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Neuropathic Pain

Neuropathic pain is often described as a shooting or burning sensation. It can subside on its own but tends to last for days or weeks. Often it is caused by nerve damage or a malfunctioning nervous system, and it is unrelenting and severe at times. Nerve damage affects both the area around the injury and the site of the injury in terms of nerve function.

Alcohol or drug abuse

What are the Causes of Neuropathic Pain?

What are the Symptoms of Neuropathic Pain?

  • Spontaneous pain that comes without stimulation
  • Pain that feels like a shooting, stabbing, burning, or electric shock
  • Tingling, numbness feeling
  • Induced pain or pain brought about by normally non-painful stimuli like cold or gentle brushing
  • Increase of pain due to painful stimuli such as pinpricks and heat.
  • Either a spontaneous or evoked unpleasant sensation.
  • Trouble sleeping, and emotional problems due to severe pain.
  • A normally painful stimulus that may be lessened by a less painful stimulus
Medications Used For Kidney Infection

Neuropathic Pain Treatment

Anticonvulsants and antidepressant drugs are often the first lines of treatment. Some neuropathic pain studies suggest the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Doctors may also recommend stronger pain killers. So, ensure to discuss the pros and cons of the medicine you take with your doctor.

In the case of another medical condition, such as diabetes, better management of that disorder may help alleviate the pain. Effective management of the condition can also help prevent further nerve damage. An invasive or implantable device may be used by a pain specialist in cases that are difficult to treat. It has been shown that electrical stimulation of the nerves involved in neuropathic pain can significantly reduce pain symptoms.

Tramadol for Neuropathic Pain

Tramadol is a narcotic-like pain reliever and not an over-the-counter drug. It works by changing the way your brain senses pain. Your body sends pain messages to your brain when the drug binds with the receptor, just like endorphins in your body.

Chronic pain can be treated round the clock with the extended form, which releases into the body slowly. The immediate release is released into the body right away. Buy Tramadol here at a reasonable price, but ensure to seek advice from your doctor first.

Intermittent Claudication

Intermittent claudication is muscle pain that happens when you are active and stops when you rest. The pain may also intensify and can interfere with your simple activities.

Colchicine Knee Pain

What are the Symptoms of Intermittent Claudication?

  • Pain, discomfort, and fatigue in muscles
  • Pain in the calves, hips, thighs, and feet
  • Pain in the forearm, biceps, and shoulders

Severe symptoms may also occur over time and may result in warning symptoms of peripheral artery disease, usually in more-advanced stages, including:

  • Severe and constant pain
  • Pain that progresses to numbness
  • Cool skin
  • Skin discoloration
  • Wounds that do not heal

What is the Most Common Cause of Claudication?

Atherosclerosis is the common cause of claudication. It causes a buildup of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in and on the artery walls. The plaque or build-up causes the arteries to narrow, blocking blood flow. The plaque can also burst, leading to a blood clot. Other condition that causes claudication includes:

  • A bulging artery in your belly or leg
  • Narrowed spinal canal
  • Damaged nerves

Intermittent Claudication Treatment

The goal of the treatment for claudication is to reduce the pain and manage the risk factors that contribute to heart and blood vessel disease. Exercise is one of the treatment activities that reduces pain, increases exercise duration, and improves vascular health in the affected limbs. Surgery and other procedure include:

  • Angioplasty. This procedure improves blood flow by widening a damaged artery.
  • Vascular surgery. This type of surgery replaces the vessel that is causing claudication and allows blood to flow around the blocked or narrowed artery.

Cilostazol for Intermittent Claudication Treatment

Cilostazol is a medication used to help the symptoms of intermittent claudication in peripheral vascular disease. It increases blood flow and the amount of oxygen that gets to the muscles. Cilostazol also stops platelets from sticking together and prevents them from forming harmful clots.

Treatment Medications Used for Claudication

Doctors often recommend one or more medications to control pain and manage risk factors for cardiovascular disease. It often includes medications for high cholesterol, pain, high blood pressure, and medicine for other cardiovascular risks.

losing weight

Lifestyle and Home Remedies for Intermittent Claudication

  1. Quit smoking. Peripheral artery disease complications are greatly increased by smoking. Talk to your health care provider if you need help quitting.
  2. Foot care. It is important to know how to inspect your feet properly so that injuries can be treated as soon as possible. Support and protect your feet by wearing socks and appropriate shoes.
  3. Exercise. Keeping your heart healthy and managing your weight requires regular exercise.
  4. Eat a healthy diet. Reduce your fat intake by eating a variety of low-starch vegetables, fruits, and whole grains, along with modest portions of lean meats, poultry, fish, and low-fat dairy products.

Major Depressive Disorder Symptoms and Causes

Major depressive disorder is a medical condition that affects your mood and ability to function. This type of disorder may occur only once during your life. During these times, symptoms occur most of the day, nearly every day including feelings of sadness and emptiness. As to what causes major depressive disorder, a variety of factors may be involved. 

Anxiety and stress

Signs and Symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder

  • Unexplained physical problems, such as back pain or headaches
  • Feelings of sadness, tearfulness, emptiness, or hopelessness
  • Sleep disturbances
  • Tiredness and lack of energy
  • Angry outbursts, irritability, or frustration
  • Slowed thinking, speaking, or body movements
  • Feelings of worthlessness or guilt
  • Loss of interest or pleasure in most or all normal activities
  • Reduced appetite and weight loss or increased cravings for food 
  • Anxiety
  • Trouble thinking and concentrating
  • Frequent or recurrent thoughts of death, suicidal thoughts, or suicide attempts 

Factors That Cause Major Depressive Disorder

As with many mental disorders, a variety of factors may be involved, such as:

  • Hormones: Depression may be caused or triggered by changes in the body’s hormone balance. Pregnancy, postpartum, thyroid problems, menopause, and other conditions can cause hormonal changes.
  • Biological differences: There are physical changes in the brain of people who suffer from depression. It remains unclear what the significance of these changes is, but they may eventually help determine the cause.
  • Brain chemistry: Depression is likely caused by neurotransmitters, which are naturally occurring brain chemicals. According to recent research, changes in the function and effect of these neurotransmitters and their interaction with neurocircuits involved in maintaining mood stability may contribute to depression.
  • Inherited traits: Depression is more prevalent in people whose blood relatives also suffer from it. Depressive disorders may be caused by genes, according to researchers. 
Alcohol or drug abuse

Complications Associated With Major Depressive Disorder

Depression is a serious illness that can be very difficult to deal with. Without treatment, depression can lead to emotional, behavioral, and health problems that affect every aspect of your life.

  • Pain or physical illness
  • Alcohol or drug misuse
  • Excess weight or obesity can lead to heart disease and diabetes
  • Family conflicts, relationship difficulties, and work or school problems
  • Social isolation
  • Anxiety, panic disorder, or social phobia
  • Suicidal feelings, suicide attempts, or suicide
  • Self-mutilation, such as cutting
  • Premature death from medical conditions

Treatment for Major Depressