficiency can be challenging as symptoms may not manifest immediately. However, as it progresses, symptoms can become more evident.
Vitamin K deficiency can lead to two primary diseases: vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) and osteoporosis.
1. Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding (VKDB): VKDB can affect both infants and adults. In infants, it is often referred to as “hemorrhagic disease of the newborn.” The deficiency poses a significant risk for bleeding in the brain, digestive tract, and skin of infants. In adults, VKDB can result from medical conditions or medications that interfere with vitamin K absorption, leading to increased bleeding tendencies.
2. Osteoporosis: As mentioned earlier, vitamin K’s role in bone health cannot be understated. Inadequate levels of vitamin K can lead to weakened bones, increasing the risk of fractures and osteoporosis, a condition prevalent among the elderly.
The good news is that both treatment and prevention of vitamin K deficiency are attainable goals.
1. Treatment: Vitamin K supplementation serves as the primary approach to counter deficiency. Severe cases might necessitate intravenous administration. Regular monitoring and adjustments in the treatment plan ensure optimal results.
2. Prevention: To prevent vitamin K deficiency, focus on eating a good mix of foods with vitamin K. Add veggies like greens, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts to your meals each day. Babies can get shots of vitamin K, and people taking medicine need to be careful too. This helps make sure you’re well protected.
Liver disease-associated bleeding is a complex health issue that stems from disruptions in the liver’s normal functions, leading to difficulties in blood clotting. The liver plays a vital role in producing essential proteins for blood clotting. When liver function is compromised, this clotting mechanism is compromised, resulting in bleeding problems. This article dives into the causes, symptoms, risk factors, available medications, and prevention strategies for liver disease-associated bleeding.
Liver disease-associated bleeding arises from various liver disorders like:
Cirrhosis, a common condition, causes scarring of the liver. This impairs the production of clotting proteins. Thus, heightening the risk of bleeding. Reduced synthesis of other important proteins like albumin can further exacerbate bleeding tendencies.
Symptoms can range in severity, including:
· easy bruising
· frequent nosebleeds
· bleeding gums
· prolonged bleeding from minor injuries
Severe cases might lead to gastrointestinal bleeding. It’s characterized by dark or bloody stools and vomiting blood.
Hematomas, which are blood collections beneath the skin, can also occur and indicate bleeding problems.
Common culprit includes:
· Chronic alcohol misuse
· viral hepatitis infections (such as hepatitis B and C)
· non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Advanced liver diseases, particularly cirrhosis, can intensify bleeding vulnerability due to impaired liver function. Coagulation disorders, certain medications, and underlying genetic factors can further elevate the risk of bleeding.
Managing liver disease-associated bleeding involves a comprehensive approach. Medications to promote blood clotting may be prescribed, such as vitamin K or clotting factor concentrates.
Vitamin K plays a key role in the clotting process and can be administered orally or intravenously. Clotting factor concentrates, on the other hand, are injections that provide the necessary proteins for effective blood clotting.
Preventing liver disease-associated bleeding necessitates addressing the underlying liver condition:
2. Vaccinations: Getting vaccinated against hepatitis A and B can prevent these infections. Hepatitis is a common cause of liver damage.
Bleeding linked to liver disease is a serious matter that needs attention and care. Understanding why it happens, recognizing the signs, taking steps to prevent it, and using treatments can greatly help people with liver problems. Teamwork between patients, doctors, and the medical community is key to lessening the effects of liver disease-related bleeding and ensuring overall wellness.
Von Willebrand disease affects the blood’s ability to clot and is a common blood disorder. It is inherited, meaning parents can pass it on to their biological children. Healthcare providers use medication to treat this disorder and assist with blood clotting.
Erik Adolf von Willebrand, a Finnish physician, gave the condition its name in the 1920s. VWD occurs due to a shortage or malfunction of the von Willebrand factor (VWF), a critical protein in clot formation.
Though not common, it’s crucial for both those affected and the medical community to understand this condition.
Von Willebrand’s Diseas comes from gene changes that affect the von Willebrand factor. This factor helps platelets stick together and makes blood clot when vessels break.
In VWD, there’s not enough good VWF, or the protein itself is broken. This causes clotting problems.
People usually get VWD from their parents. If a parent has it, there’s a 50% chance they’ll give it to their kids. Sometimes, even without a family history, people can get it because of changes in their genes.
The severity of symptoms in VWD can vary widely, ranging from mild to severe. Common signs include:
· excessive bleeding following minor injuries
· frequent nosebleeds
· heavy or prolonged menstrual periods in women
· easy bruising
Individuals with VWD may also experience:
· bleeding in the gums
· prolonged bleeding after surgeries or dental procedures
· in severe cases, internal bleeding
The symptoms can significantly impact one’s quality of life. Thus, necessitate careful management.
Several factors can increase the risk of bleeding episodes in individuals with Von Willebrand’s Disease.
· Physical stressors like surgery or trauma can trigger bleeding episodes
· hormonal changes during puberty, pregnancy, and childbirth
· Stressful situations or situations that require prolonged immobilization
Individuals with VWD and their healthcare providers need to be vigilant about these risk factors. They need to take appropriate precautions to prevent excessive bleeding.
Healthcare providers can use various medications to treat this condition:
1. Desmopressin: This hormone increases von Willebrand factor levels in your blood. It’s the most common treatment for von Willebrand disease.
2. Von Willebrand factor infusions: Some might receive infusions of VWF to stop bleeding episodes. This could be done before surgery. People with severe conditions might get regular infusions to maintain a steady VWF level.
3. Antifibrinolytics: These drugs prevent blood clots from breaking down. Your healthcare provider might recommend them if you’re having dental surgery or experiencing heavy periods.
4. Birth control pills: These pills help manage menstrual bleeding. They contain estrogen, which raises von Willebrand factor levels in your blood.
Most individuals with this condition experience mild or moderate symptoms. For them, adapting to life with this condition involves taking active steps such as:
1. Steer Clear of Risky Activities: Avoid engaging in activities that could lead to injury, including contact sports like football, rugby, or hockey.
2. Inform All Healthcare Providers: Ensure that all healthcare professionals are aware of your condition. This helps them plan and manage bleeding risks during surgeries or dental procedures.
3. Medication Precautions: Refrain from using aspirin and medications containing aspirin. Only take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen.
4. Careful with Supplements: Avoid nutritional supplements containing fish oil, vitamin E, or turmeric.
5. Consider Medical Alert Identification: In an emergency, wearing a medical alert bracelet or carrying identification can be critical. It guarantees that you receive the necessary medical attention for your illness.
By following these rules, people with this condition can better take care of their health and lessen its impact on their daily lives.
Prompt medical attention is essential. If you or a loved one experiences any of the given symptoms of VWD, seek medical help. Early diagnosis and appropriate management can greatly improve the quality of life for individuals with VWD.
Von Willebrand’s Disease is an important health issue that needs attention and understanding. Because it’s caused by genes, shows different signs, and can lead to problems, it’s crucial for doctors and people who have it to know about it.
Hemophilia is a rare but serious genetic bleeding disorder. It affects the body’s ability to clot blood properly. Individuals with this condition have deficiencies in specific clotting proteins. These deficiencies can lead to prolonged and uncontrollable bleeding, both internally and externally.
Hemophilia is primarily caused by genetic mutations. The mutation affects the production or functionality of clotting factors in the blood. There are two main types of hemophilia:
Symptoms may differ among individuals. Common signs and symptoms of this condition include:
Hemophilia is a genetic disorder. The most significant risk factor is having a family history of this condition. Inherited through X-linked recessive inheritance, it’s more common in males. Males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome. Females can also be carriers of the gene. They may also experience mild symptoms or no symptoms at all. Other risk factors include:
There is no cure for this condition. However, there are effective medications and treatments to manage and prevent bleeding episodes. The primary treatment involves replacing the missing clotting factor through:
Preventing complications and managing this condition involves a combination of medications and lifestyle adjustments. Here are some key preventive measures:
It is crucial to seek immediate medical attention if you or someone you know experiences any of the following symptoms:
Hemophilia is a genetic bleeding disorder that needs proper management and timely medical attention. Regular monitoring, safety precautions, and adherence to treatment plans are essential for optimal health outcomes.
Seeking prompt medical attention for concerning symptoms is crucial to prevent severe bleeding episodes. Awareness and preventive measures allow individuals with hemophilia to lead fulfilling lives and minimize the condition’s impact on their well-being
Coagulation disorders, also known as bleeding disorders, affect how the body controls blood clotting. When blood does not clot normally, it can lead to abnormal bleeding or an increased risk of blood clots, both of which can have serious health consequences.
The primary cause of coagulation disorders is a genetic mutation that impairs the proper formation of blood clots. Thankfully, these disorders can often be treated with medications. In some cases, they cause excessive bleeding, while in others, they increase the risk of blocked blood vessels by promoting the overproduction of blood clots.
There are various types of coagulation disorders, and some common ones are as follows:
The two most common types are hemophilia A and B. In these types, the body lacks specific clotting proteins in the blood.
Coagulation disorders can have various causes, including:
Coagulation disorders can cause a variety of symptoms. However, common signs include:
Certain factors increase the risk of developing coagulation disorders:
The treatment of coagulation disorders depends on the type and severity of the condition. Common medications used include:
Some coagulation disorders are genetic and cannot be prevented. However, there are preventive measures you can take:
If any of the following symptoms occur, seeking immediate medical attention is essential:
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) is a potentially serious medical condition. It happens when blood clots form in the deep veins of the body, commonly in the legs.
If left untreated, these clots can lead to severe complications, such as pulmonary embolism (PE), a life-threatening condition. Understanding the causes, symptoms, risk factors, medications, and preventive measures related to DVT is essential for early detection and proper management.
Several factors can contribute to the development of DVT. Some of the key causes include:
Recognizing the symptoms is crucial for seeking medical attention. However, it’s important to note that DVT may not always present with noticeable symptoms. Common signs include:
If you experience any of these symptoms, especially if they appear suddenly and without an obvious cause, see a doctor immediately.
Certain factors increase the likelihood of developing DVT. The main risk factors include:
Treatment often involves the use of medications, particularly anticoagulants, or blood thinners. These anticoagulants help prevent clot growth and new clot formation. Commonly used medications include:
Proactive DVT prevention is critical, especially for persons with established risk factors. Here are some preventive measures:
Seek medical attention immediately if you experience any of the following:
Deep Vein Thrombosis is a serious condition that needs early detection and proper care. By knowing the causes, symptoms, risk factors, medications, and prevention, you can lower the risk and stay healthier. If symptoms show up, seeing a doctor quickly is important to prevent complications.
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a serious medical condition. It happens when a blood clot gets to the lungs and obstructs blood flow, usually from the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis). This potentially life-threatening condition requires immediate medical attention.
The primary cause of pulmonary embolism is the migration of a blood clot to the lungs. These clots can be formed in the deep veins of the legs or other parts of the body. These blood clots can dislodge and travel through the bloodstream. Some common causes of blood clot formation include:
1. Immobility: Prolonged periods of inactivity can increase the risk of blood clot formation. These include:
· long flights
· bed rest
· post-surgery recovery
2. Surgery and Trauma: Major surgeries or serious injuries may lead to blood clot formation.
3. Pregnancy: Pregnancy can predispose women to develop blood clots. This is due to changes in blood circulation and hormonal factors.
4. Medical Conditions: Certain medical conditions can increase the risk of clot formation. These include:
· heart disease
· inflammatory disorders
Recognizing the symptoms of PE is crucial for prompt diagnosis and treatment. Some common signs and symptoms include:
1. Sudden Shortness of Breath: Unexplained shortness of breath, especially after prolonged immobility, can be an indicator of PE.
2. Chest Pain: Sharp chest pain, particularly with deep breathing or coughing, maybe a sign of a clot in the lungs.
3. Rapid Heart Rate: A sudden increase in heart rate may indicate a strain on the heart due to reduced blood flow.
4. Coughing: Persistent coughing, sometimes with blood-streaked sputum, can be a symptom of pulmonary embolism.
5. Leg Swelling and Pain: If a clot forms in the deep veins of the legs, it may cause swelling, pain, and warmth in the affected limb.
Several risk factors can predispose individuals to this condition. Some common risk factors include:
1. Prolonged Immobility: Long periods of immobility increase your risk of clot formation.
2. Family History: A family history of blood clotting disorders can increase the likelihood of developing this condition.
3. Obesity: Excess body weight puts additional pressure on the veins. This increases the risk of clot formation.
4. Smoking: Smoking damages blood vessels. It also promotes clot formation.
5. Hormonal Factors: Hormonal changes can increase clotting risk. Hormonal changes can be due to:
· oral contraceptive use
· hormone replacement therapy
The treatment of pulmonary embolism typically involves medications to:
· dissolve blood clots
· prevent new clots from forming
Anticoagulants, commonly known as blood thinners, are the mainstay treatment. These include:
These medications work by inhibiting the blood’s ability to clot, thus reducing the risk of further clot formation. In severe cases, thrombolytic medications may be administered to rapidly dissolve existing clots. Thrombolytics are potent drugs that carry a higher risk of bleeding complications. They are reserved for critical situations.
Preventing pulmonary embolism is crucial, especially for individuals with known risk factors. Here are some key preventive measures:
1. Regular Exercise: Engaging in regular physical activity can promote healthy blood circulation. It also reduces the risk of clot formation. Even simple activities like walking can be beneficial, particularly for those who sit or stand for long periods.
2. Compression Stockings: Wearing compression stockings can aid in preventing blood from pooling in the legs. It can also lower the risk of DVT.
3. Medication Compliance: If prescribed blood-thinning medications, it is essential to take them as directed by a healthcare professional.
4. Hydration: Staying adequately hydrated helps maintain blood viscosity. This help reduces the risk of clot formation.
5. Avoiding Tobacco and Alcohol: Smoking and excessive alcohol consumption can increase the risk of blood clotting and cardiovascular problems. So, avoiding these habits is essential.
6. Recognizing Symptoms: Being aware of the signs and symptoms of PE can lead to early detection and timely medical intervention.
Blood clotting is a vital process that helps prevent excessive bleeding after an injury. However, in some individuals, this natural mechanism can go awry, leading to blood clotting disorders.
A blood clotting disorder is a health condition that affects how your blood clots. When you get hurt, your body forms clots to stop the bleeding and help you heal. But in some people, this process doesn’t work properly.
These disorders can be potentially dangerous. If blood clots are not managed and treated properly, they can cause stroke, limb loss, pulmonary embolism, or death. You can inherit or acquire one of these conditions.
Blood clotting disorders, also known as coagulation disorders, encompass a range of conditions that can affect the clotting process.
Thrombophilia increases your risk of developing blood clots. This can be dangerous if they block the blood vessels. Thrombophilia can be inherited or acquired due to factors such as:
· genetic mutations
· hormonal imbalances
· lifestyle choices
· platelet function disorders
Blood clotting disorders can have various underlying causes, depending on their type.
For thrombophilia- Genetic mutations in clotting factor genes, such as:
· Factor V Leiden mutation
· prothrombin gene mutation
Other risk factors include:
· hormonal contraceptives
· prolonged immobility
· certain autoimmune conditions.
The signs and symptoms of blood clotting disorders can vary depending on the type and location of the blood clot. Some common signs and symptoms include.
Yes, blood clotting disorders can be dangerous and even life-threatening if left untreated. Thrombophilia increases the risk of developing blood clots that can obstruct blood flow to vital organs.
A clot in the arteries can lead to:
· Heart attack
· Leg pain
· Loss of limbs
A clot in the veins can lead to:
· Deep vein thrombosis
· Pulmonary Embolism
Timely diagnosis and appropriate management are crucial to minimize the risks associated with blood clotting disorders.
The treatment of blood clotting disorders aims to prevent or dissolve blood clots and reduce the risk of complications. Some common approaches include:
Blood clotting disorders can greatly affect your health. Getting diagnosed and treated on time is crucial to avoid severe complications.
Understanding the different types, causes, signs, symptoms, and treatment options empowers you to take necessary precautions and seek medical help when needed.
If you suspect you might have a blood clotting disorder or experience related symptoms, don’t hesitate to consult a healthcare professional for a thorough evaluation and personalized treatment plan. With proper care, individuals with blood clotting disorders can lead healthy and fulfilling lives.
In the realm of health, some conditions often strike without warning, leaving a trail of devastation in their wake. One such silent threat is stroke.
A stroke, often known as a brain attack, can occur from one of two causes: a blocked artery or a burst artery.
Parts of the brain are injured or die in either circumstance. A stroke can result in long-term brain damage, disability, or even death.
To comprehend the nuances of stroke, we must first understand its types. There are primarily two main types of stroke:
a. Ischemic Stroke: This type occurs when a blood clot obstructs a blood vessel. This limits the blood flow to the brain. The lack of oxygen and nutrients leads to brain cell damage. Ischemic strokes are the most common type. It accounts for about 85% of all strokes.
b. Hemorrhagic Stroke: In contrast, a hemorrhagic stroke is caused by the rupture of a blood vessel in the brain. This can lead to bleeding within or around the brain tissue. The sudden bleed can create pressure, causing damage to brain cells.
Understanding the factors that can lead to stroke is crucial for prevention. Some common causes of stroke include:
a. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure): Uncontrolled high blood pressure is a significant risk factor for stroke. It can weaken blood vessels and contribute to the formation of blood clots.
b. Atrial Fibrillation: This irregular heartbeat condition can cause blood to pool in the heart. This increases the risk of blood clots that may lead to stroke.
c. Diabetes: People with diabetes have a higher risk of stroke due to:
1. the potential impact on blood vessels
2. increased likelihood of hypertension
d. High Cholesterol: Elevated cholesterol levels can lead to atherosclerosis. It’s a condition where fatty deposits build up in the arteries, potentially leading to blood vessel blockages.
e. Smoking and Alcohol Consumption: Both smoking and excessive alcohol intake can contribute to stroke risk through various mechanisms, including elevated blood pressure and damage to blood vessels.
What are the Signs and Symptoms of Stroke?
Being able to identify the signs and symptoms of stroke is vital for timely action. Common symptoms include:
· Sudden numbness or weakness on one side of the body, often affecting the face, leg, or leg.
· Difficulty speaking or understanding speech.
· Sudden confusion or trouble with vision in one or both eyes.
· Severe headache without any known cause.
Remember, every minute counts during a stroke. If you or someone else exhibits these symptoms, seek immediate medical attention.
In the face of a stroke, time becomes the most precious commodity. Immediate medical intervention is critical to minimize brain damage and increase the chances of recovery. Treatment options depend on the type of stroke:
a. Ischemic Stroke: The following can restore blood flow to the brain:
· swift administration of clot-busting medications (thrombolytics)
· mechanical removal of the clot through a procedure called thrombectomy
b. Hemorrhagic Stroke: In cases of hemorrhagic stroke, prompt surgical intervention may be necessary to stop the bleeding and relieve pressure on the brain.
Beyond acute stroke treatment, medications play a vital role in stroke prevention and long-term management. Some commonly prescribed medications include:
a. Antiplatelet Agents: Antiplatelet agents reduce the likelihood of blood clots forming. This can help prevent ischemic strokes.
b. Anticoagulants: For individuals with atrial fibrillation or other conditions predisposing them to blood clots, anticoagulant medications can be prescribed to prevent stroke.
c. Blood Pressure Medications: Controlling hypertension is crucial for stroke prevention, and various blood pressure medications are available to achieve this.
d. Statins: These medications help lower cholesterol levels. It also reduces the risk of atherosclerosis, thereby lowering the risk of stroke.
While a stroke can be life-altering, many cases can be prevented through proactive measures. Adopting a healthy lifestyle can significantly reduce stroke risk:
a. Maintain a Balanced Diet: Limit saturated fats and sodium while eating a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins.
b. Engage in Regular Physical Activity: Aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise per week to support cardiovascular health.
c. Control Blood Pressure and Cholesterol: Regularly monitor your blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Follow the prescribed medications and lifestyle modifications as advised by your doctor.
d. Avoid Smoking and Excessive Alcohol: Quit smoking and limit alcohol intake. Doing this helps promote overall health and reduce stroke risk.
Stroke is a serious medical emergency that demands our attention and vigilance. Understanding the types, causes, signs, and symptoms of stroke equips us to recognize its warning signs promptly, enabling swift action and potentially saving lives. Timely treatment is crucial to minimize damage and optimize recovery.
Additionally, stroke prevention lies within our grasp through adopting a healthy lifestyle and adhering to prescribed medications. By taking charge of our health, we can actively reduce the risk of stroke and pave the way for a healthier future.
If you’ve been vigilant about monitoring your cholesterol levels and blood pressure, there’s another critical aspect that requires your attention. Triglycerides.
Triglycerides, a term often discussed in the realm of health and well-being. It plays a crucial role in our bodies. Elevated levels of this fat can heighten the risk of heart disease. However, the good news is that the same lifestyle choices that promote overall health can also contribute to reducing this condition.
In the intricate landscape of blood lipids, triglycerides, and cholesterol stand as two essential components, each with distinct roles.
Elevated levels of this lipid in the blood can impact your cardiovascular health. High levels of this fat, along with low HDL cholesterol levels, can increase the risk of:
Additionally, high triglycerides often correlate with insulin resistance, a precursor to type 2 diabetes. Therefore, managing this condition is vital in reducing the risk of developing these serious health conditions.
You can control your triglyceride levels through simple lifestyle changes. By adopting these healthy habits, you can proactively enhance your overall health and well-being:
a. Balanced Diet: Embrace a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, healthy fats, whole grains, and lean proteins. Limit the consumption of sugary and refined foods. Also limit your saturated and trans fats intake, which can contribute to elevated triglycerides.
b. Maintain a Healthy Weight: Shedding excess pounds through a combination of a balanced diet and regular physical activity can significantly lower triglyceride levels.
c. Engage in Physical Activity: Regular aerobic exercises, such as brisk walking, jogging, swimming, or cycling, are highly effective in reducing triglycerides. Aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise each week.
d. Limit Alcohol Consumption: Excessive alcohol intake can lead to elevated triglycerides. Moderation is key, and for individuals with high triglycerides, it may be advisable to abstain from alcohol.
e. Say No to Smoking: Smoking is not only harmful to lung health. It can also negatively impacts cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Seek support to quit this habit for the betterment of your health.
Sometimes, lifestyle modifications are not enough to bring these fat levels within a healthy range. In such cases, your doctor may prescribe medications to manage your condition. Some common medications include:
a. Statins: Though primarily used to lower LDL cholesterol, statins can also have a modest effect on reducing this fat.
b. Fibrates: It specifically target this type of fat. It can be prescribed alongside statins when necessary.
c. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplements: Derived from fish oil, these supplements helps lower these fat levels.
Once you’ve implemented lifestyle changes or started medications, regular follow-ups with your healthcare provider are essential. Consistent monitoring of your triglyceride levels will ensure the effectiveness of your chosen approach and allow for adjustments as needed.
Cholesterol travels through the bloodstream on proteins known as “lipoproteins.” There are two types of lipoproteins that transport cholesterol throughout the body.
· HDL, the “good cholesterol,” protects our arteries by removing excess cholesterol and promoting heart health.
· LDL, the “bad cholesterol,” can lead to the accumulation of plaque in artery walls. This increases the risk of heart disease.
Understanding the significance of HDL and LDL is paramount to maintaining optimal cardiovascular health.
High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL), often referred to as “good cholesterol,” serves as a protector of our cardiovascular system.
· HDL removes excess cholesterol from arterial walls, preventing plaque buildup.
· It transports cholesterol back to the liver for processing and excretion. This helps maintain healthy cholesterol levels in the bloodstream.
This reduces the risk of developing:
· heart attacks
· other cardiovascular diseases
HDL has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, protecting blood vessels. It neutralizes harmful free radicals, reducing oxidative stress. These mechanisms actively promote cardiovascular health and longevity.
Having elevated levels of HDL in the blood confers various health benefits, including:
· Reduced risk of developing heart diseases.
· Improved endothelial function, leading to better blood flow and a lower risk of blood clot formation.
· Improved insulin sensitivity.
· Decreased risk of type 2 diabetes.
Fortunately, lifestyle modifications can effectively boost HDL levels. Regular physical activity has been shown to increase HDL cholesterol. This include aerobic exercises like:
A balanced diet rich in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, such as those found in olive oil, avocados, and fatty fish, can also raise HDL levels. Moreover, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking have been associated with higher HDL cholesterol.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is responsible for delivering cholesterol to the body’s cells. This is an essential function for cellular health.
However, when LDL levels are elevated, there is an increased risk of plaque formation in the arteries. This can lead to a condition known as atherosclerosis.
Several risk factors contribute to high LDL levels and atherosclerosis development:
1. Unhealthy Diet: Consuming a diet high in saturated and trans fats can raise LDL cholesterol levels. Processed foods, fried items, and excessive red meat intake can all contribute to unhealthy lipid profiles.
2. Sedentary Lifestyle: Lack of physical activity is linked to higher LDL cholesterol and lower HDL cholesterol levels. Regular exercise can help improve the balance between HDL and LDL.
3. Obesity: Obesity and overweight can have a harmful impact on cholesterol levels. This raises the likelihood of atherosclerosis and heart disease.
4. Smoking: Smoking not only lowers HDL levels. It can also damage blood vessels, making them more susceptible to plaque formation.
5. Genetics: Family history can influence cholesterol levels. Some people have a genetic predisposition to high LDL cholesterol, even with a healthy lifestyle.
6. Age and Gender: As people age, LDL cholesterol levels tend to rise, particularly in men. However, high LDL can be a concern for women, especially after menopause.
7. Medical Conditions: Certain medical conditions can affect cholesterol metabolism and contribute to high LDL levels. This includes:
· kidney disease
Keeping LDL cholesterol within a healthy range is imperative for cardiovascular health. When LDL levels exceed the body’s requirements, excess cholesterol can accumulate in artery walls, forming fatty plaques.
Over time, these plaques can obstruct blood flow, leading to:
· coronary artery disease
· heart attacks
· other cardiovascular complications.
Lifestyle modifications and medical interventions can effectively lower high LDL levels. It can also reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Here are some strategies to consider:
1. Adopt a Heart-Healthy Diet: Focus on a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains. Minimize the intake of saturated and trans fats. Do this by choosing healthier cooking methods and reading food labels carefully.
2. Engage in Regular Physical Activity: Incorporate aerobic exercises like walking, jogging, swimming, or cycling into your routine. Aim for 150 minutes of moderate-intensity activity each week or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity exercise.
3. Achieve and Maintain a Healthy Weight: If you are overweight or obese, losing even a modest amount of weight can significantly improve cholesterol levels.
4. Quit Smoking: This positive step will benefit not only your lipid profile but also your overall health.
5. Limit Alcohol Consumption: While moderate alcohol intake can increase HDL levels, excessive consumption can elevate triglycerides. It can also worsen LDL cholesterol levels. If you drink, do so in moderation.
6. Consider Medications: In some cases, lifestyle changes may not be sufficient to lower high LDL levels. Doctors may prescribe medications like statins to effectively manage cholesterol levels.
Hypertension is a common condition affecting the arteries of the body. It is also known as High blood pressure.
The force of the blood pushing against the artery walls is constantly too powerful when you have high blood pressure. Your heart has to work harder to pump blood.
Hypertension can have various underlying causes, including:
In many cases, hypertension is often referred to as the “silent killer” because it may not present noticeable symptoms initially. However, as blood pressure rises, individuals may experience:
Several factors increase the likelihood of developing hypertension:
While lifestyle modifications are essential in managing hypertension, medication is often prescribed to:
· control blood pressure
· prevent complications
Some common types of anti-hypertensive medications include:
Treatment and prevention of hypertension involve a comprehensive approach that includes lifestyle modifications and regular medical care:
Hypertension is a widespread health concern that requires attention and management. By understanding its causes, signs and symptoms, risk factors, and treatment options, you can take proactive steps to control your blood pressure effectively.
Leading a heart-healthy lifestyle, regular medical check-ups, and adherence to prescribed medications are essential in preventing complications and maintaining overall well-being. Empowered with knowledge and supported by a comprehensive approach, individuals can successfully manage hypertension and reduce its impact on their lives.
Cardiomegaly, also known as an enlarged heart, is a medical condition characterized by an increase in the size of the heart.
While the heart can adapt to certain stressors, an excessive enlargement can impede its ability to pump blood efficiently. This can lead to potentially serious complications.
Cardiomegaly can arise from various factors, including:
1. Hypertension: Prolonged high blood pressure forces the heart to work harder. This can result in its enlargement.
2. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD): Narrowed or blocked coronary arteries limit blood flow to the heart. This can lead to tissue damage and heart enlargement.
3. Heart Valve Problems: Faulty heart valves can disrupt blood flow. This causes the heart to pump harder to compensate.
4. Cardiomyopathy: This term encompasses various heart muscle diseases that weaken the heart and contribute to its enlargement.
5. Congenital Heart Defects: Structural heart defects present at birth can cause the heart to grow abnormally.
6. Chronic Lung Diseases: Conditions like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can strain the heart and lead to enlargement.
7. Anemia: A decreased number of red blood cells can reduce the oxygen supply to the heart, forcing it to enlarge to meet demands.
In the early stages, cardiomegaly might not present noticeable symptoms. However, as the condition progresses, individuals may experience:
· Shortness of breath, especially during physical activity or while lying down.
· Fatigue and weakness due to the heart’s reduced pumping efficiency.
· Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet is caused by fluid retention.
· Rapid or irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia).
· Persistent coughing or wheezing, sometimes with pinkish sputum, indicating fluid accumulation in the lungs.
· Dizziness or fainting spells indicate compromised blood flow to the brain.
Several factors increase the risk of developing this condition. This is:
1. High Blood Pressure: Uncontrolled hypertension can strain the heart muscles, leading to enlargement.
2. Obesity: Excess body weight places additional stress on the heart. This can potentially lead to enlargement.
3. Smoking: Smoking damages blood vessels. It also reduces oxygen supply, affecting heart health.
4. Family History: A family history of heart disease may increase the likelihood of developing cardiomegaly.
5. Age: As people age, the heart may undergo natural change. This can make it more susceptible to enlargement.
6. Chronic Conditions: Diabetes, kidney disease, and certain autoimmune disorders can contribute to heart enlargement.
7. Alcohol Abuse: Excessive alcohol consumption can weaken the heart muscle and promote cardiomegaly.
While medications cannot reverse heart enlargement, they play a crucial role in managing symptoms and preventing complications:
· Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors
In addition to medication, treatment for this condition focuses on managing underlying conditions and reducing risk factors:
1. Lifestyle Modifications: Adopting a heart-healthy lifestyle is paramount. This includes:
· maintaining a balanced diet
· engaging in regular physical activity
· quitting smoking
· limiting alcohol intake
2. Managing Hypertension: Proper management of blood pressure is crucial in preventing heart enlargement. Regular monitoring and adherence to prescribed medications are essential.
3. Treating Coronary Artery Disease: The following can address CAD and prevent heart enlargement:
· Lifestyle changes
· medical procedures like angioplasty or bypass surgery
4. Managing Heart Valve Problems: Depending on the severity, treatment may involve:
· valve repair
· valve replacement surgery
5. Addressing Cardiomyopathy: Management of specific cardiomyopathies may include:
· lifestyle changes
· heart transplantation for advanced cases
Cardiomegaly is a serious medical condition that requires prompt attention and management. By taking proactive steps to address underlying factors and adopting a heart-healthy lifestyle, you can enhance your quality of life and reduce the risks associated with this condition.
Atherosclerosis is a prevalent cardiovascular disease. It occurs when fatty deposits, cholesterol, and other substances build up on the inner walls of arteries, obstructing blood flow and leading to potential complications.
The primary cause of this condition is the accumulation of plaque within the arteries. Plaque is made up of:
· other substances found in the blood
Over time, these deposits harden and narrow the arteries. This reduces blood flow to vital organs such as the heart, brain, and limbs.
In the early stages, this condition may not manifest any noticeable symptoms. However, as the condition progresses, individuals may experience:
1. Chest pain or angina: Occurs when the heart muscle doesn’t receive enough blood and oxygen. This is due to the narrowed coronary arteries.
2. Shortness of breath: Arterial blockages can lead to reduced blood supply to the lungs. This results in breathlessness.
3. Fatigue: Diminished blood flow to organs and muscles may cause persistent fatigue and weakness.
4. Leg pain or cramps: Atherosclerosis affecting leg arteries can lead to pain, cramping, or numbness during physical activity.
Timely diagnosis is crucial for effective management of atherosclerosis. Medical professionals employ various tests to assess arterial health and diagnose the condition:
· Physical Examination
· Blood Tests
· Imaging Techniques
· Coronary Angiography
Various medications are available to manage this condition. Commonly prescribed medications include:
1. Statins: These drugs effectively lower LDL cholesterol levels, reducing the risk of plaque formation.
2. Beta-Blockers: By lowering heart rate and blood pressure, beta-blockers alleviate the workload on the heart. It also aids in symptom management.
3. Antiplatelet Agents: Drugs like aspirin inhibit platelet aggregation. This minimizes the risk of blood clots that could lead to heart attacks or strokes.
4. ACE Inhibitors and ARBs: These medications control blood pressure. It also protects blood vessels from damages.
Understanding the risk factors associated with this condition is essential. Some significant risk factors include:
1. High Cholesterol: Elevated levels of LDL cholesterol contribute to plaque buildup in the arteries.
2. High Blood Pressure: Uncontrolled hypertension strains the arterial walls. This makes them more susceptible to damage.
3. Smoking: Tobacco smoke damages blood vessels. It also accelerates plaque formation. Thus, increasing the risk of blood clots.
4. Obesity: Excess body weight elevates cholesterol levels. It also puts strain on the cardiovascular system.
5. Sedentary Lifestyle: Lack of physical activity reduces heart health and increases the risk of this condition.
6. Diabetes: Poorly managed diabetes can damage blood vessels. It also contributes to plaque development.
7. Family History: A family history of heart disease or atherosclerosis may increase an individual’s risk.
Atherosclerosis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition. This condition demands proactive measures for prevention and management.
By understanding the causes, symptoms, medications, and risk factors, you can take control of your heart health and adopt a heart-healthy lifestyle.
Heart valve disease is a condition that affects the functioning of one or more of the valves in your heart. This impairs the normal flow of blood within the heart.
Heart valve disease refers to any condition that affects one or more of the heart’s four valves:
o the mitral valve
o tricuspid valve
o aortic valve
o pulmonary valve
These valves play a crucial role in ensuring that blood flows in the correct direction through the heart chambers.
Heart valve diseases can result from two sorts of issues:
o Regurgitation (or valve leaking)- When the valve(s) do not fully close. Blood flows backward through the valve. This lowers forward blood flow and can result in heart volume overload.
o Stenosis (or valve narrowing)- When the opening of the valve(s) narrows. Blood flows out of the ventricles or atria is restricted. The heart is compelled to pump blood with greater force to transport blood through the constricted or stiff (stenotic) valve(s).
The causes of this condition vary based on the type of disease present. These are:
Mild to moderate heart valve disease may not exhibit any symptoms. The following represent the most common symptoms of heart valve disease:
You may develop heart valve disease as you age, as a result of a medication you take, or as a result of a treatment you have. The following are risk factors:
Heart valve disease is a complex condition that affects the proper functioning of the heart’s valves. Understanding its types, causes, symptoms, available medications, and risk factors is vital for early detection and proactive management.
By raising awareness and understanding this condition, you can take steps to safeguard their heart health and lead fulfilling lives.
Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are a group of structural abnormalities. These conditions are present at birth and may vary in severity.
This defect has the potential to disrupt the normal structure and function of the heart. They have the potential to affect how blood flows through the heart and out into the body.
Congenital heart defects vary in complexity and impact different parts of the heart’s structure and function. Some common types of CHDs include:
1. Atrial Septal Defect
2. Double-outlet Right Ventricle
3. Ventricular Septal Defect
4. Ebstein Anomaly
5. Tetralogy of Fallot
6. Single Ventricle
7. Transposition of the Great Arteries
8. Pulmonary Atresia
9. Tricuspid Atresia
10. Interrupted Aortic Arch
The causes of congenital heart defects can be multifaceted and may involve the following factors:
· unknown factors
While genetic mutations and chromosomal abnormalities play a role in some cases, other factors can influence the development of CHDs:
1. Genetic Factors: Inherited genetic mutations or anomalies may disrupt normal cardiac development. This can lead to congenital heart defects. Family history can be a significant indicator in identifying potential risks.
2. Environmental Influences: Exposure to certain environmental factors during pregnancy may contribute to the occurrence of CHDs. This includes:
· maternal health conditions
The symptoms of congenital heart defects may vary depending on the following:
· type of abnormality
· the severity of the abnormality
Some common signs to be vigilant about include:
1. Cyanosis: Bluish discoloration of the skin, lips, or nail beds. This indicates that there is insufficient oxygen in the blood.
2. Rapid Breathing or Shortness of Breath: Infants may experience difficulty breathing or rapid breaths during feeding or at rest.
3. Poor Feeding: Babies with CHDs may tire easily while nursing. This can lead to inadequate weight gain.
4. Fatigue and Weakness: Older children and adults may experience fatigue and weakness during physical activities.
Treating CHD involves tailoring the approach according to the defect’s type and severity. Infants and children affected by CHDs may require one or multiple surgeries to repair the heart or blood vessels.
Non-surgical cardiac catheterization can improve blood flow and heart function. However, successful heart defect repairs require ongoing follow-up care for CHD patients.
While medications cannot cure congenital heart defects, they play a crucial role in:
· managing symptoms
· supporting heart function
Some common medications prescribed for individuals with CHDs include:
1. Diuretics: These drugs help eliminate excess fluid from the body. This helps reduce the workload on the heart.
2. Beta-Blockers: They slow the heart rate. Beta-blockers also reduce blood pressure. Thus, easing the strain on the heart.
3. ACE Inhibitors: These medications widen blood vessels. It also promotes better blood flow and reduces blood pressure.
4. Digoxin: Used to improve heart contractions and manage irregular heart rhythms.
Preventing congenital heart defects involves addressing both genetic and environmental factors. While some CHDs may not be preventable, certain measures can reduce the risk:
1. Prenatal Care: Regular prenatal check-ups and medical supervision during pregnancy. These can help identify potential risk factors and allow for early interventions.
2. Genetic Counseling: Couples with a family history of CHDs or genetic disorders may consider genetic counseling. This is done to assess the risk of passing on congenital heart defects to their offspring.
3. Lifestyle Choices: Maintaining a healthy lifestyle can contribute to a healthier pregnancy. This includes:
· a balanced diet
· regular exercise
· avoiding alcohol, tobacco
· avoiding harmful substances
Unstable angina is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition. It is characterized by chest pain or discomfort that occurs at rest or with minimal exertion.
Unlike stable angina, which typically follows a predictable pattern and is triggered by physical activity or stress, unstable angina is unpredictable and demands immediate medical attention.
The most common cause is coronary artery disease from atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is the accumulation of fatty material, known as plaque, along the walls of the arteries. This causes arteries to become narrower and less flexible. The constriction might restrict blood flow to the heart, resulting in chest discomfort.
Other causes of unstable angina include:
Unstable Angina pain or discomfort:
o It could happen while you’re relaxing, sleeping, or doing very little physical activity.
o Last longer than stable angina.
o Is unexpected.
o May get worse over time.
o Rest and medication usually do not help.
o Can result in a heart attack.
Symptoms of unstable angina may include:
Unstable angina medications may include:
Unstable angina requires immediate medical attention. If you or someone else experiences symptoms of this condition, do not delay seeking help.
Call emergency services or visit the nearest hospital immediately. It’s essential to recognize that unstable angina is different from stable angina, and the symptoms can indicate an impending heart attack.
While certain risk factors such as family history and age, cannot be modified, there are steps you can take to reduce your risk and improve heart health:
o lifestyle changes
o deep breathing exercises
Unstable angina is a serious condition that demands immediate medical attention. Understanding the causes, symptoms, treatment options, and when to seek help is vital in ensuring the best possible outcome for those affected.
If you or someone else experiences symptoms of this condition, do not hesitate to seek emergency medical assistance.
Angina, a condition characterized by chest pain or discomfort, is a warning sign that the heart muscle is not getting enough oxygen-rich blood. It can be a distressing experience and is often associated with coronary artery disease (CAD).
While angina can occur in anyone, certain risk factors increase the likelihood of its development.
The risk of angina tends to increase with age. As you grow older, your heart’s blood vessels may become narrower and less flexible. This can lead to reduced blood flow to the heart muscle.
2. Family History:
A family history of heart disease or angina can significantly influence your risk. Your chances of developing angina are higher if your parents or siblings have experienced angina or heart-related issues.
3. Unhealthy Lifestyle Choices:
o high blood pressure
4. Medical Conditions:
Being overweight or obese puts extra strain on the heart. Thus, increasing the risk of angina. Maintaining a healthy weight through proper diet and regular exercise is crucial for heart health.
6. Physical Inactivity:
Leading a sedentary lifestyle can contribute to various risk factors for angina, such as:
· high blood pressure
· high cholesterol levels
Regular physical activity can improve cardiovascular health and reduce the risk of angina.
Chronic stress can cause heart problem. This can trigger angina episodes in susceptible individuals. Learning stress management techniques and engaging in relaxation practices can be beneficial.
8. Gender and Menopause:
Men have a higher risk of angina than premenopausal women. However, the risk for women increases after menopause, possibly due to hormonal changes.
9. Alcohol Consumption:
Excessive alcohol intake can raise blood pressure. It can also contribute to obesity. Both of which are risk factors for angina. Moderation is key when it comes to alcohol consumption.
10. Sleep Apnea:
Sleep apnea, a condition characterized by interrupted breathing during sleep, can increase the risk of high blood pressure. It can also increase your risk for heart problems, including angina.
11. Chronic Kidney Disease:
Individuals with kidney disease are at higher risk of developing heart-related issues, including angina. This is due to the interplay of various risk factors.
12. Drug Abuse:
Illicit drug use, such as cocaine or amphetamines, can lead to blood vessel constriction. This increases the risk of angina and other heart problems.
13. Other Risk Factors:
· Air Pollution: Living in areas with high air pollution levels may contribute to heart problems, including angina, especially in vulnerable individuals.
While some risk factors for angina, such as age and family history, cannot be changed, many others can be modified through positive lifestyle changes and appropriate medical management.
Here are some proactive steps you can take to reduce the risk of angina and promote heart health:
o Brisk walking
o high blood pressure
o high cholesterol
Regular medical check-ups and discussions with healthcare professionals can also help in monitoring and managing risk factors for angina effectively.
Understanding the risk factors for angina is essential for taking proactive measures to:
· promote heart health
· reduce the likelihood of experiencing angina episodes
By adopting positive lifestyle changes and seeking appropriate medical care, you can significantly lower your risk of angina and enjoy a heart-healthy life.
Angina, a condition characterized by chest discomfort or pain, can be concerning. Angina pectoris is another name for angina. Squeezing, heaviness, pressure, discomfort, or tightness in the chest are all common symptoms of angina. It may appear as if a heavy weight is pressing on your chest. Angina can be a sudden pain that necessitates medical attention or a chronic soreness that subsides with treatment.
Although angina is relatively prevalent, it can be difficult to distinguish from other types of chest pain, such as indigestion discomfort.
1. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD): The most common cause is CAD. It involves the narrowing of coronary arteries, reducing blood flow to the heart muscle.
2. Coronary Spasm: Spasms in coronary arteries can temporarily reduce blood flow, leading to angina episodes.
3. Microvascular Angina: A type of angina caused by abnormalities in the tiny blood vessels of the heart.
4. Physical Exertion: Angina can be triggered by physical activity that demands more oxygen from the heart.
Symptoms may include:
1. Chest Discomfort: Described as pressure, squeezing, heaviness, or burning in the chest. Angina discomfort typically lasts for a few minutes.
2. Pain in Other Areas: Discomfort may also be felt in the arms, shoulders, neck, jaw, or back.
3. Shortness of Breath: Difficulty breathing may accompany chest discomfort during angina episodes.
4. Nausea and Fatigue: Some individuals may experience nausea and fatigue during angina episodes.
There are various types of angina. The type is determined by the underlying reason and if rest or medication relieves symptoms.
1. Stable Angina: Typically triggered by physical exertion or stress and relieved by rest or medication. It’s the most common form of angina.
This type is predictable and often resembles past episodes of chest discomfort. The chest pain is usually brief, lasting around five minutes or less.
2. Unstable Angina: Unstable angina unpredictably occurs at rest or worsens, happening with less physical effort. It is typically severe. It can last longer than stable angina, possibly lasting 20 minutes or more.
The pain does not subside with rest or usual angina medications. If blood flow does not improve, it starves the heart of oxygen. This can lead to a heart attack. Unstable angina demands emergency treatment as it poses a dangerous situation.
3. Variant (Prinzmetal’s) Angina: Variant angina, is also known as Prinzmetal angina. It results from a spasm in the heart’s arteries, temporarily reducing blood flow.
The primary symptom of this type of chest discomfort is severe chest pain. It often occurs in cycles, predominantly at rest and during the night.
The pain may be eased with medication. Coronary artery disease is not the cause of variant angina. Instead, it is attributed to arterial spasms in the heart.
1. Medical History and Physical Examination: An initial step to assess symptoms, risk factors, and medical history.
2. Electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG): Records the heart’s electrical activity, helping identify abnormal patterns.
3. Stress Test: Evaluates heart function during physical activity, revealing exercise-induced angina.
4. Coronary Angiography: Invasive procedure using dye and X-rays to assess coronary arteries’ condition.
Treatment options may include:
1. Lifestyle Modifications: You can help prevent this condition by making some lifestyle changes like:
· Eating a healthy diet
· Not smoking
· Maintaining a healthy weight
· Exercising regularly
· Reducing stress
· Managing other health conditions
2. Medications: The following medications can help manage this condition:
· calcium channel blockers
3. Angioplasty and Stent Placement: This is a minimally invasive procedure. It is used to widen narrowed arteries and improve blood flow.
4. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG): Rerouting blood flow around constricted or obstructed coronary arteries using surgery.
Angina can be a challenging condition, but with knowledge, awareness, and proactive measures, you can effectively manage this condition.
Arrhythmia is a common heart condition characterized by irregular heartbeats. The heartbeat may be too fast, too slow, or erratic. While it can be concerning, understanding the causes, recognizing the symptoms, obtaining a prompt diagnosis, and exploring the available treatment options can empower individuals to manage their arrhythmia effectively.
1. Heart Structure Abnormalities: Structural defects in the heart may disrupt normal electrical signals. This leads to arrhythmias.
2. Coronary Artery Disease: The narrowing of arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle can cause irregular heartbeats.
3. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension): Prolonged high blood pressure can strain the heart. Thus, contributing to arrhythmia development.
4. Heart Attacks: Damage to the heart muscle resulting from a heart attack can disrupt its electrical system.
5. Electrolyte Imbalances: Abnormal levels of potassium, sodium, or other electrolytes can affect heart function and trigger arrhythmias.
1. Palpitations: An unsettling sensation of fluttering, pounding, or irregular heartbeats that may be felt in the chest.
2. Dizziness or Lightheadedness: Arrhythmias can disrupt blood flow, leading to feelings of dizziness or faintness.
3. Shortness of Breath: Difficulty breathing, especially during physical activity, can be a symptom of arrhythmia.
4. Chest Pain or Discomfort: Some individuals may experience chest discomfort or pain during arrhythmia episodes.
5. Fatigue: A persistent feeling of tiredness or weakness may be indicative of irregular heart rhythms affecting overall heart function.
Some types of arrhythmia are harmless and do not require treatment. Others can put you at risk for cardiac arrest. Many arrhythmias fall somewhere in between these two extremes. A healthcare provider can inform you about the type of arrhythmia you have and whether any treatment is necessary.
Healthcare providers categorize arrhythmias based on where they originate in your heart.
1. Supraventricular arrhythmias: These arrhythmias begin in your atria, your heart’s upper chambers. The term “supraventricular” refers to the area above your ventricles, or bottom chambers of your heart.
2. Ventricular arrhythmias: These arrhythmias start in your heart’s ventricles or lower chambers.
3. Bradyarrhythmias and junctional rhythms: These arrhythmias can arise as a result of problems with your heart’s conduction system, such as:
· sinoatrial (SA) node
· atrioventricular (AV) node
· His-Purkinje network
The following test can be done to diagnose this condition:
· Electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG)
· Holter Monitor
· Event Recorder
· Stress Test
Treatment options may include:
1. Lifestyle Changes: Adopting a heart-healthy lifestyle through:
· regular exercise
· a balanced diet
· stress management
2. Medications: Many drugs are available to treat arrhythmias. Because everyone is different, you may need to test many drugs and doses to discover the one that works best for you. Heart arrhythmia therapies include:
· Antiarrhythmic medications either convert or prevent an arrhythmia.
· Medicines that regulate your heart rate.
· Anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy medicines (such as warfarin or aspirin). These medicines help minimize the risk of blood clot formation.
· Medications are used to address disorders that may be producing an irregular cardiac rhythm.
Other tests may include:
· Catheter Ablation
· Implantable Devices
· Atrial Fibrillation Ablation:
1. Regular Medical Check-ups: Scheduled visits to healthcare providers for monitoring and management are essential.
2. Medication Adherence: Following prescribed medications as directed is crucial for controlling arrhythmias.
3. Avoiding Stimulants: Limiting or avoiding caffeine and other stimulants can help prevent arrhythmia triggers.
4. Managing Stress: Adopting stress-reducing techniques like yoga or meditation can promote heart health.
5. Avoiding Smoking and Alcohol: Eliminating or reducing smoking and alcohol consumption is beneficial for heart health.
Arrhythmia may pose challenges. However, with proactive measures and proper medical support, you can conquer this condition and embrace a life of heart health and vitality.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a prevalent respiratory condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It is a chronic, progressive lung disease characterized by airflow obstruction. This makes it difficult for individuals with this condition to breathe freely.
Despite its impact on respiratory health, understanding COPD, recognizing its symptoms, obtaining a timely diagnosis, and exploring treatment options can significantly improve the quality of life for those living with this condition.
1. Smoking: The most significant risk factor for developing this condition is cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoke damages the lungs’ airways and air sacs. This leads to chronic inflammation and irreversible airflow limitation.
2. Environmental Exposure: Long-term exposure to harmful airborne particles and gases, such as air pollution, workplace dust, and chemicals, can contribute to COPD development.
3. Genetic Predisposition: In some cases, genetic factors can play a role in increasing an individual’s susceptibility to COPD.
4. Respiratory Infections: Frequent respiratory infections, particularly during childhood, may have long-term effects on lung function and contribute to COPD later in life.
Symptoms often develop gradually and worsen over time. Common signs include:
· persistent cough, with or without mucus production
· shortness of breath, especially during physical activity
· chest tightness
· frequent respiratory infections
Individuals with COPD may also experience:
· weight loss
· limited ability to engage in everyday activities
Early recognition of these symptoms is crucial for timely diagnosis and effective management.
Diagnosing this condition involves a combination of the following:
· medical history review
· physical examination
· lung function tests
· imaging studies
The most commonly used lung function test is spirometry. Spirometry measures the amount of air you can inhale and exhale. Other tests that help assess the condition of the lungs include:
· chest X-rays
· computed tomography (CT) scans
A thorough evaluation by a healthcare professional is essential for accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment planning.
Although COPD is a chronic condition without a cure, various treatment options are available to:
· manage symptoms
· slow disease progression
· improve quality of life
The primary goals of COPD treatment are to:
· alleviate symptoms
· increase exercise tolerance
· prevent exacerbations
· improve overall lung function
Treatment approaches may include:
1. Lifestyle Modifications: Avoid smoking and exposure to environmental triggers. Maintain a healthy weight, stay physically active, and practice good respiratory hygiene.
2. Medications: Bronchodilators can help relax the airway muscles and improve breathing. This includes:
· short-acting inhalers
· long-acting inhalers
Inhaled corticosteroids may be prescribed for individuals with more severe symptoms or frequent exacerbations.
3. Pulmonary Rehabilitation: A program that combines exercise training, education, and support to boost physical and emotional well-being comprehensively.
4. Oxygen Therapy: Doctors may prescribe supplemental oxygen for those with low blood oxygen levels. Oxygen therapy improves breathing and reduces fatigue.
5. Surgical Interventions: In severe cases, doctors may consider surgical treatments like:
· lung volume reduction surgery
· lung transplantation
1. Stay Active: Engaging in regular physical activity, as tolerated, can improve lung function and overall well-being.
2. Breathing Techniques: Learning proper breathing techniques can help patients with this condition manage breathlessness and anxiety.
3. Avoiding Triggers: Minimizing exposure to air pollutants, allergens, and respiratory infections is essential in managing the symptoms.
4. Healthy Diet: Adopting a balanced diet with plenty of fruits, vegetables, and lean proteins can support respiratory health.
5. Medication Adherence: Following the prescribed medication regimen is vital for controlling symptoms and preventing exacerbations.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) significantly affects health and well-being. But with proper understanding of its causes, recognition of symptoms, timely diagnosis, and appropriate treatment, individuals can effectively manage this condition and improve their quality of life.
In managing COPD, several crucial approaches come into play, from lifestyle modifications to medications. By embracing these strategies and receiving the necessary care and support, individuals with COPD can lead fulfilling lives and breathe easier.
Bronchitis is a common respiratory condition. It is characterized by inflammation of the bronchial tubes, which carry air to and from the lungs. It can cause coughing, chest discomfort, and breathing difficulties.
Bronchitis is primarily caused by viral or bacterial infections. The most common viruses responsible includes:
· influenza virus
· respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
Bacterial infections, such as those caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae or Bordetella pertussis, can also lead to this respiratory condition.
Other factors that may contribute to the development include:
1. Smoking: Cigarette smoking is a significant risk factor for both acute and chronic bronchitis. The chemicals in tobacco smoke irritate the airways. This makes those with respiratory problems more susceptible to infection and inflammation.
2. Environmental Factors: Exposure to air pollution, dust, fumes, or other respiratory irritants can increase the risk of developing bronchitis.
3. Weakened Immune System: Individuals with a weakened immune system are more susceptible to respiratory infections. This includes those with:
· undergoing chemotherapy
Symptoms can vary depending on whether it is acute or chronic.
· Acute bronchitis typically lasts for a few weeks. It’s often associated with a respiratory infection.
· Chronic bronchitis is a long-term condition. It may last for several months or more. It’s often a result of smoking or ongoing exposure to respiratory irritants.
Common symptoms may include:
· Chest discomfort
· Persistent cough
· Shortness of breath
· Mild Fever and body aches
Bronchitis diagnosis may include:
1. Medical History: Your doctor will inquire about your:
· medical history
· smoking habits
· any recent respiratory infections
2. Physical Examination: Your doctor will check for abnormal breathing sounds and evaluate other signs of inflammation or infection.
3. Pulmonary Function Tests: These tests will measure your lung function to determine the severity of your condition. They may include:
· Spirometry assesses how much air you can exhale forcefully
· peak flow measurements
4. Chest X-ray or CT Scan: Imaging tests may be ordered to rule out other respiratory conditions. It’s also done to evaluate the extent of lung involvement.
The treatment aims to:
· relieve symptoms
· manage complications
· promote recovery
Depending on the severity and underlying cause, treatment options may include:
1. Rest and Fluids: Adequate rest and hydration are essential for supporting your body’s healing process.
2. OTC Medications: Non-prescription pain relievers like ibuprofen or acetaminophen help ease discomfort and reduce fever.
3. Cough Suppressants and Expectorants: These medications can help relieve coughing. It also promotes the clearance of mucus from the airways.
4. Bronchodilators: Inhaled bronchodilators like Albuterol help relax the bronchial muscles. It also helps improve airflow.
5. Antibiotics: If a bacterial infection is suspected, antibiotics may be prescribed. However, they are not typically prescribed for viral bronchitis.
6. Smoking Cessation: If you smoke, quitting is crucial for managing bronchitis effectively. It also prevents further lung damage.
It may not always be possible to prevent this condition. However, there are measures you can take to reduce the risk:
· Quit Smoking
· Avoid Respiratory Irritants
· Practice Good Hygiene
Bronchitis is a respiratory condition characterized by inflammation of the bronchial tubes. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential for managing the symptoms and promoting recovery.
If you suspect bronchitis, seek medical attention as soon as possible. By understanding the causes, recognizing the symptoms, and adopting preventive measures, you can reduce the risk of this condition and maintain optimal respiratory health.
Otitis media with effusion (OME) commonly known as “glue ear,” is a prevalent condition that affects both children and adults. It occurs when fluid accumulates in the middle ear. This can lead to discomfort, hearing difficulties, and other complications.
Otitis media with effusion occurs when the Eustachian tube becomes blocked or fails to function correctly. This blockage prevents proper drainage of fluid from the middle ear, resulting in its accumulation.
Several factors can contribute to this condition, which include:
1. Inflammation of the Eustachian tube due to:
· respiratory infections
· common cold
The resulting swelling and congestion hinder fluid drainage, leading to effusion.
2. Certain anatomical abnormalities can increase the risk of otitis media with effusion. These include:
· cleft palate
· malfunctioning Eustachian tube
3. Exposure to tobacco smoke, air pollution, or other environmental irritants can irritate the tube, impairing its proper functioning.
Symptoms can vary depending on the severity and duration of the condition. Common signs to watch out for include:
1. Mild to Moderate Hearing Loss: The accumulated fluid in the middle ear can interfere with sound transmission. This can lead to temporary hearing impairment.
2. Sensation of Fullness: Those with otitis media with effusion often experience a sensation of fullness or pressure in the affected ear.
3. Ear Discomfort: Some may experience mild pain or discomfort in the affected ear.
4. Impaired Balance: In some cases, it can disrupt the balance system. This causes dizziness or unsteadiness.
5. Speech and Language Delays: Children with long-standing otitis media with effusion may experience delays in speech and language development.
It’s crucial to seek medical attention for an accurate diagnosis and thorough evaluation, which may include the following:
1. Getting your medical history.
2. Examining the external ear and eardrum for signs of inflammation, fluid, or other abnormalities.
3. Measuring the movement of the eardrum in response to changes in air pressure.
The treatment approach for otitis media with effusion depends on:
· severity of symptoms
· individual circumstances
Options may include:
1. Watchful Waiting: In many cases, especially for mild symptoms, the condition may resolve on its own without intervention. Regular monitoring is essential to ensure the fluid drains naturally and hearing improves.
2. Medications: Your doctor may prescribe nasal sprays or decongestants to alleviate congestion and promote Eustachian tube function.
3. Surgical Intervention: If symptoms persist or cause significant hearing loss, a surgical procedure called a myringotomy may be recommended.
4. Pressure Equalization Tubes: In conjunction with myringotomy, pressure equalization tubes (tympanostomy tubes) may be inserted into the eardrums. Doing this helps maintain proper airflow and prevent further fluid accumulation.
While this condition may not always be preventable, there are steps you can take to reduce the risk:
1. Avoid Secondhand Smoke: Exposure to tobacco smoke increases the likelihood of developing ear infections and OME.
2. Practice Good Hygiene: Regularly washing hands and avoiding close contact with individuals who have respiratory infections can help minimize the risk of developing middle ear problems.
3. Manage Allergies: If you have allergies, effectively managing them can reduce inflammation. It also reduces the associated risk of otitis media with effusion.
OME can cause discomfort, hearing difficulties, and other complications. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential for managing this condition effectively.
If you have OME, talk to your doctor. By understanding the causes, recognizing the symptoms, and following preventive measures, you can improve your chances of maintaining ear health and overall well-being.
Otitis media is a common middle ear infection that affects both children and adults. It is characterized by inflammation and buildup of fluid behind the eardrum, which can cause pain, discomfort, and potential complications.
A bacterial or viral infection is the most common cause of otitis media. The collection of fluid in the middle ear can occur when the Eustachian tube, which connects the middle ear to the back of the throat, becomes obstructed. This fluid creates an environment where bacteria or viruses can thrive, causing an infection.
Factors that can contribute to the development of otitis media include:
· respiratory infections
· sinus infections
· exposure to secondhand smoke
· anatomical abnormalities of the Eustachian tube
Symptoms can vary depending on the severity of the infection. Common symptoms include:
· hearing loss or muffled hearing
· ear pain or discomfort
· a feeling of fullness or pressure in the ear
· drainage of fluid from the ear
· difficulty sleeping
In some cases, it may also cause dizziness or balance problems.
To diagnose otitis media, a healthcare professional will typically perform a thorough examination of the ear using an otoscope. This allows them to visualize the eardrum and look for signs of infection, such as:
· fluid behind the eardrum
In some cases, additional tests may be ordered, such as:
· tympanometry to measure the movement of the eardrum in response to changes in air pressure
· a hearing test to assess any hearing loss
Treatment depends on several factors, including:
· the age of the patient
· the severity of symptoms
· whether the infection is caused by bacteria or a virus
In many cases, it resolves on its own without the need for intervention. However, if symptoms are severe or persistent, or if the infection is bacterial, treatment options may include:
1. Pain relievers: OTC pain relievers, such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen, can help alleviate ear pain and reduce fever.
2. Antibiotics: If the infection is bacterial or if the symptoms are severe, your doctor may prescribe a course of antibiotics. It is important to complete the full course of antibiotics as prescribed by the healthcare professional.
3. Ear drops: In some cases, antibiotic ear drops may be recommended to treat the infection directly and provide relief from symptoms.
It is crucial to follow the healthcare professional’s advice and complete the prescribed treatment to ensure the infection is fully resolved and to minimize the risk of complications.
While it may not be possible to prevent all cases of this condition, some measures can help reduce the risk of infection and its recurrence. These include:
1. Vaccinations: Staying up to date with recommended vaccinations, such as the pneumococcal and influenza vaccines, can help prevent certain infections that can lead to otitis media.
2. Avoiding secondhand smoke: Exposure to secondhand smoke can increase the risk of developing otitis media. It is important to keep the environment smoke-free, especially around children.
3. Good hygiene practices: Regularly washing hands and avoiding close contact with individuals who have respiratory infections can help reduce the spread of viruses and bacteria that can cause otitis media.
Otitis media is a common middle ear infection that can cause pain, discomfort, and potential complications. Understanding the causes, recognizing the symptoms, and seeking timely medical attention is essential for proper diagnosis and treatment. By following preventive measures and adhering to treatment recommendations, individuals can minimize the impact of otitis media and promote ear health.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It is a complex disorder that can have a significant impact on an individual’s quality of life.
The exact cause of this condition is still unknown. However, it is widely believed to be an autoimmune disorder. It happens when the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks the protective covering of nerve fibers in the central nervous system.
The protective covering, called myelin, is essential for the efficient transmission of nerve signals. Over time, repeated attacks on myelin result in inflammation and damage to the nerve fibers. This leads to the symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis.
The symptoms can vary widely from person to person. Some common symptoms include:
· difficulty walking
· muscle weakness or spasms
· numbness or tingling sensations
· problems with coordination and balance
· blurred or double vision
· cognitive difficulties
· slurred speech
These symptoms can range from mild to severe and may come and go or progress steadily over time.
Diagnosing this condition can be challenging, as there is no single test that can definitively confirm the condition. Instead, healthcare professionals rely on a combination of:
· medical history
· physical examinations
· various diagnostic tests
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often used to detect the presence of characteristic brain lesions or plaques, which are indicative of multiple sclerosis. Other tests, such as a lumbar puncture or spinal tap, may be performed to analyze the cerebrospinal fluid for abnormalities.
While there is currently no cure for multiple sclerosis, there are several treatment options available:
· manage the symptoms
· slow down the progression of the disease
· improve the quality of life for individuals with MS
The choice of treatment depends on various factors, including:
· the type and severity of symptoms
· the stage of the disease
· the individual’s overall health
One commonly prescribed treatment for this condition is disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). These medications work by modulating the immune system and reducing the frequency and severity of relapses. DMTs can help slow down the progression of the disease and decrease the accumulation of new brain lesions.
In addition to DMTs, various symptomatic treatments are available to alleviate specific symptoms of multiple sclerosis such as:
· Physical therapy and exercise to improve mobility and strength.
· Medications to help manage muscle spasms, pain, and fatigue.
· Occupational therapy assists individuals in adapting their daily activities to their changing abilities.
It is important to note that treatment plans for multiple sclerosis are highly individualized, and what works for one person may not work for another.
Regular follow-ups with healthcare professionals are crucial to monitor the disease’s progression, assess the effectiveness of treatment, and make any necessary adjustments.
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic condition that requires long-term management. Coping with physical, emotional, and cognitive challenges can be overwhelming at times. Building a support network of family, friends, and healthcare professionals can provide invaluable assistance and understanding.
Additionally, adopting a healthy lifestyle can have a positive impact on managing multiple sclerosis. Eating a balanced diet, getting regular exercise, managing stress, and getting enough rest can help individuals with MS maintain their overall well-being.
Multiple sclerosis is a complex neurological condition with no known cure. However, with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, it is possible to manage the symptoms, slow down the disease’s progression, and improve the quality of life for individuals with MS.
If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis, it is important to seek medical attention promptly. Remember, a comprehensive treatment plan and a supportive environment can make a significant difference in the lives of those affected by this condition.
Endometriosis is a chronic and often debilitating condition that affects millions of women worldwide. It occurs when the tissue that normally lines the uterus, known as the endometrium, grows outside the uterus.
Endometriosis is a complex condition, and the exact cause remains unknown. However, several factors have been linked to its development:
Endometriosis can manifest differently in each individual. Some common symptoms include:
Pelvic Pain: Persistent, chronic pelvic pain is the most common symptom of this condition. The pain may worsen during:
Heavy and Painful Periods: Women with this condition often experience unusually heavy and painful periods. This can lead to fatigue, anemia, and a decreased quality of life.
Infertility: Endometriosis can affect fertility by:
· causing scar tissue
· blocking the fallopian tubes
Many women with this condition struggle with conceiving.
Some may also experience the following symptoms:
Diagnosing this condition can be challenging as its symptoms overlap with other conditions. However, the following diagnostic methods are commonly used:
Medical History and Symptom Assessment- The doctor will evaluate the patient’s medical history and ask about their symptoms, paying particular attention to:
· pelvic pain
· menstrual irregularities
Pelvic Exam– During a pelvic exam, the doctor can manually detect the presence of abnormal growths, cysts, or scars in the pelvic region.
Imaging Studies- Ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can help visualize the pelvic organs. These can also help detect any abnormalities that may indicate endometriosis.
Laparoscopy- This minimally invasive surgical procedure allows for direct visualization of the pelvic organs. The doctor can take tissue samples for biopsy and remove any endometrial growths found.
There is no known cure for this condition. However, there are various treatment options available to manage symptoms and improve quality of life:
Endometriosis poses significant physical, emotional, and social challenges for women. Understanding its causes, recognizing the symptoms, obtaining an accurate diagnosis, and exploring available treatment options are vital steps in managing this chronic disease. By raising awareness and supporting ongoing research, we can strive to improve the lives of millions of women living with endometriosis.
Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory condition that primarily affects the gastrointestinal tract. It is characterized by periods of flare-ups and remission. This causes a range of distressing symptoms for individuals diagnosed with this condition. Understanding the causes, recognizing the symptoms, and exploring the available treatment options are crucial for managing Crohn’s disease effectively.
The cause of Crohn’s disease is uncertain. One possible culprit, according to researchers, is an immunological response. An autoimmune reaction occurs when your immune system targets healthy cells in your body. Crohn’s disease can run in families, thus genetics may potentially play a role.
Stress and particular foods do not cause the disease, but they can aggravate your symptoms.
Several factors can increase the risk of developing Crohn’s disease. These include:
1. Family History- Having a close relative, such as a parent, child, or sibling, with Crohn’s disease significantly raises the risk of developing the condition.
2. Smoking– Individuals who smoke are at a higher risk of developing Crohn’s disease, with studies suggesting that smoking may double the risk.
3. Certain Medications- The use of certain medications like antibiotics, birth control pills, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin or ibuprofen may slightly increase the chances of developing Crohn’s disease.
4. High-Fat Diet- Consumption of a high-fat diet has been associated with a slight increase in the risk of Crohn’s disease.
It is important to note that while these factors may increase the likelihood of developing Crohn’s disease, they do not guarantee its occurrence. Many individuals without these risk factors can still develop the condition, while others with multiple risk factors may never develop it.
Crohn’s disease symptoms vary depending on where and how severe your inflammation is. The following are the most prevalent symptoms:
• Abdominal pain and cramping
• Diarrhea (often bloody)
• Fatigue and weakness
• Unintended weight loss
• Loss of appetite
Other symptoms may include:
• Rectal bleeding
• Joint pain and swelling
• Skin rashes
• Eye inflammation
Diagnosis may include:
• Thorough Medical History: A healthcare professional will start by taking a detailed medical history, including family history, to assess potential risk factors and symptoms.
• Physical Examination: A physical examination may reveal signs of inflammation, such as abdominal tenderness or palpable masses.
• Endoscopic Procedures: Endoscopy and colonoscopy with biopsy are commonly employed to directly visualize the affected areas and collect tissue samples for further analysis.
• Imaging Studies: X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans can provide valuable insights into the extent and severity of the inflammation.
Treatment Options may include:
Crohn’s disease, unfortunately, does not have a cure. However, healthcare providers offer treatments to:
• reduce intestinal inflammation
• alleviate symptoms
• mitigate complications
These treatments encompass the use of medications, bowel rest, and surgical interventions. It’s important to note that what works best for one person may not be effective for another. Collaborating with your healthcare provider allows for a personalized approach to determine the most suitable treatment option for you.
Laryngitis is a condition that affects the voice box, causing inflammation and hoarseness of the voice. Vocal cord swelling muffles sound and creates hoarseness. When you try to talk, all you get is a squeak or a whisper.
Laryngitis is often caused by an infection or overuse of the vocal cords. The most common cause is a viral infection, such as a common cold or flu, which leads to swelling and irritation of the voice box. Bacterial infections can also cause laryngitis, although they are less common.
Additionally, excessive strain on the vocal cords due to shouting, yelling, or speaking loudly for extended periods can contribute to laryngitis. Other factors include:
· acid reflux
· exposure to irritants like dust or chemicals
The most common symptom of laryngitis is a hoarse or raspy voice. You may notice that your voice sounds weak, scratchy, or strained.
In some cases, individuals may experience a complete loss of voice. Other symptoms of laryngitis can include:
· throat discomfort or pain
· dry cough
· throat clearing
· a feeling of a lump in the throat
Laryngitis can be acute, lasting for a short period, or chronic, lasting for weeks or even months.
Diagnosing laryngitis involves a clinical assessment based on specific symptoms that persist for approximately 7-10, including loss of voice or a change in voice.
If you experience laryngitis symptoms, it is essential to contact your healthcare provider for personalized management strategies. In some cases, an in-office examination of your vocal folds may be necessary to evaluate laryngitis further.
The treatment of laryngitis aims to reduce inflammation, relieve symptoms, and promote vocal cord healing. Here are some common treatment options and self-care measures:
1. Voice Rest: Resting the voice is crucial for healing the vocal cords. Avoid speaking or whispering unnecessarily. Try to limit conversations in noisy environments. Communication can be facilitated through non-verbal methods or by using a soft, gentle voice when necessary.
2. Hydration: Staying well-hydrated helps keep the vocal cords lubricated and supports the healing process. Drink plenty of fluids, preferably water. Avoid substances that can dehydrate the body, such as caffeine and alcohol.
3. Humidification: Dry air can further irritate the vocal cords. Use a humidifier or inhale steam from a bowl of hot water to add moisture to the air. This can help alleviate throat dryness and promote healing.
4. Avoid Triggers: Identify and avoid factors that contribute to laryngitis or worsen symptoms. This may include reducing exposure to irritants like smoke, dust, or chemicals. Managing underlying conditions like acid reflux or allergies can also help prevent recurrent episodes of laryngitis.
5. Over-the-Counter Remedies: OTC throat lozenges or sprays can provide temporary relief from symptoms. It’s important to follow the instructions and consult a healthcare professional if symptoms persist or worsen.
6. Professional Voice Therapy: In chronic cases, voice therapy with a speech-language pathologist may be recommended. This therapy focuses on improving the vocal cord functions and preventing future vocal problems.
In most cases, laryngitis resolves on its own with voice rest and self-care measures. However, it’s important to consult a healthcare professional if:
· Symptoms persist for more than two weeks.
· Severe throat pain or difficulty is breathing.
· Laryngitis is accompanied by high fever or worsening symptoms.
· Laryngitis occurs frequently or interferes with daily activities.
A healthcare professional can assess your condition, determine the underlying cause, and recommend appropriate treatment options.
Tonsillitis is an inflammation of the tonsils, which are located at the back of your throat. When you have tonsillitis, your tonsils become red, and swollen. It may develop white or yellow patches or spots. This condition can lead to a sore throat, difficulty swallowing, and discomfort.
Tonsillitis is primarily caused by viral or bacterial infections. Viral infections are the most common culprits. They are often associated with the same viruses that cause the common cold. Bacterial infections, on the other hand, are frequently caused by group A streptococcus bacteria. Here are some of the bacteria and viruses that can cause tonsillitis:
Tonsillitis can be contagious. It can spread through droplets from coughing or sneezing, as well as by touching contaminated surfaces.
Tonsillitis often presents with several noticeable symptoms. The most common sign is a sore throat. A sore throat can range from mild to severe, making swallowing painful and uncomfortable.
You may also observe red and swollen tonsils at the back of your throat. In some cases, white or yellow patches or spots may appear on the tonsils.
Additionally, individuals with tonsillitis may experience symptoms such as:
· swollen lymph nodes in the neck
The treatment approach depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Here are some common treatment options and self-care measures:
1. Rest and Hydration: Getting ample rest is crucial for your body to recover from any infection, including tonsillitis. It is essential to drink plenty of warm fluids, such as herbal tea, soup, or warm water with honey. These fluids can help soothe your throat and keep you hydrated.
2. Pain Relief: OTC pain relievers like acetaminophen or ibuprofen can provide relief from throat pain and reduce fever.
3. Gargling: Saltwater gargles can temporarily alleviate throat inflammation and provide relief. Mix half a teaspoon of salt in warm water and gargle several times a day.
4. Antibiotics: If the cause is bacterial, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics to treat the infection. It is crucial to complete the full course of antibiotics. That means even if you start feeling better before finishing the medication.
5. Surgical Intervention: In cases of recurrent or chronic tonsillitis, a tonsillectomy (surgical removal of the tonsils) may be recommended. This procedure is usually reserved for severe cases or if complications like obstructive sleep apnea occur.
While recovering from this infection, taking care of yourself is essential. Here are some additional self-care tips to consider:
If you or your child experience persistent or recurrent tonsillitis, it is crucial to consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. They can assess your symptoms, perform a physical examination, and recommend the most suitable course of action based on your specific situation.
Psoriasis, an autoimmune ailment, is a chronic skin condition. It’s characterized by the rapid buildup of skin cells, leading to the development of thick, red, elevated patches covered with silvery scales. The patches frequently grow into silvery scales on the scalp, elbows, knees, and lower back.
The exact cause of psoriasis is unknown, but it is believed to result from an overactive immune system. It involves rapid skin cell growth and shedding. This accelerated cell multiplication leads to skin shedding every few days. Trigger factors that may contribute to the development include:
· Injury to the skin
· certain medications
· Cold or dry weather
Psoriasis is hereditary but not contagious. It tends to recur and can vary in severity.
The following are the most prevalent psoriasis symptoms. Psoriasis appears in a variety of shapes and severity levels. Symptoms could include:
Red, raised patches of skin: Psoriasis typically presents as red, inflamed patches of skin, covered with silver or white scales. These patches can appear anywhere on the body, including the scalp, elbows, knees, and lower back.
Itching and discomfort: The affected areas may feel itchy, tender, or even painful, causing discomfort and irritation.
Psoriasis can also affect the nails, causing pitting, thickening, discoloration, and crumbling.
There is no cure for psoriasis. However, there are several treatment approaches to help manage symptoms. These treatment approaches also help improve the quality of life for those with the condition. These include:
1. Topical Treatments
· Corticosteroids: It’s available in different strengths and forms. They can come as creams, ointments, or lotions, and can effectively reduce redness and itching.
· Vitamin D analogs: Topical creams containing vitamin D derivatives can help regulate skin cell growth and reduce inflammation.
· Retinoids: Derived from vitamin A, retinoids can slow down skin cell growth and alleviate symptoms.
· Ultraviolet (UV) light therapy: Controlled exposure to UVB or UVA light can help suppress the immune system. It can also slow down skin cell production.
· Excimer laser: This targeted laser therapy delivers a focused beam of UVB light to affected areas, offering quick relief.
3. Systemic Medications:
· Oral or injectable medications: For moderate to severe cases, systemic medications such as methotrexate, cyclosporine, or biologics may be prescribed to suppress the immune response and reduce inflammation.
4. Lifestyle and Self-care:
· Moisturizers: Regularly applying moisturizers can help alleviate dryness and reduce scaling.
· Avoiding triggers: Identifying and avoiding triggers that worsen symptoms can help manage flare-ups.
· Stress management: Engaging in stress-reducing activities can help minimize the impact of stress on psoriasis symptoms. Activities include exercise, meditation, or hobbies
· Healthy lifestyle habits: Maintaining a healthy lifestyle habit can reduce psoriasis symptoms. This includes:
o a balanced diet
o exercising regularly
o getting enough sleep
o avoiding smoking
o avoiding excessive alcohol consumption
Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a genetic blood disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. It is a condition characterized by the presence of abnormally shaped red blood cells. The red blood cells resemble a sickle or crescent moon and can cause a range of health challenges.
A mutation in the gene responsible for hemoglobin production causes sickle cell disease. The mutation causes hemoglobin S, an aberrant hemoglobin, to be produced.
This causes the red blood cells to become stiff and sickle-shaped. It can get stuck in blood vessels, impeding blood flow and oxygen delivery to tissues and organs.
Sickle cell disease is a hereditary condition caused by a genetic defect.
1. Inherited Gene Defect: It is passed down from parents to their children through genes. Specifically, a person will have sickle cell disease if they inherit two defective genes, one from each parent.
2. Carriers of the Disease: Those who inherit only one sickle cell gene are carriers of the disease. They do not have sickle cell disease themselves. However, they have an increased chance of passing the gene to their children if they have a child with another carrier.
3. Genetic Inheritance: When both parents are carriers of the sickle cell gene, there is a 1 in 4, or 25%, chance that their child will have sickle cell disease. This means that each pregnancy has a 25% probability of resulting in a child with the disease.
1. Pain Crises: The sickle-shaped cells can cause blockages in blood vessels. This leads to episodes of intense pain called vaso-occlusive crises. These crises can occur anywhere in the body. It also varies in frequency and severity among individuals.
2. Anemia: Sickle cells have a shorter lifespan than normal red blood cells, leading to chronic anemia. This can cause fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
3. Organ Damage: Repeated blockages and reduced oxygen supply can damage organs. This can lead to long-term complications.
4. Increased Infection Risk: The spleen, responsible for fighting infections, may be damaged in sickle cell disease. This increases the susceptibility to infections, particularly in children.
5. Delayed Growth and Development: Children with sickle cell disease may experience delayed growth and puberty. It’s due to the effects of chronic anemia and organ damage.
6. Mental Health Challenges: Living with a chronic illness can take a toll on mental health. Those with sickle cell disease may face depression, anxiety, and emotional distress.
7. Jaundice: Jaundice is a common symptom of sickle cell illness. Because sickle cells do not live as long as regular red blood cells, they die faster than the liver can filter them out. Bilirubin (the yellow pigment) from these broken-down cells accumulates in the system, causing jaundice.
Diagnosing sickle cell disease involves various tests and assessments, including:
One common blood test used for diagnosis is called hemoglobin electrophoresis. It can determine if an individual is a carrier of the sickle cell gene or has any of the diseases linked to the sickle cell gene.
The treatment approach for sickle cell disease is tailored to each individual, taking into account factors like:
· overall health
· specific circumstances.
The goals of treatment are to:
· prevent complications
· manage symptoms
· enhance overall well-being.
Some common treatment options include:
Transfusions are utilized in various situations, including:
A venous ulcer is a wound that takes longer than usual to heal. It is due to vein and blood flow issues and often occurs on your legs near your ankle. This condition can sometimes lead to severe problems if left untreated. However, there are also several ways to prevent them from happening.
Worsening symptoms include:
Call your doctor if you experience:
Your veins contain tiny valves that keep blood circulating throughout your body. These valves snap open and shut to move blood against the force of gravity back to your heart. In some people, venous diseases affect valve functioning. Other medical conditions, like diabetes, can also put you at risk for leg and foot ulcers.
The veins in the leg, which should send blood back to the heart, might not be doing their job all that well. That is often because the valves that stop the flow of blood back into the veins are not. The backflow of blood means increased pressure at the end of the limb. Over time, it can weaken the skin and make it harder for a cut or scrape to heal.
Other causes are:
If left untreated, this condition may cause the following complications:
Venous ulcers don’t heal on their own. The longer you live with them, the greater the likelihood of permanent tissue damage. The damage can spread or cause infections that can become life- or limb-threatening. To prevent this condition, you can:
Venous ulcers that are severe or not responding to standard therapies may require additional treatments such as:
Fungal nail infection is one of the most common infections of the nail. It begins as a yellow-brown or white spot that appears under the tip of your nail. As time passes, the nail might change color, thicken, and then break near the edge. Nail fungus can affect several nails. Fungi may be found in soil, air, plants, and our bodies. Fungi can be beneficial or harmful, like other microbes.
See your doctor if you experience:
A serious nail fungus condition could be painful and result in permanent nail damage. Factors that could increase the risk of developing nail fungus are:
The cause of the infection is different organisms. The most prevalent is known as Dermatophyte. Bacteria, yeast, and mold can also result in nail infection. The discoloration caused by an infection caused by bacteria tends to be black or green. It may be spread to the nail, and fungal infections of the nail may spread to the feet. It is also possible to get the infection by touching areas where fungi thrive, such as the floor tiles in a gym shower or inside sweaty, dark, and moist shoes.
Terbinafine tablet. This tablet treats fungal diseases of nails and fingernails. Terbinafine is part of a group of drugs known as antifungals. It stops the growth of the fungi.
Insulin resistance is when cells in your muscles, fat, and liver don’t respond well to insulin and can’t use glucose from your blood for energy. It may also include conditions like obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and type 2 diabetes. Insulin is a hormone released by the pancreas that tells your cells to open up to that sugar and convert it into energy.
When you eat food, your body converts that food into dietary sugars. The cells do not react with resistance, resulting in excessive sugar in the blood. Over time, the pancreas keeps trying to regulate the blood sugar, producing more and more insulin until it wears out and may not produce large amounts of insulin anymore. As a result, blood sugar levels increase to the point of being in the diabetic range.
Anyone can develop insulin resistance temporarily or chronically. Over time, chronic insulin resistance can lead to pre-diabetes and then Type 2 diabetes if it’s not treated or can be treated. You are at risk if:
The best way to measure the prevalence of insulin resistance is through the number of prediabetes cases. More than 84 million adults in the United States have prediabetes. That’s about 1 out of every 3 adults.
This condition may progress to type 2 diabetes if you do not change how you eat and exercise. Your blood sugar levels will rise until you have prediabetes. It causes your pancreas to use extra insulin to make up for it. It will work for a while, and your blood sugar levels will stay normal.
Doctors usually request more than one of these tests to ensure an accurate diagnosis. Several tests can help diagnose prediabetes and diabetes:
Pioglitazone. It enhances the transcription of insulin-responsive genes and improves the entry of glucose into muscles and fats. It can also be used as monotherapy along with diet and exercise in mild cases and to supplement insulin in advanced cases.
An esophageal ulcer is a type of peptic ulcer that develops in the lining of the esophagus. It occurs when the layer of mucus, which lines and protects the gastrointestinal tract, wears away. The condition results from an infection with a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori. It can also be caused by destruction from stomach acid moving up into the esophagus.
Most of the time, this problem can be caused by a bacterium called H. Pylori. The bacterium damages the mucosal lining of the esophagus. It makes the esophagus vulnerable to damage caused by stomach acid.
A chronic condition called GERD can cause an ulcer in the esophageal tract. People suffering from GERD suffer from frequent acid reflux. Patients who suffer from GERD suffer from acid reflux at least every two weeks.
Acid reflux happens in the stomach when contents travel backward towards the stomach and into the esophagus. It can occur when the lower esophageal sphinx is damaged or weak, so it can’t close properly.
Alcohol consumption, smoking, and the frequent consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications may also cause damage to the mucosal linings of the esophagus. It can lead to an ulcer. Genetics also plays a part.
Several pills could cause ulcers and irritation of the esophagus if not taken with enough water or lying down right after taking. If you take any type of pill, you must swallow it with plenty of water.
For those with compromised immune systems, the problem could be caused by other fungal, bacterial, or viral infections, such as:
The treatment for ulcers of the esophageal tract is dependent on the reason. Most ulcers are treated with proton pump inhibitors, an acid-blocking drug. If you’ve been diagnosed with esophageal ossification on endoscopy, ongoing treatment using PPI medication could be necessary.
If an ulcer has begun to bleed, a doctor may treat the bleeding through an endoscopy. It can be done by injecting the region with medication or heating the site to stop bleeding. They may also advise avoiding NSAIDs, particularly when those drugs cause the ulcer. When the ulcer appears to be related to an infection, doctors may also recommend medication.
If you’ve had the typical signs of esophagitis due to a pill following a prescription and are unsure what to do, it’s unlikely to need an endoscopy. In these cases, if there’s a strong connection, the injury usually requires the time needed to recover.
To prevent the condition from coming or worsening, it would be helpful if you will incorporate a diet. During a treatment plan, your doctor might suggest dietary adjustments. Contrary to what many believe, having a bland food plan or avoiding all spices is unnecessary. Instead, you should eat a balanced diet of fruits, fiber, and vegetables.
Also, avoid anything that can make the symptoms worse. The symptoms are aggravated by food items that relax the esophageal muscle. Keep a food journal to keep track of the foods that cause your symptoms. It can aid in eliminating problematic foods.
Diabetic nephropathy affects the kidneys’ ability to do their usual work of removing waste products and extra fluid from your body. The best way to prevent or delay diabetic nephropathy is by maintaining a healthy lifestyle and adequately managing your diabetes and high blood pressure. Over many years, the condition slowly damages your kidneys’ delicate filtering system. Early treatment may prevent or slow the disease’s progress and reduce the chance of complications.
Diabetic nephropathy is a serious complication of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. It’s also called diabetic kidney disease. In the United States, about 1 in 3 people with diabetes have diabetic nephropathy. There are five stages of diabetic nephropathy. The fifth stage is ESRD. Progress from one stage to the next can take many years.
In the early stages of diabetic nephropathy, you would likely not notice any signs or symptoms. In later stages, signs and symptoms may include:
Make an appointment with your doctor if you have any signs or symptoms of kidney disease. If you are living with diabetes, visit your doctor yearly or as recommended for kidney function tests.
If you’re living with diabetes, factors that can increase your risk of diabetic nephropathy include:
The stages of any kidney disease, including diabetes-related nephropathy, include:
Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a complication of diabetes that is believed to contribute most directly to diabetic nephropathy. Hypertension is believed to be a cause of diabetic nephropathy and a result of the damage created by the disease. As kidney disease progresses, physical changes in the kidneys often lead to increased blood pressure. Uncontrolled hypertension can make the progress toward stage five diabetic nephropathy occur more rapidly.
The high blood sugar associated with diabetes also causes damage to the kidney through many different and complicated pathways. Most of this damage is directed toward the blood vessels that filter the blood to make urine.
The first step in treating diabetic nephropathy is to treat and control your diabetes and high blood pressure. It includes diet, lifestyle changes, exercise, and prescription medications. With good management of your blood sugar and hypertension, you may prevent or delay kidney dysfunction and other complications. If your disease progresses to kidney failure, your doctor will likely discuss options for care focused on either replacing the function of your kidneys or making you more comfortable.
If you have diabetes, you should schedule regular appointments with your healthcare provider every three to six months or as your healthcare provider recommends. If you have diabetes, your healthcare provider will recommend annual diabetes-related nephropathy testing five years after your initial diagnosis. Kidney damage usually doesn’t appear within the first 10 years of your diabetes diagnosis. If you’ve had diabetes for more than 25 years and don’t have kidney damage, you’re less likely to develop diabetes-related nephropathy.
The best way to prevent diabetes-related nephropathy is to manage your diabetes and lower your blood pressure. Be sure to follow your treatment plan as prescribed by your healthcare provider.
A fungus is a tiny type of germ that usually doesn’t cause any problems. They are all around us. You can only see them with a microscope. But fungi can infect your lungs in some situations, particularly if you have other serious illnesses. It can be very serious and requires specialist care.
Fungi may cause lung disease through direct infection of pulmonary tissue, infection of pulmonary air spaces/lung cavities, or their ability to trigger an immunological reaction when fungal material is inhaled. The latter mechanism is involved in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, aspergillus-induced asthma, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to fungi.
Except for aspergillosis, these infections are usually not present to any significant degree in immunocompetent residents of the UK. They are more likely to affect those who have traveled abroad to areas where they are endemic or arise as opportunistic infections in patients who are immunocompromised due to oncological treatment due to immunomodulation following solid organ transplantation or HIV infection. Pulmonary infection occurs after inhalation of spores/conidia or by the reactivation of latent infection. Hematogenous dissemination of fungal infection leading to a systemic mycosis tends to occur chiefly in immunocompromised patients.
Symptoms of fungal infections can range from mild to very serious. The exact symptoms depend on the type of fungus that has caused the infection. Some common symptoms include:
Fungal infections can affect many parts of the body, including:
Symptoms of fungal infections can mimic other conditions, so it’s important to consult your physician for a complete exam and diagnosis.
Antifungal medicines can kill a fungus. Or they may stop it from multiplying or growing. There are several classes of antifungal medications and different types of medicines. Your healthcare provider will select the best prescription medicine. Or they may guide you to an effective over-the-counter (OTC) treatment.
There are OTC and prescription antifungal medicines. Talk to your healthcare provider about what treatment to use.
Antifungals come in different forms, including:
Treatment length varies depending on the fungal infection. Some fungal skin infections like ringworm clear up in a few weeks. But clearing up some fungal nail, blood, and lung infections can take months or years.
Recommended medication used for fungal infection:
Antifungal medications treat fungal infections affecting skin, nails, lungs, and other organs. Some fungal infections clear up in a few weeks. Others may need months of treatment. Taking antifungal medicines for an extended period or failing to complete the prescribed treatment may lead to antifungal resistance.
Medication safety depends on the antifungal drug. Breastfeeding infants who develop thrush can get antifungal mouth drops. Their moms also need treatment, typically with an antifungal skin cream. Your healthcare provider can determine whether it’s okay for you or your child to take an antifungal medicine.
Side effects from antifungals vary. Results depend on the type of drug, dosage (strength), and fungus. You may experience the following:
Rarely, an antifungal drug may cause serious problems like:
Antiepileptic medications do not cure epilepsy but rather attempt to prevent seizures. The medications do not alter the underlying problem predisposing to seizures. People with epilepsy are prescribed antiepileptic medications to decrease seizures’ number, severity, and duration. While seizure freedom is the ideal treatment outcome, seizures can still occur while taking antiepileptic medication.
Normal brain function involves communication between millions of nerve cells. At any one time, nerve cells are resting, exciting, or inhibiting other nerve cells. A nerve cell comprises a cell body and branches called axons and dendrites, which join other neurons at synapses. Electrical signals are sent from the cell body along the axon to the synapse, resulting from ion currents across channels in the nerve cell membrane. Chemical signals pass across synapses between neurons. Neurotransmitters cross the synaptic gap between neurons and fix to receptor points of the adjoining neuron. Some neurotransmitters excite the joining neuron to send a further electrical signal. Other neurotransmitters inhibit the joining neuron and electrical signals passing down that neuron. The millions of neurons within the brain communicate and function normally through these electrical and chemical pathways.
Seizures occur when there is an imbalance within these excitatory and inhibitory circuits in the brain, either throughout the brain or in a localized part of the brain, so neurons fire off in a bizarre fashion.
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) protect against seizures by modulation of voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels, enhancing GABA receptor-mediated synaptic inhibition, and inhibiting ionotropic glutamate receptor-mediated synaptic excitation.
Antiepileptic medications work in different ways to prevent seizures, either by decreasing excitation or enhancing inhibition. Specifically, they act by either:
As the specific mechanisms that cause epilepsy are mostly unknown, drugs with specific mechanisms of an action directed at the underlying epileptic processes have not yet been developed.
Narrow-spectrum Antiepileptic Drugs:
Broad-spectrum Antiepileptic Drugs:
Recommended medication used for seizures:
Epilepsy is a common condition that affects the brain and causes frequent seizures. Seizures are bursts of electrical activity in the brain that temporarily affect how it works. They can cause a wide range of symptoms. Epilepsy can start at any age but usually in childhood or in people over 60. It’s often lifelong but can sometimes get slowly better over time.
Seizures can affect people differently, depending on which part of the brain is involved. Possible symptoms include:
Sometimes you might pass out and not remember what happened.
Treatment can help most people with epilepsy have fewer seizures or stop having seizures completely.
Some people need treatment for life. But you might be able to stop treatment if your seizures disappear over time.
Side effects are common when starting treatment with Antiepileptic drugs. Some may appear soon after starting treatment and pass in a few days or weeks, while others may not appear for a few weeks.
The side effects you may get depend on the medicine you’re taking. Common side effects of Antiepileptic drugs include:
Contact your doctor or specialist if you have symptoms like being drunk, such as instability, poor concentration, and being sick. It could mean your dose is too high.
Viagra relaxes muscles found in the walls of blood vessels and increases blood flow to particular body areas. Some medicines can cause unwanted or dangerous effects when used with Viagra. Tell your doctor about all your current medicines.
Viagra is a medicine used to treat erectile dysfunction (ED, also called impotence). It works by helping to relax the blood vessels in the penis, allowing blood to flow into the penis and causing an erection. If you plan to use Viagra, take it an hour before the planned sexual activity.
Viagra doesn’t cause erections alone — sexual stimulation is still needed. It also does not cure ED, increase a man’s sexual desire, protect from sexually transmitted diseases, or serve as a male form of birth control. If you use Viagra, you should not take more than 1 tablet in 24 hours, and it should not be taken with other ED medicines.
Viagra treats male sexual function problems (impotence or erectile dysfunction-ED). In combination with sexual stimulation, sildenafil increases blood flow to the penis to help a man get and keep an erection. This drug does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases (such as HIV, hepatitis B, gonorrhea, and syphilis). Practice “safe sex,” such as using latex condoms. Consult your doctor or pharmacist for more details.
Treatments for erectile dysfunction are big business, and online scams abound. If you do buy medications over the internet:
Most men who take oral erectile dysfunction medications aren’t bothered by side effects. When side effects do occur, they can include:
A muscle spasm is a sudden, involuntary movement in one or more muscles. People may also call it a charley horse, muscle cramp, or twitch. These movements can happen in any body muscle, and they are prevalent. Muscle spasms often occur due to stress, exercise, or dehydration. They are usually not a cause for concern.
A muscle spasm is a sudden, unexpected tightening of one or more muscles. Sometimes called a charley horse, a muscle cramp can be excruciating. Exercising or working hard, especially in the heat, can lead to muscle cramps. Some medicines and illnesses also might cause muscle cramps. Muscle cramps aren’t usually harmful. Self-care measures can treat most muscle cramps.
Factors that might increase the risk of muscle cramps include:
Muscle cramps occur mainly in leg muscles, most often in the calf. Cramps usually last for seconds to minutes. After the cramp eases, the area might be sore for hours or days.
Muscle cramps usually go away on their own. They don’t usually need medical care. However, see a healthcare provider for cramps that:
A muscle cramp can happen after working a muscle too hard or straining it, losing body fluids through sweat or simply holding a position for a long time. Often, however, the cause isn’t known.
Most muscle cramps are harmless. But some might be related to a medical concern, such as:
Self-care measures can usually treat muscle cramps. A healthcare provider can show you stretching exercises that reduce the chances of muscle cramps. Drinking plenty of fluids can also help prevent muscle cramps.
If you keep getting cramps that wake you from sleep, a care provider might prescribe medicine to relax muscles or help you sleep.
If you have a cramp, these actions might help:
The recommended medication you can use:
One of the most common side effects of cancer treatment is nausea. It can be caused by chemotherapy, radiation therapy and even anaesthesia. Dehydration or constipation can play a part, too. Several medications are available now to help patients manage nausea.
Nausea and vomiting are common and sometimes serious side effects of cancer treatment. Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and other cancer treatments can cause nausea and vomiting.
Nausea feels queasy, sick to your stomach, or like you might throw up. Vomiting is throwing up the food and liquid in your stomach.
It is important that your nausea and vomiting are controlled and managed. If these aren’t, these problems can affect your daily life, mental health, and physical health and even delay treatment. Relieving side effects, palliative care or supportive care, is an important part of cancer care and treatment.
When you have cancer, the causes of nausea and vomiting can include the following:
Nausea and vomiting can be caused by radiation therapy based on the following:
You can take steps to reduce your risk of nausea and vomiting. For example:
A recommended prescription that can be used for nausea and vomiting:
Parkinson’s disease affects people in various ways, and those who live with the condition may not experience all of the typical symptoms. Those who share similar or identical symptoms may not necessarily have them simultaneously or experience the same intensity. It’s a disease that progresses uniquely from person to person, and the uncertainty of what might happen next can be very difficult for patients and their loved ones.
Parkinson’s disease is caused by a loss of nerve cells in a part of the brain called the substantia nigra, leading to progressive damage to several areas of the brain over many years. The loss of nerves reduces dopamine in the brain, which plays a vital role in the body’s ability to move. This reduction of dopamine is responsible for several Parkinson’s symptoms, mainly motor symptoms, but the mechanism for losing nerve cells remains unclear. Most experts agree that it’s due to genetic and environmental factors.
The three typical movement symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are:
Additionally, people with Parkinson’s disease can also experience other physical and non-movement symptoms, such as:
Many medical professionals who diagnose Parkinson’s disease use the Hoehn and Yahr scale to classify symptoms and their severity. This scale rates the condition and breaks it into five stages based on disease progression. The scale allows doctors to evaluate how far PD has advanced in patients and what treatments may be most effective for symptom management.
At stage 1, there can be mild symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, but they’re often not severe enough at this point to impact daily tasks and general quality of life. However, this isn’t to say symptoms are not present. Family and friends may notice changes in a person’s movement, recognize poor posture, and see differences in facial expressions at this early stage.
Stage 2 of Parkinson’s disease is considered a ‘moderate’ condition, with symptoms becoming more noticeable than in the previous stage. Examples include noticeable tremors, stiffness, and trembling. Also, changes to facial expressions can occur but are not always apparent to others.
Although stage 2 doesn’t usually cause balance-related issues, other movement symptoms, such as muscle stiffness, can make tasks more challenging. Additionally, the condition can hinder a person’s posture at this stage, leading to back and neck pain. At this point, the disease can impact both sides of the body, and difficulties with speech can also occur.
Progression from stage 1 to 2 can take months to years, and there are no reliable methods to predict how it will progress. People in stage 2 of Parkinson’s can generally live alone but tend to find everyday tasks more difficult.
The third stage of Parkinson’s is considered mid-stage Parkinson’s progression and a significant turning point in how the disease will progress from here on out. While many of the symptoms remain the same or similar to stage 2, stage 3 can also introduce poorer reflexes and loss of balance at times. For this reason, people in stage three experience more noticeable movement issues or appear to ‘slow down.’ Unfortunately, falls become more frequent at this stage due to balance and reflex problems.
The critical factor in separating people with stage 3 Parkinson’s and stage 4 is independence. Motor skills are heavily impacted at stage 4, and movement symptoms affect a person’s ability to retain their independence. Some people at stage 4 can stand confidently without assistance, and some can walk without the help of equipment or another person, but it’s common for a person to require assistive equipment such as a walker.
Stage 5 of Parkinson’s disease is the final and most debilitating stage and reflects the most advanced progression. Severe stiffness can make it difficult, if not impossible, for a person to stand or walk. It is due to stiffness causing the legs to freeze when the patient attempts to stand essentially. These symptoms make daily tasks impossible and dangerous for someone to try without assistance. Therefore, it’s common for stage 5 sufferers to need a wheelchair because of an inability to stand without help — meaning they often require supervision to avoid falls.
Recommended medications for this type of disease may include:
These drugs are in a class of medications called dopamine agonists. It works by acting in place of dopamine, a natural substance in the brain needed to control movement.
The most common soft tissues injured are muscles, tendons, and ligaments. These injuries often occur during sports and exercise activities, but sometimes simple everyday activities can cause damage. Even with appropriate treatment, these injuries may require a prolonged time to heal.
Soft tissue injuries (STI) occur when trauma or overuse occurs to muscles, tendons, or ligaments. Most soft tissue injuries result from a sudden unexpected, or uncontrolled movement like stepping awkwardly off a curb and rolling over your ankle.
Soft tissue injuries include the following conditions:
Even though soft tissue injuries can occur anywhere in the body, the ankles, knees, and wrists are especially vulnerable. These joints can turn inward, especially when you land sharply or twist from a fall. This sudden action places tension on the corresponding ligament, which can result in a sprain. By contrast, a strain affects the muscles and tendons. These injuries may occur when the body’s fibrous tissue or tears are stretched too far. Other injuries like tendonitis involve inflammation or irritation of muscles and tendons, stemming from stress or repetitive use that eventually manifests in pain.
A common factor connecting all soft tissue injuries, many can take an extended period to heal and may affect the body’s future performance.
Symptoms of soft tissue injuries depend on the specific type of injury but often include general pain and swelling around the affected area.
Other common symptoms are:
When soft tissue is damaged, there is usually immediate pain and immediate or delayed swelling. Stiffness is also very common as a result of the trauma and swelling. Bruising may also develop after 24 to 48 hours. In the case of moderate to severe soft tissue injuries of muscles, tendons, and ligaments around a joint, instability may be experienced, especially in weight-bearing joints like the hip, knee, and ankle.
Soft-tissue injuries fall into two basic categories: acute injuries and overuse injuries.
Injuries often occur when people suddenly increase their activities’ duration, intensity, or frequency. Many soft-tissue injuries can be prevented through proper conditioning and training. Other prevention tips include:
Recommended medication used for soft tissue injuries:
The delusional disorder most often occurs in the middle to late life, with the average age of onset being 40 years. Although delusions might be a symptom of more common disorders, such as schizophrenia, delusional disorder is rare. Approximately 0.05% to 0.1% of adults have a delusional disorder.
Delusional disorder is a type of psychotic disorder. Its main symptom is the presence of one or more delusions. A delusion is an unshakable belief in something untrue. The idea isn’t part of the person’s culture or subculture, and almost everyone knows this belief to be false.
People with delusional disorders often experience non-bizarre delusions. Non-bizarre delusions involve situations that could occur in real life, such as being followed, deceived or loved from a distance. These delusions usually involve the misinterpretation of perceptions or experiences. In reality, these situations are either untrue or highly exaggerated. Non-bizarre delusions are different from bizarre delusions, which include beliefs that are impossible in our fact, such as believing someone has removed an organ from your body without any physical evidence of the procedure.
People with delusional disorder often continue to socialize and function well, apart from the subject of their delusion. Generally, they don’t behave oddly or unusually. It is unlike people with other psychotic disorders, who might also have delusions as a symptom. In some cases, however, people with delusional disorder might become so preoccupied with their delusions that their lives are disrupted.
Early symptoms of the delusional disorder may include:
As with many other psychotic disorders, researchers don’t know the exact cause of the delusional disorder. Researchers are, however, looking at the role of various factors that may contribute to the development of the condition, including:
Treatment for delusional disorder most often includes psychotherapy and medication, but the delusional disorder is highly resistant to treatment with medication alone. People with delusional disorder often don’t seek treatment for the condition on their own because most people with the delusional disorder don’t realize their delusions are problematic or incorrect. They’ll likely seek help due to other mental health conditions such as depression or anxiety.
People with severe symptoms or at risk of hurting themselves or others might need to be admitted to the hospital until the condition is stabilized.
Watery eyes can be due to many factors and conditions. In infants, persistent watery eyes, often with some matter, are commonly the result of blocked tear ducts. In babies, the tear duct may not be fully open and functioning for the first several months of life.
Epiphora is the medical term for having watery eyes. Usually, tears lubricate and protect your eyes. Epiphora happens when something causes you to make too many tears or stops them from draining away from your eyes as they should.
Epiphora can happen for lots of reasons, many of which don’t need any treatment. It can be a temporary condition, but it can also be a sign of a serious eye infection or a blockage in your tear ducts. Visit your healthcare provider if your eyes are constantly watering or you’re having trouble seeing. Anyone can be affected by epiphora. Most people experience watery eyes at some point throughout their life. Epiphora happens frequently and is more common in babies and adults older than 50.
Symptoms of watery eyes include:
Watery eyes are usually a sign of another issue or condition that’s affecting your eyes or tear system. Some of the most common causes of epiphora include:
Infections like pink eye or sinus infections can cause watery eyes, as well.
How your watery eyes are treated depends on what’s causing them. Many people experience temporary watery eyes that clear up on their own without any treatment.
Your provider will tell you which type of treatment you’ll need. The most common treatments include:
Your provider will tell you how to manage your epiphora symptoms. If they prescribe a medication, make sure to take it or use it as often as they say. This is especially true if they give you antibiotics for an infection. You need to take antibiotics for as long as your provider prescribes, even if your symptoms improve. If you don’t take the full course of antibiotics, the infection might come back, get worse or spread to other parts of your body.
The recommended prescription used for the condition:
Talk to your provider about ways you might be able to prevent watery eyes in the future.
Your cholesterol numbers show how much cholesterol is circulating in your blood. Your HDL (good cholesterol) is the one number you want to be high (ideally above 60). Your LDL (bad cholesterol) should be below 100. Your total should be below 200. Talk with your provider about what your results mean for you and how to manage your cholesterol.
Your provider checks your cholesterol levels through a blood test called a lipid panel. Your provider will draw blood from a vein in your arm and send the blood to a lab for analysis. Be sure to closely follow your provider’s instructions on how to prepare for the test. You’ll likely need to fast for 12 hours beforehand. This means avoiding all foods and drinks except water.
When your results come in, your provider will let you know. You may also be able to access your results through your electronic medical record.
Your lipid panel gives you the following numbers:
Healthcare providers measure cholesterol levels as milligrams of cholesterol per deciliter of blood. The abbreviation is mg/dL. Providers use these same units to measure your triglycerides.
High cholesterol generally means your total cholesterol is 200 mg/dL or higher. But providers use additional categories like borderline high and near-optimal to break down your results. If your numbers are close to normal levels, they may be easier to manage through lifestyle and dietary changes.
Your cholesterol numbers are important because they help you know your risk for heart disease. Cholesterol is a type of lipid that helps your body perform many important functions. But too much cholesterol in your blood is bad for you. It can enter your artery wall, damage its integrity and lead to the formation of atherosclerotic plaque.
You may feel upset to learn you have high cholesterol. But now that you know about it, you can take action to lower your numbers. Follow your provider’s guidance on how to lower your cholesterol and reduce your risk of heart disease. Some general tips include:
Learn how food impacts your cholesterol, and start with small changes to your diet.
Most of all, don’t blame yourself. High cholesterol is a common condition that can be hard to control through lifestyle choices alone. And many factors beyond our control limit the choices we can make.
Medications that can be used to lower cholesterol:
These medications work by decreasing hepatic triglyceride synthesis and reducing circulating free fatty acids. As a result with proper lifestyle, helps with cholesterol levels.
When creating a migraine treatment plan with your doctor, you have many medication options. A fast-acting, effective way to deliver relief, nasal sprays are one form of migraine treatment to consider. Different types of nasal sprays help with migraine care. Which one will work best for you may depend on your specific symptoms and the stage of your migraine? The other treatments you use matter as well.
Nasal sprays for migraine can offer more rapid relief than oral medications. A 2013 research review showed that nasal sprays could begin to ease the symptoms of an acute migraine attack as quickly as 15 minutes. Generally speaking, medications given intranasally can be absorbed more rapidly and effectively than oral medications.
Your nasal cavity contains a high amount of blood vessels. It provides a more direct route for the drug into your bloodstream. When a drug is directly absorbed into your bloodstream, it avoids being broken down by your digestive system or your liver during first-pass metabolism. It means more of the drug is readily available to counteract your migraine symptoms.
Three classes of medications are available as nasal sprays for treating ongoing migraine.
Nasal triptans and ergotamines are specifically approved to treat migraine. Ketorolac is U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved to fight pain, but not specifically for migraine.
Recommended nasal spray that can be used for migraine:
Like all acute treatments, nasal sprays work best when you take them as soon as you feel a migraine attack coming on. While you might be tempted to follow the advice the school nurse gave you when you got a nosebleed, you shouldn’t tip your head back. Doing so makes the medication drip down your throat and get absorbed by your stomach, which slows down the absorption process. For the same reason, try not to sniff too much while the spray is in your nose.
Since each user should administer a pre-measured amount of medication, you don’t need to worry much about dosage. Just be sure not to use the medication more often than directed.
Some people who use migraine nasal spray medications experience the following side effects:
These are not all the possible side effects of nasal sprays. Patients should check the specific class of nasal spray for an exhaustive list of side effects and talk to their doctor about what to expect with treatment with nasal sprays.
Most of these medications should not be taken if you are pregnant, may become pregnant, or are nursing. They are also unsafe to take if you have heart problems, high blood pressure, circulatory problems, or kidney problems. Some of these medicines have been linked to life-threatening conditions when combined with certain protease inhibitors, anti-fungal medications, and certain antibiotics.
It is always important to read the warnings on the drug label to learn if you should avoid taking the drug and what you should discuss with your doctor. It would be best to begin with no medication or supplement without first checking with your healthcare provider and let them know of any other prescriptions, OTCs, and herbals you are taking to ensure no interactions.
Actinic keratosis (AK) is a skin disorder. AK is a type of pre-cancer, which means that if you don’t treat the condition, it could turn into cancer. Without treatment, AK can lead to a type of skin cancer called squamous cell carcinoma. About 58 million Americans have one or more spots of actinic keratosis. AK is the most common type of skin pre-cancer.
Actinic keratosis is a rough, scaly patch on the skin that develops from years of sun exposure. It’s often found on the face, lips, ears, forearms, scalp, neck, or back of the hands.
Also known as solar keratosis, actinic keratosis grows slowly and usually first appears in people over 40. You can reduce your risk of this skin condition by minimizing sun exposure and protecting your skin from ultraviolet (UV) rays.
Usually, the first signs of actinic keratosis are rough, raised bumps on your skin. They can vary in color but often have a yellow or brown crust on top. These bumps may be:
Symptoms may also include:
It can be challenging to distinguish between noncancerous spots and cancerous ones. So it’s best to have new skin changes evaluated by a healthcare provider, especially if a scaly spot or patch persists, grows, or bleeds.
The most common cause of actinic keratosis is too much exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light. UV light comes from the sun or indoor tanning equipment like beds. UV light can damage your outer layer of skin cells, called keratinocytes.
UV rays from the sun and tanning beds cause almost all actinic keratosis. Damage to the skin from UV rays builds up over time. It means that even short-term exposure to the sun regularly can build up over a lifetime and increase the risk of actinic keratosis.
Some people are more at risk than others, including:
Your healthcare provider will likely determine whether you have an actinic keratosis simply by looking at your skin. If there’s any doubt, your healthcare provider may do other tests, such as a skin biopsy. During a skin biopsy, a small skin sample is taken for analysis in a lab. A biopsy can usually be done in a clinic after a numbing injection. Even after treatment for actinic keratosis, your healthcare provider might suggest you have your skin checked at least once a year for signs of skin cancer.
An actinic keratosis sometimes disappears but might return after more sun exposure. It’s hard to tell which actinic keratosis will develop into skin cancer, so they’re usually removed as a precaution.
Many methods are used to remove actinic keratosis, including:
If you have several actinic keratoses, your healthcare provider might prescribe a medicated cream or gel to remove them, such as:
A thromboembolic disorder is a blood clot that blocks blood flow through your veins. It can be stuck in the deep veins of the legs or arms or travel through the veins to the lungs. A thromboembolic disorder that blocks the lungs is life-threatening. As such, it requires immediate treatment. Knowing the signs of thromboembolism and who is at risk can help you better recognize when you or someone you love needs medical attention.
Thromboembolism is when a blood clot (thrombus) forms in a blood vessel, breaks loose and travels to another part of the body via the bloodstream, which blocks another blood vessel. When an unattached mass (embolus) causes the blockage, it is called an embolism. Thromboembolic diseases can affect multiple organs, eventually causing the organ to shut down and die.
Two main types of thromboembolic disorders are categorized by the affected blood vessels.
While venous thromboembolism and arterial thromboembolism share many risk factors, they have key differences.
Venous thromboembolism can be caused by:
Arterial thromboembolism is strongly connected to the same risks associated with heart disease:
Thromboembolism has many risk factors, and not all can be managed. But in general, movement is the easiest prevention. Since most occur in the legs, you can mitigate a lot of risk by circulating blood in your legs. If you sit a lot for work or travel, get up and walk or exercise your leg muscles periodically to keep blood from pooling. If you’ve been sick or recovering from surgery, getting up and moving as soon as possible will help reduce the risk of clots. Exercise will also help you keep stress levels down and maintain a healthy weight, which is other contributing factors.
Medication can be used for the condition:
Birth control pills are an effective method of birth control with a success rate of about 91%. Birth control pills come in a pack, usually a 28-day cycle, with one pill assigned to each day. You take a birth control pill daily, typically during the same time frame each day, depending on the pill. It keeps certain hormones elevated, making you less likely to get pregnant.
The birth control pill is a type of contraception that contains hormones that prevent pregnancy. People call it the pill because it comes in pill form. Women take the pill orally once a day. The pill is most effective when you take it consistently at the same time each day.
Recommended birth control pill:
There are two different types of birth control pills. Both types contain hormones that prevent pregnancy.
The pill comes in different dosing packets, from 21-day pill packs to 90-day pill packs, to even 365 days of active pills. Traditionally, depending on the brand and dose, you take at least three weeks of active pills followed by two to seven days of hormone-free pills. It is called cyclical dosing. Most women have a menstrual period during the inactive pills. Some brands do not provide any inactive pills at all in the pack. With the 21-day packs, a woman takes no pills for a week. During this time, you’ll have your period, similar to when taking inactive, hormone-free pills.
Some formulations offer continuous dosing, which means you do not have any inactive pills, and a woman takes an active pill daily. Alternatively, extended cycle dosing is when inactive pills or breaks in the active pill regimen only occur three to four times yearly. Skipping inactive pills prevents menstruation. Your healthcare provider can discuss the best option for you.
Hormones in birth control pills prevent pregnancy by:
The pill can potentially be 99% effective at preventing pregnancy if you take it without fail, meaning you don’t forget to take the pill for even a day or two. However, taking the pill ideally can be difficult, so nine out of 100 women who use the pill will have an unintended pregnancy every year. The pill is most reliable when you take it consistently at the same time each day. Being consistent helps keep hormone levels from fluctuating.
It can take up to seven days for the pill to become effective in preventing pregnancy. During this time, you should use another form of birth control. If the pill controls symptoms such as acne or abnormal bleeding, it can take three to four months to see the benefits.
Some women take the pill for health purposes. The pill can:
Some women experience medication side effects when they start taking the pill. These side effects often improve after a couple of months. Tell your healthcare provider if you experience side effects.
Pneumococcal disease is an infection caused by bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae. It causes contagious and potentially severe illnesses, including pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis, so early diagnosis and treatment are essential. Vaccines are the best protection against developing infection.
Pneumococcal disease is caused by bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae) that can attack different body parts. When these bacteria invade the lungs, they can cause pneumonia. When they invade the bloodstream, they can cause sepsis; when it invades the covering of the brain, they can cause meningitis.= These severe conditions often require hospitalization and can lead to death. The bacteria can also cause milder common conditions like middle-ear infection (otitis media) and sinusitis.
Scientists have identified about 100 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. They cause two main types of pneumococcal disease:
Symptoms of pneumococcal disease vary based on the location and severity of the infection. In the case of mild conditions, you may experience pain, fever, or swelling of your affected body part:
Pneumococcal disease can also lead to life-threatening complications.
In the case of pneumonia, you may have the following:
Symptoms of meningitis often include:
If you have bacteremia, you may experience the following:
You may develop an extreme inflammatory response to pneumococcal infection. These symptoms include:
Talk to your healthcare provider about your symptoms. Call 911 immediately if you or your child experiences a fever over 100.5 degrees Fahrenheit, chest pain, or difficulty breathing.
Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria cause pneumococcal disease. These bacteria are often found in the noses and throats of healthy people, especially children. Illness develops when the bacteria spread and set up an infection in your body.
Anyone can develop the pneumococcal disease. Children younger than two are more likely to develop an infection, along with children who have:
Adults with weakened immune systems also face a higher risk of developing the pneumococcal disease, as well as those who:
Healthcare providers typically use antibiotics to treat bacterial infections such as pneumococcal disease. Your provider may have to try several antibiotics because the bacteria have become resistant to certain medications.
For mild infections, your healthcare provider may also recommend the following:
In severe cases, such as meningitis, you may need to stay in the hospital for treatment.
Pneumococcal vaccines are safe and don’t cause pneumococcal disease. Side effects are uncommon, typically mild, and should go away within two days. They may include pain, swelling, or tenderness where you received the shot. Rarely, you might experience symptoms like muscle aches, joint pain, or fever. Ask your provider any questions you may have about vaccine safety.
Intermittent claudication causes muscle pain during your activity and ceases when you take a break. It typically shows blood flow issues such as peripheral arterial disease. The problem may worsen in time, leading to serious health issues and complications. However, the condition is typically treatable in the early stages of diagnosis.
Claudication occurs when there is insufficient flow of blood to muscles when exercising. Most of the time, it is felt in the legs following walking at a particular speed and for a specific amount of time, based upon the degree of issue. The condition is also known as intermittent claudication since the pain isn’t always continuous. It starts during exercise and is then cured by the need to rest. As the claudication gets worse but dis, comfort can occur even in relaxation. Claudication technically is a disease manifestation, usually peripheral artery disease, which is the narrowing of the arteries in the limbs, which restricts blood flow.
Claudication refers to muscle pain caused by a deficiency of oxygen, triggered by activity and eased through rest.
These symptoms are:
The signs or symptoms of peripheral arterial disease, generally in more advanced stages, may include:
Speak to your doctor for advice if you have problems with your arms or legs while exercising. The condition can trigger an unending cycle of an increase in cardiovascular disease. Exercising can be painful, and the absence of exercise leads to lower health.
The most common cause of claudication is signed peripheral artery disease. These are big vessels that supply blood to the arms and legs.
Peripheral artery disease results from damage to an artery that reduces blood flow within the leg or arm. If you’re sitting at home, blood circulation is typically sufficient. However, if you’re in a high-intensity situation, your muscles don’t receive adequate oxygen, nutrients, and oxygen to function effectively and stay healthy.
The damage to the peripheral arteries is typically due to atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is the accumulation of cholesterol, fats, and other substances on the artery wall. This accumulation is known as plaque. The plaque may cause vessels to narrow, thereby preventing blood flow. The plaque could also explode and cause blood clots.
Risk Factors for Intermittent Claudication
Risk factors for claudication are:
The condition may not be recognized since many people view the discomfort as an unwelcome, normal part of ageing. Many people lower their activities to minimize discomfort. Claudication is a diagnosis, and peripheral artery disease is based on a thorough review of symptoms, physical examination, skin conditions on the legs, and tests to determine blood flow.
The main goals of treating claudication and peripheral artery disease are to ease pain and control the risk factors contributing to blood vessels and heart disease.
Exercise is an essential component of treatment for claudication. Exercise helps reduce pain, improves exercise duration, boosts the vascular system’s health within the affected limbs, and helps with weight management and overall health.
The recommended walking programs for you include:
The use of medication can be used to treat the condition:
Consult your physician regarding supplements or medications you should not consume when prescribed a treatment.
A person with a generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) experiences a heightened state of worry or anxiety for a long period without apparent reason. These feelings are uncontrollable; in most cases, the person is aware that their anxiety is unwarranted. For instance, even the thought of completing daily tasks can make them anxious. As with many other mental health issues, the exact cause is unknown. Even though there are many self-help techniques to manage the symptoms, it is important to consult a mental health professional to get a thorough diagnosis and learn the required treatment plan.
Generalized anxiety disorder is common. It affects about 3% of the adult population. GAD can affect children and adults. The condition often begins in childhood or adolescence but may begin at any age. Women and people assigned female at birth are twice as likely to be affected by GAD as men and people assigned male at birth.
Generalized anxiety disorder symptoms can vary. They may include:
Physical signs and symptoms may include:
Even when your worries don’t consume you, you still feel anxious even when there is no apparent reason. If you feel that something bad is about to happen, you may worry intensely about your safety or the safety of the people you love.
You experience significant distress because of your anxiety, worry, or physical symptoms. A person’s worries can change over time and may change from one concern to another.
A complex interaction between biological and environmental factors may contribute to generalized anxiety disorder, as with many mental health conditions.
These factors may increase the risk of developing generalized anxiety disorder:
A lifestyle change can significantly affect people with anxiety disorders, even if they need psychotherapy or medications to control their anxiety. Here’s what you can do:
Medication can be used for anxiety:
Chronic bronchitis is one of the forms of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder). COPD is a class of lung disorders that can cause breathing difficulties and worsen with time. Another kind of COPD is Emphysema. A majority of people who suffer from COPD suffer from both emphysema as well as chronic bronchitis. However, how severe each kind of COPD is likely to differ from person to person.
The bronchial tubes are the tissues of your bronchial tube that carry air from and to your lung. Patients suffering from bronchitis will cough up thick mucus that can turn discoloured. Bronchitis can be chronic or acute.
Most often, the cause is the common cold or other respiratory infections. Chronic bronchitis is common. Chronic bronchitis, a more severe form of the disease, can cause continuous inflammation or irritation of the linings of the bronchial tubes. It is often related to smoking.
If you suffer from frequent bronchitis, you could suffer from chronic bronchitis requiring medical care. Chronic bronchitis is among the symptoms that are common in chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD).
For acute bronchitis as well as chronic bronchitis, symptoms, and signs could be:
If you suffer from acute bronchitis, you could suffer cold-like symptoms, including a slight headache or body pains. While these symptoms generally improve within a week, you could experience an unrelenting cough that lasts for a long time.
Chronic bronchitis can be a powerful cough lasting at least three months. It is characterized by recurring coughs lasting for at least two years consecutively.
If you suffer from chronic bronchitis, you’ll probably be experiencing periods where your cough and other symptoms worsen. During those instances, there could be an acute infection on top of chronic bronchitis.
Consult your physician if your cough is:
The presence of a virus or bacteria does not cause chronic bronchitis. Most specialists agree the primary reason for chronic bronchitis is smoking cigarettes. Air pollution in your work environment could be a factor. It is mainly the case if you smoke.
To decrease your chance of getting the bronchitis virus, you should follow these guidelines:
Since viral infections are the primary cause of cases of bronchitis, antibiotics could be more effective. However, if your physician suspects that you may have a bacterial infection and prescribes an antibiotic, in some instances, the doctor might recommend alternative medications, such as:
A recommended medicine to treat the treatment of bronchitis
Multiple myeloma is a rare blood cancer that affects your plasma cells. Plasma cells are white blood cells and part of your immune system. Plasma cells make antibodies. These antibodies, called immunoglobulins, help fight infection.
Multiple myeloma happens when healthy cells become abnormal cells that multiply and produce abnormal antibodies called M proteins. This change starts a cascade of medical issues and conditions affecting your bones, kidneys, and body’s ability to make healthy white and red blood cells and platelets.
Factors that may increase your risk of multiple myeloma include:
Symptoms of multiple myeloma can vary, and there may be none early in the disease. When symptoms do occur, they can include:
Complications of multiple myeloma include:
If you are experiencing symptoms, treatment can help relieve pain, control complications of the disease, stabilize your condition, and slow the progress of multiple myeloma.
The combination of treatments you’ll likely receive will depend on whether you’re considered a good candidate for a bone marrow transplant. Treatment depends on the risk of your disease progressing, age, and overall health.
Because multiple myeloma can cause several complications, you may also need treatment for those conditions. For example:
Actinic keratosis is a rough, scaly patch on the skin that develops from years of sun exposure. It grows slowly and usually first appears in people over 40. If left untreated, this condition may lead to squamous cell carcinoma is about 5% to 10%. The lesions frequently arise on sun-exposed areas of the face, lips, ears, scalp, shoulders, neck, and the back of the hands and forearms.
AKs result from long-term exposure to UV rays. This means that if you already have an AK, you are likely to develop more in the future. This puts you at a higher risk for skin cancer which sometimes can be an invasive form of the disease.
In some cases, this condition will disappear on its own without the need for medication. If you have several AKs your healthcare provider might prescribe a medicated cream or gel to remove them.
Imiquimod cream is often recommended to treat skin infections such as AK. It is generally known as an immune response modifier and is sometimes indicated for other types of skin infections too. This also improves the immune response of the cells when applied. The activated immune cells travel to areas of infection and eliminate the infected cells.
Antipsychotic medications can reduce or relieve symptoms of psychosis, such as delusions and hallucinations. Formerly known as significant tranquilizers and neuroleptics, antipsychotic medications are the main class of drugs used to treat people with schizophrenia. They are also used to treat people with psychosis, bipolar disorder, depression, and Alzheimer’s disease. Other uses of antipsychotics include:
Antipsychotic medications can help to calm and clear confusion in a person with acute psychosis within hours or days, but they can take up to four or six weeks to reach their full effect. These medications can help control symptoms but do not cure the underlying condition. When taken over a longer term, antipsychotics can help to prevent further episodes of psychosis. While antipsychotic medications can help some people with psychosis and mood disorders, these drugs can have serious side effects. Medication treatment aims to reduce and control symptoms while keeping side effects at a minimum.
Combining antipsychotic medication with other therapy and support can help people to manage symptoms and improve their quality of life. Family therapy, peer support, school and job counseling, and housing and employment support can all be helpful. Some therapists now offer cognitive-behavioral therapy to help people cope with voices and auditory hallucinations.
Taking care of your physical health is especially important if you take antipsychotic medication. Both schizophrenia and the medicines used to treat it can increase the risk of diabetes and other serious health problems. Regular checkups and medical care can help you have good physical health. Eating a nutritious diet, exercising regularly, and getting enough sleep can also help you to get and stay well.
Antipsychotic medications don’t ‘cure’ psychosis, but they are often effective in reducing and controlling many symptoms, including:
Rather than obliterating these symptoms, sometimes antipsychotic medication may prevent the symptoms from being so intrusive and intense, helping the person feel more stable and productive.
One of the best antipsychotic medications:
Antipsychotics have been abused and misused by inpatients and outpatients. Most published case reports of antipsychotic abuse involve quetiapine, although some describe the misuse of other agents, including olanzapine.
Both typical and atypical antipsychotics commonly cause side effects like drowsiness, dizziness, blurred vision, constipation, nausea, and vomiting. These often go away. But the drugs can also cause serious long-term side effects.
Antipsychotic medication can cause movement disorders such as twitching and restlessness, sedation and weight gain, and lead to diabetes. Taking antipsychotics can increase your risk of developing metabolic syndrome. If you experience metabolic syndrome, this means you are at higher risk of developing diabetes and stroke.
Everyone experiences abdominal pain from time to time. Other terms to describe abdominal pain are stomachache, tummy ache, gut ache, and bellyache. The pain can be mild or severe. It may be continuous or come and go. Abdominal pain can be short-lived or occur over weeks, months, or years.
Abdominal pain is discomfort anywhere in your belly between your ribs and pelvis. We often think of abdominal pain as stomach pain or a stomachache, but the pain in your abdomen could be coming from other organs besides your stomach.
Your abdomen is home to your:
These are all organs in your digestive system. But pain can also be in your abdominal wall, the skin, and the muscles that make up the outer shell of your abdomen. And sometimes, the pain that you feel in your belly may be coming from somewhere else, like your chest, pelvis, or back.
Abdominal pain can take many forms and can mean many things. It may feel:
Ultimately, abdominal pain is a subjective symptom that only you can describe. Since your healthcare provider can’t measure it, it’s what you say it is. Your healthcare provider will always take your abdominal pain seriously.
Abdominal pain may take several different forms. In addition to how severe it is, abdominal pain can be as:
It’s essential to call your doctor if your abdominal pain is so severe that you can’t move without feeling more pain or sit still in a comfortable position. Seek immediate medical attention if any of the following symptoms accompany your abdominal pain:
The treatment of abdominal pain will depend on its underlying cause.
Mild abdominal pain may go away on its own within hours or days. Mild pain and related symptoms can also often treat with medicines from the pharmacy. Your pharmacist will be able to advise you on what type of product is best suited to your situation. It would be best not to use aspirin or anti-inflammatory medicines, such as ibuprofen, to treat abdominal pain other than period pain. These medicines may cause or irritate a stomach or bowel problem.
If you are treating mild abdominal pain with a known cause at home:
Medicine recommended to treat abdominal pain include:
Abdominal pain has many possible causes. Some aren’t serious and get better independently in a few days. Others need more testing and treatment. If your pain continues or worsens, you need to be rechecked and may need more tests to determine what is wrong. You may need surgery to correct the problem.
Don’t ignore new symptoms, such as fever, nausea and vomiting, urination problems, worsening pain, and dizziness. These may be signs of a more severe problem. Your doctor may have recommended a follow-up visit in the next 8 to 12 hours. You may need more tests or treatment if you are not getting better.
The doctor has checked you carefully, but problems can develop later. If you notice any problems or new symptoms, get medical treatment immediately.
Your lungs are responsible for delivering oxygen to your entire body. Oxygen is essential for all your organs and cells. Without clean or enough oxygen, you face a higher risk of illness and disease, including cancer. Oxygen is needed for optimal brain function, good mood, and energy. It can also improve your strength, boost your immune system, and reduce stress and anxiety. Quitting smoking is one of the most imaginative things you can do to improve your overall health. The time it takes for the lungs to heal is different for everyone.
Within two weeks to 3 months after quitting, you may start to notice improved lung function as your lungs start the self-cleaning process.
In the first year after quitting, symptoms like coughing and shortness of breath decrease. During this time, your lungs clean themselves better to reduce infection risk. As your lungs continue to self-clean and heal over time, you’ll continue to reap the health benefits of smoking cessation.
Researchers say that people who smoke five cigarettes a day are doing almost as much damage to their lungs as people who smoke 30 cigarettes daily. They say it takes “light” smokers about one year to develop as much lung damage as “heavy” smoking does in 9 months.
They note that a lighted cigarette releases 7,000 chemicals, 69 of which are considered cancer-causing substances.
Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. About 480,000 people die every year due to smoking. Experts estimate 34 million adults smoke, and more than 16 million live with a smoking-related disease. Whether a person smokes five cigarettes a day or two packs a day, the negative impact on the body is significant. When cigarettes burn, more than 7,000 chemicals are released. At least 69 of those chemicals are known to cause cancer.
These chemicals cause injury to the cells inside the lungs. When the injured cells become inflamed and swollen, the body attempts to repair the damage. During that process, normal, healthy lung tissue can be broken down as the body tries to fix the damage caused by smoking.
The average smoker takes ten puffs of a cigarette over 5 minutes. A person who smokes 25 cigarettes daily will receive a hit of nicotine 250 times. Nicotine is just one of the toxic chemicals found in cigarettes.
20 minutes after quitting:
12 to 24 hours after quitting:
Two weeks to 3 months after quitting:
1 to 9 months after quitting:
One year after quitting:
5 to 15 years after quitting:
Ten years after quitting:
15 years after quitting:
Medication used to help people stop smoking:
The immune system is the system in your body that fights off infection. Immunotherapy is a form of medical treatment that activates your immune system to help fight Cancer. There are many different types of immune cells in your body. Other cells fight different types of Cancer.
The immune system protects the body against illness and infection that bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites can cause. It is a collection of reactions and responses the body makes to damaged cells or diseases. It is sometimes called the immune response.
The immune system can help to fight Cancer. Some immune system cells can recognize cancer cells as abnormal and kill them. But this may not be enough to get rid of cancer altogether. Some treatments aim to use the immune system to fight Cancer.
There are two main parts of the immune system:
Cancer avoids detection by the immune system and affects how the immune system works against other illnesses. Blood and bone marrow cancers, including lymphoma and most types of leukaemia, impact the immune system because bone marrow is where immune system cells are made. Specific treatments can also have an impact on cancer patients’ immunity.
Cancer can weaken the immune system by spreading into the bone marrow. The bone marrow makes blood cells that help to fight infection. It often happens in leukaemia or lymphoma but can also occur with other cancers. Cancer can stop the bone marrow from making so many blood cells.
Specific cancer treatments can temporarily weaken the immune system. It is because they can cause a drop in the number of white blood cells made in the bone marrow. Cancer treatments that are more likely to weaken the immune system are:
Recommended cancer medication that you can use:
Owing to the signs of Schizophrenia, a person with the illness is likely to interpret reality in a way that seems abnormal to others. They may believe that others are trying to control or harm them and may feel compelled to act in ways to protect themselves that appear inexplicable to others. For instance, keeping all doors and windows closed protects the family from the neighbours’ attempts to kill or harm them. People with Schizophrenia are not aware of the changes in their behaviour.
Schizophrenia, one of the most devastating and baffling mental illnesses, is a group of disorders that cause distorted thought and perception. Perceptions can be distorted beyond reality, causing people to see or hear things that are not there.
People with Schizophrenia go through periods of getting better and worse, remission and relapse. They can go for long periods without any symptoms, but because Schizophrenia is often a chronic illness, it requires ongoing medical attention like hypertension or diabetes.
Schizophrenia is neither a “split” personality nor multiple personality disorder, a different and infrequent problem. Though often stigmatized for the behaviours caused by the illness, people with Schizophrenia did not bring the disease upon themselves by becoming involved with the “wrong” crowd or interests. Contrary to the beliefs reinforced by movies, television and books, people with the disorder are more likely to withdraw into isolation or become victims of crime than to hurt anyone else.
Can you Develop Schizophrenia with no family History?
Several different genes are directly linked to Schizophrenia, and scientists have gotten a lot better at pinpointing them. Researchers have discovered that specific genes impact the brain, resulting in structural differences in the brains of people with Schizophrenia and increasing the risk of developing the illness. However, we still do not fully understand how those genes interplay and activate in particular individuals who develop Schizophrenia. The genetics of Schizophrenia remains complex, and more research is needed.
On the other hand, a family member or member with Schizophrenia is a definite risk factor for developing the condition. 80% of people with Schizophrenia do not have relatives with the disease. Schizophrenia likely results from a confluence of factors, some of which are only beginning to be understood.
Getting a diagnosis of Schizophrenia can be devastating. You may struggle to think clearly, manage your emotions, relate to other people, or even function normally. But having Schizophrenia doesn’t mean you can’t live a whole and meaningful life. Despite the widespread misconception that people with Schizophrenia have no chance of recovery or improvement, the reality is much more hopeful. Although currently there is no cure for Schizophrenia, you can treat and manage it with medication, self-help strategies, and supportive therapies.
Since Schizophrenia is often episodic, periods of remission from the severest symptoms often provide an excellent opportunity to start employing self-help strategies that may help to limit the length and frequency of future episodes. A diagnosis of Schizophrenia is not a life sentence of ever-worsening symptoms and hospitalizations. You have more control over your recovery than you probably realize.
Some people have one psychotic episode, while others experience many throughout their lives. When treated with medication and therapy, in many cases, people with Schizophrenia can pursue their goals, have healthy relationships, keep jobs, and be productive members of their communities.
Once medication and therapy begin to work, these strategies can help ease the challenges of Schizophrenia:
Medication for Schizophrenia that you can use along with therapy:
The symptoms of childhood depression may vary. Most of these conditions are undiagnosed and taken for granted because symptoms are passed off as regular emotional and psychological changes. Although it is normal for children to feel sadness and irritability in some cases, persistent sadness may lead to melancholy.
A mood disorder can cause sadness, irritability, or hopelessness. It can affect your sleep, appetite, or relationships with others. Sadness can also cause you to lose interest in hobbies or activities you once enjoyed. In severe cases, it can lead to thoughts of suicide. Although it is a serious medical condition, it is usually treatable.
The disorder can affect how children interact with friends and family. It may prevent your child from enjoying school, sports, hobbies, or other normal childhood activities. The condition often goes along with anxiety. Anxiety is a medical condition that causes fear, panic, or worries about everyday situations.
Sometimes, depression or anxiety in children gets chalked up to growing pains, but if you have any concerns about behavioral or mental health, talk to a healthcare provider. Early childhood depression alters brain development . The brains of children who suffer clinical conditions as preschoolers develop abnormally, compared with the brains of preschoolers unaffected by the disorder.
Up to 3% of children and 8% of adolescents in the U.S. have dejection. The condition is significantly more common in boys under the age of 10. However, by age 16, girls have a greater incidence of this condition.
Treatment for children with depression involves therapy and prescription medication. Some children may benefit from one of these, but doctors may also recommend a combination approach. These are not lifelong treatments. The treatment plan for childhood depression often depends on the severity of the symptoms. Fortunately, proper care can help your child find relief from their symptoms.
Medications such as Amitriptyline is an antidepressant typically prescribed to treat depression. It works by increasing a chemical called serotonin in your brain. It improves mood and can also change how your nerves receive pain signals, so the pain goes away.
Breast cancer forms in the cells of the breast but it can spread outside the breast through blood vessels and lymph vessels. It has two common kinds known as invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma. Invasive ductal carcinoma begins in the ducts and then grows outside the ducts into other parts of the breast tissue. It can also spread, or metastasize, to other parts of the body. Invasive lobular carcinoma begins in the lobules and then spread from the lobules to the breast tissues that are close by. They can also spread to other parts of the body.
Male breast cancer is rare cancer that forms in the breast tissue of men. These are common in older men but do not mean it does not occur in the younger population. Though breast cancer is most commonly thought of as a disease that affects women, breast cancer does occur in males.
About 1 out of every 100 breast cancers diagnosed in the United States is found in a man. The most common type of breast cancer in men is infiltrating ductal cancer. It starts in the milk duct and spreads to nearby tissues. Other less-common types of breast cancer in men include inflammatory carcinoma and Paget disease of the nipple.
Your doctor will assess the signs and symptoms as well as your medical history. During the visit, your doctor will do a clinical breast exam using his or her fingertips to examine your breasts and surrounding areas for lumps or other changes. Other diagnostic method includes:
Treatment for men’s and women’s breast cancer is similar. It involves killing or removing the affected cells of the breast. Male breast cancer treatment often involves surgery and may also include other treatments. Surgery may involve removing all of the breast tissue including the nipple and areola. Other surgical approaches will focus on removing a few lymph nodes for testing. f no cancer cells are found, there is a good chance that your breast cancer hasn’t spread beyond your breast tissue.
Radiation therapy may be used after surgery to eliminate any remaining cancer cells in the breast, chest muscles, or armpit. Hormone therapy often involves medications that work in men. Chemotherapy is also recommended to remove affected cells using medication after surgery to kill any cancer cells that might have spread outside your breast. Chemotherapy may also be an option for men with advanced breast cancer.
Exemestane. It treats certain types of breast cancer. It also prevents cancer from returning after remission. It works by reducing the amount of estrogen the body makes and helps to slow or reverse the growth of these breast cancers. The dosage is based on your medical condition, response to treatment, and other medications you may be taking.
Social anxiety is also known as social phobia. It affects about 5.3 million people in the United States. The average age it begins is between ages 11 and 19 or the teenage years. In this condition, the fear is limited to one or two particular situations, like speaking in public or initiating a conversation. Others are very anxious and afraid of any social situation. The tough part is being able to ask for help.
People who have this condition may have trouble with any of the following:
It prevents you from living your life as you avoid situations that most people consider normal. You might even have a hard time understanding how others can handle them so easily. It also affects your personal relationships. It leads to low self-esteem, negative thoughts, low social skills, depression, and sensitivity to criticism.
If this condition keeps you from doing things you want or need to do, or from making or keeping friends, you may need treatment. Talk about your fears and worries with a doctor or therapist who has experience treating such conditions.
Note that getting help from doctors does not mean that you are not normal. Your feelings are valid and you are not alone. Many people also experience the condition and experts can help you get through it. Talk to a professional to help you find solutions. Talk openly with your doctor about treatment to avoid depression, drug or alcohol problems, school or work problems, and a poor quality of life.
The treatment depends on what causes the condition. A combination of medication and therapy would be a great help for your recovery. Psychotherapy improves symptoms and helps you learn how to recognize and change negative thoughts about yourself and develop skills to help you gain confidence in social situations.
Your doctor may also prescribe medcations such as anti anxiety, antidepressants, and beta blockers. Though several types of medications are available, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are often the first type of drug tried for persistent symptoms of social anxiety. To reduce the side effects, you may be instructed to start with a lower dosage.
Smoking is done by people who want to release stress, feel pleasure, or go along in social situations. Nicotine is the main addictive substance in cigarettes and other forms of tobacco. Chronic smoking affects many parts of your body, including your brain.
Addiction is the main reason why people smoke. Nicotine reaches your brain within 10 seconds of when it enters your body. It causes the brain to release adrenaline, and that creates a buzz of pleasure and energy. It can also be due to other activities of your day-to-day life such as watching TV, talking on the phone, hanging out with friends, going to certain places, or taking a break to relax. Then smoking becomes a part of a pattern or routine.
For every person who dies because of smoking, at least 30 people live with a serious smoking-related illness. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, including emphysema and chronic bronchitis, is caused by smoking. It also increases the risk of tuberculosis, certain eye diseases, and problems of the immune system, including rheumatoid arthritis.
Secondhand smoke exposure contributes to approximately 41,000 deaths among nonsmoking adults and 400 deaths in infants each year. Secondhand smoke causes stroke, lung cancer, and coronary heart disease in adults. Secondhand smoke exposure increases the risk of sudden infant death syndrome, acute respiratory infections, middle ear disease, asthma symptoms, and slowed lung growth in children.
One day after smoking may reduce your risk of heart attacks. Three days after quitting smoking, the nicotine levels in a person’s body are depleted. While it is healthier to have no nicotine in the body, this initial depletion can cause nicotine withdrawal.
After a month, your lung function starts to improve and increase your endurance. Nine months after quitting, the lungs have significantly healed themselves. The delicate, hair-like structures inside the lungs known as cilia have recovered from the toll cigarette smoke took on them.
To quit smoking is not as easy as one snap. It will also cause withdrawal symptoms. Talk to your doctor about a proper plan for quitting smoking. Your doctor may provide a lifestyle plan and healthier options to aid you in making changes in your body.
To stop smoking, your doctor may recommend the use of medications and counseling, which have both been proven effective, especially in combination. Some quit-smoking products are known as nicotine replacement therapy because they contain varying amounts of nicotine. These will help you reduce the frequency of your withdrawal symptoms. Although you can buy some quit-smoking products without a prescription, it’s a good idea to talk to your doctor first.
Counseling will help you develop the skills you need to give up tobacco for good. You learn techniques you can use to help you stop smoking. Many hospitals, health care plans, health care providers, and employers offer treatment programs. During the treatment, you should avoid certain smoking methods including vapes or electronic cigarettes. E-cigarettes have not proved to be safe nor are they more effective in helping people stop smoking than nicotine replacement medications.
Bupropion is used as a smoking cessation aid and also as an anti-depressant. It belongs to a class of aminoketones and reduces the cravings for nicotine and it also reduces the severity of withdrawal symptoms. It acts as a reuptake inhibitor on two of the brain chemical namely dopamine and norepinephrine. The drug replaces these chemicals in the neurotransmitter and blocks it from being transported to the nerve terminal.
Depression in children is an uncommon case. However, many children have fears and worries and may feel sad and hopeless from time to time. Strong fears may appear at different times during growth. Although fears and worries are typical in children, persistent or extreme forms of fear and sadness could be due to anxiety or depression.
Up to 3% of children and 8% of adolescents in the U.S. have depression. The condition is more common in boys under the age of 10. But by age 16, girls have a greater incidence of depression. It can be caused by any combination of things that relate to physical health, family history, life events, environmental influence, genetic vulnerability, and biochemical disturbance.
Depression is among the most common mental health disorders in children. About 3% have depression which tends to be higher in older children and teenagers between the ages of 12 and 17. An estimated 3.2 million adolescents aged 12 to 17 in the US had at least one major depressive episode. This number represented 13.3% of the U.S. population aged 12 to 17.
If your child has been experiencing symptoms of depression for at least 2 weeks, schedule an appointment with their doctor to make sure there are no physical reasons for the symptoms and to ensure proper treatment is provided. A consultation with a mental health care professional who specializes in children is also recommended.
A mental health evaluation should include interviews with you and your child and any other psychological testing that is needed. It can be beneficial to get information from teachers, friends, and classmates to show that these symptoms are consistent during your child’s various activities and are a marked change from previous behavior. In addition to information about the child’s personal characteristics, questionnaires can be very helpful in helping diagnose depression in children.
It is not known exactly why some children develop this condition but factors may play a role, including biology and temperament. Life experiences such as trauma, maltreatment, bullying, rejection, and stress can trigger the condition. Here are ways you can do as a guardian or parent on managing this condition.
Treatment options for children with depression are like those for adults. Doctors may recommend medication, psychotherapy, and or a combination of both. During psychotherapy, your child will talk to a licensed and trained mental health care professional to identify and work through the factors that may be triggering the depression.
There is a wide range of available antidepressants and your doctor will choose the best treatment for your child. Note that there no single best antidepressant, and the best one for your child depends on the symptoms and individual needs.
Gout is a type of arthritis that occurs when uric acid builds up in the blood and causes inflammation in the joints. It’s a condition in which uric acid builds up either because of too much uric acid intake from rich foods such as seafood, red wine, and chocolate or the body’s inability to process it. Even though the condition is more common among adults, it can also affect children.
The signs and symptoms of gout always occur suddenly, and often at night. This includes:
This condition occurs as a result of excessive uric acid levels in the blood. Uric acid forms when the body breaks down chemical compounds called purines. These compounds exist naturally in the body and in the foods that people eat.
Pediatric gout is a condition that affects children and teenagers. It is very rare in this age group and is typically the result of an underlying medical condition. The affected joints may become painful, swollen, and stiff. If your child experience sudden, intense pain in a joint, call your doctor. If this condition is left untreated, it can lead to worsening pain and joint damage. Seek medical care immediately if you have a fever and a joint is hot and inflamed, which can be a sign of infection.
The medications available for this condition are in two types and they focus on two different problems. The first type helps reduce the inflammation and pain associated with attacks. The second type works to prevent gout complications by lowering the amount of uric acid in your blood.
Children who have gout associated with obesity may benefit from maintaining a moderate weight through diet and regular physical activity. Health experts state that some children may need to reduce their intake of foods that are high in purines. A nutritionist or dietician can offer advice on high-purine foods to avoid. Doctors will also prescribe a specific medication for children to manage the symptoms such as pain.
Allopurinol. It is short acting but its major metabolite alloxanthine is a long-acting non-competitive inhibitor of uric acid synthesis. It can be taken after meals to avoid gastric irritation. Allopurinol should be cautiously used in the elderly, children, and in kidney or liver disease.
Bipolar disorder is a brain disorder that causes changes in a person’s mood, energy, and ability to function. It is previously called manic-depressive illness or manic depression is a mental illness which causes an unusual shift in mood, activity, energy, concentration, levels, and the ability to carry out tasks.
In this condition, the dramatic episodes of high and low moods do not follow a set pattern. Someone may feel manic and depressed several times before switching to the opposite mood. These episodes can happen over a period of weeks, months, and or years.
Your symptoms during a period of depression may include:
The manic stage of bipolar disorder may include:
Symptoms of a major depressive episode
If you have any symptoms of depression or mania, see your doctor or mental health professional. This condition does not get better on its own. Treatment from a mental health professional with experience can help you get your symptoms under control.
Get emergency help or call 911 if you or someone you know have thoughts of suicide or ending your life. If you have a loved one who is in danger of suicide or has made a suicide attempt, make sure someone stays with that person.
There is no specific way to prevent this condition but treatments at the earliest sign may prevent the worsening of the disorder. If you have been diagnosed with this condition, some strategies can help prevent minor symptoms from becoming full-blown episodes of mania or depression:
The treatment for this condition involves medical specialists who are experts in dealing with mental health conditions. You may have a treatment team that also includes a psychologist, social worker, and psychiatric nurse. Treatment is directed at managing symptoms. This includes medications, day treatment programs, hospitalization, and substance abuse treatment.
Chlorpromazine. It is used by doctors to their patients to control agitation and mania in people who have bipolar disorder. It works by helping to restore the balance of certain natural substances in the brain and reduce aggressive behavior and the desire to hurt yourself or others. It may also help to decrease hallucinations.
Roundworms are small organisms that can live in your intestine. It can live in the human intestine for a long time and can cause many problems including diarrhea, high fever, and abdominal pain. They have long and round bodies that can be of different types and sizes. The eggs and larvae of this worm live in the infected stool and soil.
Hundreds of millions of people around the world are infected with roundworms at any given time. However, these parasites are not common in the United States. People can acquire them when traveling to certain countries.
The causes of the spread of the infection are not directly from person to person. It starts with a person has to come into contact with soil mixed with human or animal feces that contain eggs or infected water. These are widespread in some developing countries where human feces are used for fertilizer, or poor sanitary facilities allow human waste to mix with soil in yards. People can also get it from eating uncooked meat products that are infected.
Anti-parasite medications are the first line of treatment against this infection. In some cases, these parasites will go on their own without the need for treatment. Doctors often recommend the following anti-parasite medication:
Ivermectin. It treats conditions caused by roundworms. It works by paralyzing and inactivating the gut of parasites in humans. It stops the adult one from producing larvae. It kills the newly developed parasite and works to treat the infection. Medications for this condition often start to work in 3 days period. Ensure to take your prescription at the same time each day to get the utmost benefit.
Doctors may recommend surgery if the parasite causes heavy infestation. It may be necessary to remove worms and repair the damage they’ve caused. Intestinal blockage or holes, bile duct blockage, and appendicitis are complications that may require surgery.
If humans ingest the larvae of cat or dog roundworms, they can become infected, and illness results from the larvae migrating through organs and tissues. In severe cases, the worms may partly or completely block your small intestine. You may get an inflamed pancreas. The infection can even be life-threatening.
Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder in which individuals interpret reality abnormally and may result in some combination of delusions, hallucinations, and disordered thinking. This behavior damages daily functioning and inactivates a person’s daily dealings in life. This condition needs lifelong treatment.
This condition has no specific cause but it is believed that a combination of genetics, brain chemistry, and environmental contributions can cause this disorder. Neuroimaging studies show differences in the brain structure and central nervous system of people with this condition. While researchers are not certain about the significance of these changes, they indicate that this is a brain disease. Common risk factors for this condition are:
This condition requires lifelong treatment, even when symptoms have subsided. Treatment with medications and psychosocial therapy can help manage the condition. However, some cases may also need hospitalization.
Medications are the foundation for treating this condition. A patient may be recommended to take antipsychotic drugs that control the symptoms by affecting the brain neurotransmitter dopamine. The goal of this treatment is to manage signs and symptoms at the lowest possible dose. Other medications also may help, such as antidepressants or anti-anxiety drugs. It can take several weeks to notice an improvement in symptoms.
Chlorpromazine is a typically recommended prescription for this condition. It works by helping to restore the balance of certain natural substances in the brain and reduce aggressive behavior and the desire to hurt yourself or others. It may also help to decrease hallucinations.
Doctors may also give long-acting injectable antipsychotics as an option if someone has a preference for fewer pills which may help with adherence. They are usually given every two to four weeks, depending on the medication. Psychological interventions also play a very important role in treating this condition. This may include individual therapy, social skills training, and family therapy.
What is OCD?
Obsessive-compulsive disorder or OCD is a common mental health disorder where a person has obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors. This condition can affect anyone and some people start having symptoms early, often around puberty but it usually starts during early adulthood.
Some causes of this condition are:
Experts are not sure why people have this condition. Genetics, brain abnormalities, and environment are supposed to play a role. Also, stress can make symptoms worse. It often starts in teens or early adulthood but it can also start in childhood as well. Other anxiety depression, problems, substance abuse, or eating disorders may happen with OCD. Watch out for the factors that may increase your risk of the condition such as;
Compulsion symptoms include:
As with obsessions, compulsions typically have themes, such as:
It is sometimes difficult to diagnose this condition because symptoms can be similar to those of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, depression, or other mental health disorders. The steps for diagnosis are:
The goal of the treatment is to help bring symptoms under control so that they don’t rule your daily life. Depending on the severity of the condition, some people may need long-term, ongoing, or more intensive treatment. Cognitive behavioral therapy, CBT therapy, and exposure and response prevention are typically recommended parts of the treatment. Doctors may also prescribe medications to control the obsessions and compulsions of this condition. Most commonly, antidepressants are tried first.
Paroxetine is a selective serotonin and reuptake inhibitor. It is used in the treatment of obsessive compulsion disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Generally, the goal is to effectively control symptoms at the lowest possible dosage. It’s not unusual to try several drugs before finding one that works well. Your doctor might recommend more than one medication to effectively manage your symptoms.
GAD or general anxiety disorder is a condition where you have persistent worrying or uncontrollable anxiety. Generalized anxiety disorder has symptoms that are similar to panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and other types of anxiety, but they’re all different conditions. Living with generalized anxiety disorder can be a long-term challenge. Common causes of worries include your health, money, family, or work.
GAD likely arises from a complex interaction of biological and environmental factors, which may include differences in brain function and chemistry, genetics, and the development of personality. Some cases are also triggered by differences in the way threats are perceived. Women are more often affected by this condition than men. The typical risk factors are:
To diagnose this condition, your doctor may:
Lifestyle and Homecare for General Anxiety Disorder
The treatment for GAD depends on the severity of your condition and on how it severely affects your ability to function every day. The two main treatments include psychotherapy and medications.
Psychotherapy. This is also known as talk therapy or psychological counseling. It involves working with a therapist to reduce your anxiety symptoms. Cognitive behavioral therapy is the most effective form of psychotherapy for this condition. It focuses on teaching you specific skills to directly manage your worries and help you gradually return to the activities you’ve avoided because of anxiety. Through this process, your symptoms improve as you build on your initial success.
Medications. Several types of medications are used to treat this condition. Talk with your doctor about the benefits, risks, and possible side effects. Typical prescription medications for GAD are antidepressants and in limited circumstances, experts may prescribe benzodiazepines.
Buspirone. An anti-anxiety medication called buspirone may be used on an ongoing basis. As with most antidepressants, it typically takes up to several weeks to become fully effective. This does not cause addiction or dependence but produces effects similar to that of the benzodiazepines class of drugs.
Shift work sleep disorder affects people working on rotating shifts or night shifts. Working during the supposed to be sleeping hour goes against the body’s natural circadian rhythm, which may make it tougher for people with these schedules to sleep when they have the opportunity to. When a work schedule conflicts with a sleep schedule, it can cause insomnia and extreme sleepiness.
Shift work disorder can come from any work cycle if it disrupts your sleep. For example, someone who has to get up extremely early for a long morning commute may also develop the disorder. It’s considered a circadian rhythm sleep disorder because the sleep problems involve the body’s internal clock, which interacts with our external environment to establish a daily sleep-wake cycle.
Your doctor will use diagnostic criteria to determine whether you have SWSD. Your doctor will likely ask you a series of questions about your sleep patterns and disturbances as well as what sort of shift you currently work. Since SWSD can mimic other sleep disorders, your doctor might first rule out conditions such as obstructive sleep apnea and narcolepsy.
The treatment for this condition includes prescribed medications to keep workers alert during work hours and those to help promote sleep during desired sleep time. These medications can help keep you alert during a shift if you’re extremely tired. However, they can have side effects and might become habit-forming if used over time.
Armodafinil. It treats excessive sleepiness caused by sleep apnea, narcolepsy, or shift work sleep disorder. It is the active ingredients found in Artvigil, Nuvigil and Provigil. This medication promotes wakefulness when consumed. Before taking this medication, tell your doctor if you have:
Take this medication once a day or as prescribed by doctor. The typical dosage for this medicine is 150mg to 250mg a day. Talk to your doctor if you are breastfeeding, pregnant, or planning to get pregnant before using this prescription.
Depression is a mood condition that causes people persistent feelings of sadness and loss of interest in something. That is also called major clinical depression or depressive disorder. It affects the way you think, feels, and behave and leads to a change in emotional and physical problems. You may struggle to do normal day-to-day activities, and sometimes you may feel as if life is not worth living.
This condition affects your relationships with family and friends. While a person is stressed by this symptom on their own, it also takes a toll on those around them. Relationships may also worsen symptoms of depression as it often increases feelings of loneliness, sadness, and isolation. This depression disorder, in a way, can push others away, leaving the way many people feeling more isolated and withdrawn than ever.
In some cases, this condition creates space for the person, but this often worsens their state of being. Instead of taking symptoms personally, it is necessary for family and friends to be determined in their care and support. Helping to guide someone towards treatment is critical and remaining supportive of someone with this condition is vital even though their symptoms have them attempting to push others away.
If you or someone have symptoms of this condition, talk to your doctor right away. Call 911 if someone is attempting suicide or other forms of self-harm.
A combination approach of psychotherapy and medication is helpful in treating clinical conditions. Your primary care doctor or psychiatrist can prescribe medications to relieve symptoms. If you have severe depression, you may need a hospital stay, or you may need to participate in an outpatient treatment program until your symptoms improve.
Fluvoxamine. It blocks the reuptake of serotonin and increases its amount in central synapses. It is used very effectively to treat symptoms associated with depression. Fluvoxamine also helps in relieving the imbalance in the neurons, which is believed to give rise to anxiety and depression.
Eczema is a condition that causes dry, itchy, and swollen skin. This is common in young children but can happen at any age. This condition is long-lasting and tends to flare sometimes, and can be irritating, but it is not infectious. Persons with this condition are at risk of developing asthma, food allergies, and hay fever.
In infants and toddlers, eczema looks and acts differently rather than it does in older children.
Start with regular moisturizing and a self-care routine for your child. If these do not help, your doctor might suggest medicated creams that control itching and help repair skin. These are sometimes combined with other treatments. This condition can be persistent, and your child may need to try various treatments over months or years to control it.
There are several options that will help control itching and repair the skin. Products are available in various strengths and as creams, gels and ointments. Talk with your child’s doctor about the options and your preferences. Whatever is prescribed, apply it as directed before you moisturize.
Clobetasol. It is used to treat various types of skin disorders, such as eczema. It has properties that work by controlling the synthesis of inflammation-causing mediators such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Controlling the production of inflammation-causing substances can effectively reduce symptoms associated with allergic reactions in the skin.
Social anxiety disorder leads to avoidance which can interrupt your life. Severe conditions may affect your daily routines, relationships, school, work, or other activities. It can be a chronic mental health condition, but learning coping skills in psychotherapy and taking medications can help you gain confidence and improve your ability to interact with others.
It’s normal to feel anxious in some social situations. For instance, going to a game or giving a presentation may cause that feeling of cramps in your stomach. But in this condition, everyday interactions cause significant anxiety, self-consciousness, and embarrassment because you fear being examined or judged negatively by others. This is also known as social phobia.
This condition is more than shyness. It is a fear that does not go away and affects everyday activities, relationships, self-confidence, and school or work life. Numerous people rarely worry about social situations, but someone with this condition feels overly anxious before, during, and after them. Typical symptoms are:
This condition likely arises from a complex interaction of biological and environmental factors such as:
The treatment of this condition depends on the severity of the condition or how it affects your daily life. It includes medications and psychotherapy or a combination approach of both. Psychotherapy improves symptoms in most people with this condition. It helps you learn to distinguish and change negative thoughts about yourself and develop skills to help you gain confidence in social situations.
Paroxetine. It is a selective serotonin and reuptake inhibitor that is believed to be because of the potentiation of serotonergic activity in the central nervous system resulting from the inhibition of neuronal reuptake of serotonin. Aside from taking medications, it is crucial for you to seek regular help and finish the therapy to manage and prevent any attacks.
Hypothyroidism is a condition where the thyroid gland does not make enough hormones. It may not cause noticeable symptoms in the early stages, but if left untreated, it may trigger other health problems such as heart disease and high cholesterol.
It happens when the thyroid gland doesn’t make enough hormones. Conditions or problems that can lead to this condition include:
The diagnosis of hypothyroidism doesn’t rely on symptoms alone. It’s usually based on the results of blood tests. The first blood test is typically done to diagnose hypothyroidism and measures the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone in the blood. If the second test shows high TSH, but T-4 and T-3 are in the standard range, then the diagnosis is a condition called a subclinical condition. It usually doesn’t cause any noticeable symptoms.
Thyroxine sodium. It is used for the treatment of hypothyroidism and pituitary TSH suppression. It binds to the thyroid hormone response element and results in gene transcription. This results in the expression of a predetermined genetically coded pattern of protein synthesis.
Most healthcare providers recommend taking the medicine levothyroxine to treat hypothyroidism. But an extract containing thyroid hormone derived from the thyroid glands of pigs is available. It is sometimes called desiccated thyroid extract. This medicine is taken by mouth. It returns hormone levels to a healthy range, eliminating symptoms of hypothyroidism.
You’ll likely start to feel better one or two weeks after you begin treatment. Treatment with this medication can be lifelong because the dosage you need may change. Visit your doctor from time to time for a regular check-up.
Systemic Mastocytosis is a rare condition that results in too many mast cells building up in your body. A mast cell is a type of white blood cell. These are found in connective tissues throughout your body. They help your immune system function properly and help protect you from disease.
Excess mast cells build up in your bone, skin, digestive tract, marrow, or other body organs when you have this condition. When triggered, these mast cells release substances that can cause signs and symptoms similar to an allergic reaction. This condition can also cause severe inflammation that may result in organ damage. Avoiding its typical triggers, such as spicy foods, alcohol, and certain medications, can help.
The signs and symptoms depend on the part of the body where it occurs. Most of the cells build up in the skin, spleen, bone marrow, and liver skin. Signs and symptoms of systemic Mastocytosis may include:
People have different triggers for this condition, but the most typical causes include the following:
Talk to your doctor if you have problems with hives or flushing or if you have concerns about the signs or symptoms listed above.
Most cases of this condition are caused by a mutation in the KIT gene. Too many mast cells are produced and build up in tissues and body organs, releasing substances such as histamine, leukotrienes, and cytokines that cause inflammation and symptoms. This condition can cause several complications, such as:
The treatment for this condition varies depending on the type of condition, and part of the organ is affected. It focuses on managing the symptoms, regular monitoring, and managing the disease itself. To control the triggers, identify and avoid the common triggers such as foods.
Ranitidine is a prescription used in the treatment and management of this condition. It blocks all the phases of gastric secretion. The recommended dosage of this medicine in adults is 150 mg twice daily or 300mg once daily, given at bedtime. The recommended dose of Ranitidine in pediatric patients is 2 to 4 mg once daily.
Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that can cause respiratory illness in humans. They are called “corona” because of crown-like spikes on the surface of the virus. Severe acute respiratory syndrome, Middle East respiratory syndrome, and the common cold are examples of coronaviruses that cause illness in humans. The new strain of this virus was detected in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and eventually becomes a pandemic.
Signs and symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 may appear 2 to 14 days after exposure. During the incubation period, the infected individual can spread the virus through respiratory droplets. Common signs and symptoms can include:
This list is not complete. Children have similar symptoms to adults and generally have mild illnesses. Emergency signs and symptoms can include:
This list is not complete. Let your healthcare provider know if you are an older adult or have chronic medical conditions, such as heart disease or lung disease, as you may have a greater risk of becoming seriously ill with this virus.
The severity of this virus’s symptoms can range from very mild to severe. Some people may have only a few symptoms. Some people may have no symptoms but can still spread it. Some people may experience worsening symptoms, such as shortness of breath and pneumonia, about a week after symptoms start. This is called post-COVID-19 conditions. Some children experience multisystem inflammatory syndrome, which can affect some organs and tissues after COVID-19. Rarely, do some adults experience the syndrome too.
People who are older have a higher risk of serious illness from COVID-19, and the risk increases with age. People who have existing medical conditions also may have a higher risk of serious illness. Certain medical conditions that may increase the risk include:
If you have an emergency of these virus signs and symptoms, seek care immediately.
Coronaviruses are zoonotic or they first develop in animals before being transmitted to humans. For the virus to be transmitted from animals to humans, a person has to come into close contact with an animal that has the infection. Once the virus develops in people, coronaviruses can be transmitted from person to person through respiratory droplets.
The 2019 coronavirus has not been definitively linked to a specific animal. Researchers believe that the virus may have been passed from bats to another animal either snakes or pangolins and then transmitted to humans. This transmission likely happened in the open food market in Wuhan.
Remdisivir is an approved medication for the disease. It is given to hospitalized adults and children who are aged 12 and older in the hospital. For mild conditions, a combination of isolation and supportive care will be given until the infected individual recovers.
In relieving symptoms of the virus, you can also use Nasal FabiSpray. The properties of FabiSpray, Nitric Oxide, prevent the virus’s transmission. It also protects high-risk patients from severe disease. It also treats symptoms such as colds, congestion, sneezing, and runny nose.
Psychosis is a condition that affects the way the brain processes information. This leads a person to lose touch with reality. Note that this is a symptom, not an illness. It is triggered by a mental illness, injury, substance abuse, trauma, or extreme stress.
The symptoms of this condition depend on its cause. This may appear quickly or cause slow changes in a person’s thoughts and perceptions. The symptoms can be mild or severe. The early signs are:
This condition involves one of the following categories or domains:
There are no specific causes of this condition but some known factors include:
The treatment of this condition involves a combination approach of medicine and therapy. Using antipsychotic medications relieves the symptoms and behavioral therapy helps reduce the need for hospital treatments. Therapy is significant, especially for conditions like schizophrenia.
Social support is also a successful aid in treating psychosis. Supporting a patient’s needs such as education, employment, and accommodation may significantly ease the condition along with proper medications.
Affected people often have reduced insight and awareness of the real world. If you know someone who has the condition or showing symptoms, you can seek help for them. You can contact your community social worker for evaluation, take them to the nearest emergency department, or call their GP.
Chlorpromazine. It is a prescription medicine used to treat the symptoms of Schizophrenia and Psychotic Disorders. It is also recommended by doctors to their patients to control agitation and mania in people who have bipolar disorder. It works by helping to restore the balance of certain natural substances in the brain. It can reduce aggressive behavior and the desire to hurt yourself or others. It may also help to decrease hallucinations.
What are the Side Effects of Chlorpromazine?
Inform your doctor if you experience persistent:
Rare but serious side effects can include:
This condition also called fever blisters is a common viral infection. They are tiny, fluid-filled blisters on and around your lips. These blisters are often grouped in patches. After the blisters break, scab forms that can last several days. Cold sores typically heal in two to three weeks without leaving a scar.
Once you have the virus, certain risk factors may activate it such as:
You are at risk of getting a cold sore if you come in contact with the fluid of a cold sore through sharing foods, drinks, or kissing. Sharing personal care items such as toothbrushes and razors also spreads the virus. If you come in contact with the saliva of someone who has the virus, you can get the virus, even if there are no visible blisters.
Signs and symptoms vary, depending on whether this is your first outbreak or a recurrence. The first time you have this condition, symptoms may not start for up to 20 days after you were first exposed to the virus. This includes:
The sores can last several days, and the blisters can take two to three weeks to heal completely. Recurrences typically appear at the same spot each time and tend to be less severe than the first outbreak.
In a first-time outbreak, you also might experience:
See your doctor if you experience:
These conditions are caused by certain strains of the herpes simplex virus. HSV-1 usually causes cold sores. HSV-2 is usually responsible for genital herpes. But either type can spread to the face or genitals through close contact, such as kissing or oral sex. Shared eating utensils, razors, and towels might also spread HSV-1.
This condition is most contagious when you have oozing blisters because the virus easily spreads through contact with infected body fluids. But you can spread the virus even if you do not have blisters. Many people who are infected with the virus that causes cold sores never develop signs and symptoms. Once you have had an episode of herpes infection, the virus lies dormant in nerve cells in your skin and may emerge as another cold sore in the same place as before.
Other causes of its reoccurrence are:
Cold sores generally clear up without treatment in two to four weeks. Several types of prescription antiviral medications may speed the healing process. Ensure to finish the treatment course to ensure recovery.
Valacyclovir. It prevents and interferes with the possible reproduction of the virus. This is a prescription medication used for cold sores and other specified conditions. The commonly reported side effects of Valacyclovir are nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and headaches. Avoid using this without any approval from your doctor.
Erectile Dysfunction is also known as the inability to get and keep an erection firm enough for sex. Having erection trouble from time to time is not necessarily a cause for concern. However, if this condition is a continuing issue, it can cause stress, affect your self-confidence, and contribute to relationship problems. Problems getting or keeping an erection can also be a sign of an underlying health condition that needs treatment as it can be a risk factor for heart disease.
This condition is a complex process that involves the hormones, brain, nerves, emotions, muscles, and blood vessels. Likewise, mental health and stress concerns can cause or worsen this condition. Sometimes it is due to a combination of physical and psychological issues. For example, a minor physical condition that slows your sexual response might cause anxiety about maintaining an erection. The resulting anxiety can lead to or worsen erectile dysfunction.
In many cases, ED is caused by some physical factors. Common causes include:
The brain plays a key role in triggering the series of physical events that cause an erection, starting with feelings of sexual excitement. Several things can interfere with sexual feelings that worsen ED. These includes:
Achieving an erection might take longer as you get older. It takes a longer period to develop and might not be as firm. You might need more direct touch to your penis to get and keep an erection. Various risk factors include:
The first thing your doctor will do is to provide treatment that focuses on alleviating other health conditions that cause ED. Depending on the cause and severity of your condition, your doctor will recommend several treatment methods. Talk to your doctor about the risk and benefits of each medication and treatment method.
Amenorrhea is the absence of menstruation defined as one or more menstrual periods. This condition can be temporary or permanent as a result of a change in function or a problem in some part of the female reproductive system. However, it is normal not to have menstruation if you are pregnant, in the menopausal period, or before puberty.
The signs and symptoms of this condition depend on the cause and other factors. These includes:
Seek medical help if you missed at least three menstrual periods in a row or you never have a period and your age is 15.
Some causes of this condition are due to medications and some occur due to natural causes such as pregnancy, breastfeeding, and menopause. Other causes of this condition include:
Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, birth control pills or other hormone therapies can restart your menstrual cycles. If it is caused by thyroid or pituitary disorders, it may be treated with medications. If a tumor or structural blockage is causing the problem, surgery may be necessary.
Progesterone. It is given to women who have secondary amenorrhea. It helps properly regulate the menstrual cycle and treat unusual stopping of the menstrual periods by causing changes in the uterus.
Endometrial hyperplasia is a precancerous condition in which the lining of the uterus becomes unusually thick due to hormonal imbalance. This condition leads to various symptoms that may require medical care. In some women, this can lead to cancer of the uterus. However, this is a rare condition that affects at least 133 out of 100,000 women.
Your menstrual cycle depends on the hormones estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen helps grow cells on the lining of the uterus. If there is no pregnancy taking place, the progesterone levels tell your uterus shed its lining. With an imbalance of these hormones, things can get out of sync. The typical cause of this condition is having too much progesterone instead of estrogen. An imbalance is caused by any of the following:
After assessing your symptoms and medical history, your doctor may run the following diagnostic method:
Treatment for this condition can either be hormonal therapy or surgery. In some cases, the treatment may also include a combination of both, otherwise, it can be treated with:
Progesterone. It is mainly used to treat endometrial hyperplasia and secondary amenorrhea in women. t works as part of hormone replacement therapy by decreasing the amount of estrogen in the uterus. It works to bring on menstruation by replacing the natural progesterone that some women are missing.
Home Care Treatment for Endometrial Hyperplasia Symptoms
Musculoskeletal disorders affect joints, bones, tendons, muscles, or ligaments. It is often characterized by persistent pain that affects mobility and dexterity. It reduces your ability to work and participate in any day-to-day activities.
Muscle spasms range from mild to intense conditions. The spastic muscle may feel harder than normal to touch and some may appear visibly distorted. Spasms typically last from seconds to fifteen minutes, or longer. Some attacks may also reoccur before totally going away.
There is usually no single cause of this condition. But it has various risk factors that often work in combination, including physical and organizational and psychosocial, and individual factors. Common causes of this condition include bone fracture, joint dislocation, overuse injuries, poor postures, and sprain. Direct blows to muscles and joints may also cause this condition.
If the condition interferes with your daily activities or function, speak with your doctor. Seek immediate medical help if you have severe pain from a sudden injury.
Tunnel syndromes. This condition causes nerve compression. Examples of this condition include carpal tunnel syndrome, and cubital tunnel syndrome leads to these conditions.
Your doctor will start by assessing your signs, symptoms, and medical history. Symptoms such as fever or rash may help with the diagnosis to determine whether the pain is chronic or acute. Your healthcare provider will perform a hands-on exam to look for the source or cause of the pain by touching the affected area. Some testing methods may include:
Typically, this condition improves with proper treatment. If an underlying condition causes pain, treating that condition can help relieve symptoms. Maintaining strong bones and joints is essential for preventing this condition. Along with proper exercise and medications, ensure that you are following a healthy lifestyle, especially during the treatment course. Use good posture and limit repetitive movements to successfully treat the pain.
Medication Used for Musculoskeletal pain
Ibuprofen. This is a tolerable pain reliever than using aspirin. It is used as a simple analgesic and antipyretic for muscle and bone pain. You can buy OTC ibuprofen but ensure to talk to your doctor about taking this medication especially if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
Gout is a type of arthritis caused by a build-up of uric acid crystals in the joints. This condition has the distinction as it is one of the most frequently recorded illnesses throughout history. A gout attack can occur suddenly that may often wake you up at night and even the weight of your bedsheet is intolerable. This condition can occur in anyone but they often come earlier in men than women because men often have higher levels of uric acid.
Some attacks may occur frequently and others go years between episodes. If left untreated, attacks may become more frequent and may last longer which may also happen over again in the same joint.
You are more likely to develop this condition if you:
Gout is caused by crystals accumulating in your joint that cause inflammation and intense pain during an attack. Crystals can form when you have high levels of uric acid in your blood. Other causes are linked to certain medications, existing diseases, weight, and dietary choices.
There are two types of medication available for this condition to focus on two different problems. The first type reduces the inflammation and pain associated with the attack. The second type prevents gout complications by lowering the amount of uric acid in your blood. However, the potency of the medication depends on the severity and frequency of your symptoms along with other health problems.
Medications work best if it is coupled with a proper diet and healthy lifestyle. If you have this condition it is always important to:
Oedema or Edema is a swelling caused by excess fluid that is trapped in the body’s tissues. It can affect any part of the body but it is more noticeable in your feet, arms, ankles, legs, and hands. This condition can be a result of your medication, pregnancy, or any underlying health condition.
Fluid often leaks into your body tissues from the blood. The lymphatic system is a network of tubes throughout the body that drains fluid. Fluid retention occurs when the fluid is not removed from the tissues. The two categories of this condition include:
See your doctor if you experience any of the following:
Mild causes of this disease are a result from:
Some medications also cause this fluid build up such as:
Diseases that may cause this condition are:
Mild edema usually goes away on its own, particularly if you help things along by raising the affected limb higher than your heart. More severe edema may be treated with diuretics that help your body expel excess fluid in the form of urine. If the fluid retention is caused by medication use, your doctor may adjust your prescription or check for an alternative medication that doesn’t cause retention.
The recommended prescription for this disease is Amiloride Hydrochlorothiazide. It controls swelling caused by water retention. This medication is given especially to patients with conditions in the heart.
A myocardial infarction occurs when the flow of blood to the heart is reduced or blocked. The blockage is typically caused by a buildup of cholesterol, fats, and other substances in the arteries of the heart. The fatty cholesterol that causes blockage is known as plaque. A plaque may sometimes rupture and forms a blood clot that blocks the flow of blood and damages a part of the heart muscle.
Women may have unusual symptoms of a heart attack such as:
It strikes suddenly but many people have warning signs hours, days, or weeks in advance. Chest pain or pressure that persists may be an early warning sign. Seek immediate help if you or someone you know is showing symptoms of an attack.
Coronary artery diseases are typical causes of an attack. In coronary artery disease, one or more of the heart arteries are blocked. This is usually due to cholesterol-containing deposits called plaques. If a plaque breaks open, it can cause a blood clot in the heart. Other causes include:
Each minute after a heart attack, more heart tissues die. Therefore, it is vital to fix blood flow and oxygen levels. Medications used for attacks are aspirin, clot busters, beta-blockers, morphine, and other recommended drugs. Surgical and other procedures are also essential to treat the blockage that causes the attack.
Atenolol Chlorthalidone. It is one of the most commonly used beta blockers that is used to reduce cardiovascular complications in patients who have post-myocardial infarction.
Appetite suppressants are weight-loss medications that affect the brain’s urge to eat. Most of these pills help control hunger pain and make you feel fuller faster even with less food. This will help you take fewer calories and help in weight loss. On average, people who combine prescription appetite suppressants with healthy lifestyle changes lose 3% to 9% of their starting weight within 12 months.
People use appetite suppressants to jumpstart weight loss. Diet pills can help you change the way you eat and learn to recognize signals that signal when you are full. Note that the benefits of these pills are effective when taken as per the doctor’s prescription. The FDA has approved some prescription appetite suppressants for short-term use of 12 weeks or less. If you lose weight and don’t have side effects, you may be able to take certain prescription medications indefinitely with your healthcare provider’s approval.
Rare factors that you should watch out for when using suppressants are:
In case of persistent symptoms, stop your medication and seek further medical advise. People with the following conditions should not take any APs:
There are prescription and over-the-counter pills that help block the absorption of fat. If you are planning to incorporate APs into your routine, ensure to talk to your doctor first. Note that some OTC products may interact with medications or cause health problems. FDA-Approved products are:
Phentermine. It helps in solving your problems with your uncontrollable eating behavior. It stimulates the central nervous system and suppresses your appetite. People who take Phentermine are less likely to load more foods. The onset of the effects starts four hours after taking the dosage. It increases energy and prevents drowsiness throughout the day.
It causes the brain to stimulate the adrenal glands to release neurotransmitters. It sends a fight-or-flight signal similar to the response of the body in dangerous situations. When your body releases neurotransmitters, your body increases the satiating effect of the medication. It reduces your hunger and suppresses your appetite to manage your eating behavior.
Despite the appetite-suppressing effects, Phentermine does not reduce the appeal of the foods in your taste buds. If food tastes different, it is more likely because of a dry mouth. It is a side effect of Phentermine that can occur in some cases. To avoid getting side effects, ensure that you are drinking an adequate amount of water. It can also help you in suppressing your appetite and releases toxins from your body.
Your physician will prescribe you Phentermine if you have the following:
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, progressive, and disabling autoimmune disease that causes inflammation, swelling, and pain in and around the joints and can affect other parts of the body. It usually affects the hands and feet first, but it can occur in any joint that may involve the same joints on both sides of the body.
RA is the result of an immune response in which the body’s immune system attacks its own healthy cells. Although there is no specific cause of this condition, some factors can increase the risk of developing the disease. Eventually, if left untreated, the inflammation can invade and destroy cartilage.
There is no cure for this condition but there are several ways to manage its symptoms and prevent future attacks. Clinical studies indicate that remission of symptoms is more likely when treatment begins early with medications known as disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs.
Medications such as NSAIDs can relieve pain and reduce inflammation. A recommended medication for this condition is Nabumetone. It possesses analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory actions used to manage symptoms of RA. Discuss with your doctor the possible benefits and risk factors before using this medication.
Steroids are also used as a medication to reduce inflammation and pain and slow joint damage. Doctors also recommend conventional DMARDs to slow the progression of the disease and save the joints and other tissues from permanent damage.
Your doctor may also refer you to a physical or occupational therapist who can teach you exercises to help keep your joints flexible. Besides suggesting ways to do daily tasks that are easier on your joints, the therapist may also suggest new ways to do them.
Surgery is the last option of treatment for RA if medications fail to prevent or slow joint damage. To restore your ability to use your joint, your doctor may recommend surgery to repair damaged joints. It can also reduce pain and improve function.
Fibromyalgia is a condition that causes pain all over the body or also referred to as widespread pain, sleep problems, fatigue, and often emotional and mental distress. People with this disease may be more sensitive to pain due to abnormal pain perception processing. Women are more likely to develop this condition than men. Many people also have tension headaches, temporomandibular joint disorders, irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety, and depression.
The primary symptoms of this condition include:
This condition often co-exists with other conditions, such as:
In people with fibromyalgia, repeated nerve stimulation changes their brains and spinal cords. This change involves an abnormal increase in levels of certain chemicals in the brain that signal pain. Moreover, the brain’s pain receptors seem to develop a memory of the pain and become sensitized, which means they can overreact in both painful and nonpainful situations.
Some of the related causes are Genetics as this condition tends to run in families, and certain genetic mutations may make you more susceptible to developing the disorder. Infections, physical, and emotional life events also cause chronic pain.
Generally, treatments for this disease include both medication and self-care strategies. The emphasis is on minimizing symptoms and improving general health. The use of multiple treatment strategies can have a cumulative effect since no one treatment works for all symptoms. Common choices include:
Duloxetine. It is an antidepressant that is also used to relieve chronic pain associated with a condition known as fibromyalgia. It is believed that duloxetine exerts antidepressant effects due to its serotonergic and noradrenergic activity in the central nervous system.
Dermatitis is a general term that describes a common skin irritation. It has many causes and forms and usually involves itchy, dry skin or a rash. This skin condition may also cause the skin to blister, ooze, crust, or flake off. Although this is not contagious, it will make you feel uncomfortable.
Each type of this condition tends to occur in a different part of your body. Symptoms may include:
Seek immediate help if:
A common cause of this condition is contact with something that irritates your skin or triggers an allergic reaction. Other causes include dry skin, a viral infection, bacteria, stress, genetic makeup, and a problem with the immune system. Other factors that may cause dermatitis are:
The treatment for this condition varies, depending on the cause and your symptoms. In addition to the lifestyle and home remedies, treatment might include one or more of the following:
Clobetasol. It is a corticosteroid that treats various types of skin disorders by controlling the production of inflammation-causing substances. It effectively reduces symptoms associated with allergic reactions in the skin.
Otomycosis is a fungal infection in the outer ear and causes inflammation, dry skin, and a smelly discharge in the ear canal. It usually affects the outer ear canal that starts from your eardrum and continues to the outside of your head. In some cases, it may affect the middle ear as well. About 10% of outer ear canal infections are caused by fungi.
These indications typically occur in one ear, but it is possible that both ears can be affected at the same time. Typical symptoms of otomycosis include:
Otomycosis can become chronic if someone does not respond to treatment or has a weakened immune system, diabetes mellitus, or a chronic skin condition, such as eczema.
Symptoms of otomycosis should always be evaluated by a doctor in order to get the correct diagnosis and treatment. The doctor will take a thorough medical history to determine if any risk factors are present. They will perform a physical exam with an instrument called an otoscope to look inside the ear canal and eardrum. In some cases, a sample of cells or fluid from the ear will be taken to be examined under a microscope. This will help them to differentiate between a fungal or bacterial infection.
Clotrimazole Cream. It is an antifungal medication used as a topical treatment for tinea infections. Use this cream two or three times daily. Continue to use the cream for at least 14 days after your symptoms have gone. Ensure to finish the treatment course to get the most benefits.
Bipolar 2 disorder is a form of mental illness that is similar to bipolar I disorder, with moods cycling between high and low over time. However, in this condition, the up moods never reach full-blown mania. The less-intense elevated moods in this disorder are called hypomanic episodes, or hypomania.
Most people with bipolar 2 disorder have also experienced periods of depression which may include:
Bipolar I disorder requires symptoms to meet the full criteria for what is known as a manic episode. The diagnosis of Bipolar I is not dependent on depression, but many people with the diagnosis experience both types of mood episodes. At least three of the following symptoms can determine the diagnosis:
Mania is more extreme than a sudden burst in energy, motivation, or a happy mood. It often causes problems at work, school, and in relationships, and in some cases it may require hospitalization. A manic episode is also just as frequently characterized by an irritable mood as an elevated one for people with Bipolar I.
For bipolar 2 disorder, on the other hand, a person has to have experienced a depressive episode and a less severe form of mania which is known as hypomania. Mania occurs when an individual displays manic symptoms but is able to carry on with day-to-day responsibilities. In fact, job performance or other goal-directed activities may even improve. To meet the diagnosis of a depressive episode, a person must experience 5 or more of the following symptoms:
Many people with bipolar 2 disorder are diagnosed with depression because they fail to report the elevated mood symptoms of hypomania to their doctor. Furthermore, people with bipolar 2 disorder are more likely to suffer from substance abuse and eating disorders, as well as have a family member suffering from a mental illness.
The types and doses of medications prescribed are based on your particular symptoms of bipolar 2 disorder. Whether you have bipolar I or II, medications may include:
Chlorpromazine. It is used to address symptoms of mania, psychosis, or agitation and not for long-term bipolar 2 disorder management. It works by helping to restore the balance of certain natural substances in the brain. It can reduce aggressive behavior and the desire to hurt yourself or others.
What are Beta Blockers?
Beta-blockers are a class of medicines most commonly used for problems involving your heart and your circulatory system. Doctors may also recommend them for your nervous system and brain conditions. It works by slowing down certain types of cell activity, which can help control blood pressure, heart rate, and more.
These medications are recommended as a first treatment in people who have only high blood pressure. These are not usually prescribed for high blood pressure unless other medications, such as diuretics, are not working well. Also, a doctor may prescribe a beta blocker as one of several medications to lower blood pressure. Other uses include:
These medications work by decreasing the total peripheral resistance and as a result, the blood pressure fall. It reduces noradrenaline release from the sympathetic terminals due to beta-receptor blockade. The beta-receptor inhibition can cause a decrease in renin release from the kidney.
Atenolol. It reduces cardiovascular complications in post-myocardial infarction patients. This medication has a longer duration of action and hence a dosage of once daily suffices. It also causes fewer CNS side effects and has a low risk of causing bronchoconstriction.
This medication can negatively impact several diseases, conditions, and health concerns. Tell your doctor if you have any of the following:
What is Conjunctivitis?
Conjunctivitis, also known as pinkeye, is an inflammation of the conjunctiva or the thin clear tissue that lies over the white part of the eye and lines the inside of the eyelid. This condition is common in children and can be contagious. Nevertheless, this condition is rarely severe and unlikely to damage vision.
Seek immediate help if you or your child experience any of the following symptoms:
The appropriate treatment for this depends on its cause.
The first step is to remove or avoid the irritant, if possible. Cool compresses and artificial tears sometimes relieve discomfort in mild cases. Antihistamines and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications may be prescribed in more severe cases.
This condition is usually treated with antibiotic eye drops or ointments. Bacterial pinkeye condition may improve after three or four days of treatment, but patients need to take an entire course of antibiotics to prevent a recurrence. However, no drops or ointments can treat conditions caused by viral infections. Like a common cold, the virus has to run its course, which may take up to two or three weeks. Symptoms can often be relieved with cool compresses and artificial tear solutions.
It is treated with careful flushing with saline. People with chemical conditions also may need to use topical steroids. In the case of severe chemical injuries, particularly alkali burns, scarring, damage to the eye or sight, or even loss of sight can occur. If chemical spills in your eye, flush the eye for several minutes with a lot of water before seeing your medical provider.
Promethazine. It is a phenothiazine derivative used in the treatment of rhinitis, pinkeye, and mild and uncomplicated allergic skin reactions. Promethazine is an H1 selective antagonist that exhibits sedative and antiemetic properties.
What Is Malaria?
Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite that is spread to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes. People who have this disease usually feel very sick with a high fever and shaking chills. This disease is uncommon in temperate climates, but it is still common in tropical and subtropical countries.
Some people who have malaria experience cycles of attacks that you usually start with shivering and chills, followed by a high fever, followed by sweating, and a return to normal temperature. Symptoms include:
It is caused by a single-celled parasite of the genus Plasmodium. The parasite is transmitted to humans most usually through mosquito bites.
Anyone can get malaria, but people who live in Africa have a higher risk of infection than others. There is an increased risk of malaria mortality among young children, the elderly, and pregnant women. The disease is more likely to cause complications in poor people with no access to healthcare. More than 90% of deaths occur in Africa, and almost all of them are children under the age of five.
Your doctor will review your medical history and recent travel, as well as your symptoms. Blood testing is the main diagnostic method to determine the condition. Blood tests can indicate:
This condition is treated with prescription medications that aim to kill the parasite. The length of the treatment period varies on the type of the parasite, the severity of symptoms, and age. In some cases, prescription drugs may not clear the condition due to the resistance of parasites to certain medications. If this happens, your medical provider will recommend other treatments or change the medications to successfully treat your condition.
Chloroquine. It is the preferred treatment for any parasite that is sensitive to the drug. But in many parts of the world, parasites are resistant to chloroquine, and the drug is no longer an effective treatment. Follow your doctor’s recommendation for successful treatment.
If you go somewhere or are traveling to an area where this disease is common, take steps to avoid mosquito bites. Mosquitoes are most active between dusk and dawn. To protect yourself from mosquito bites, you should: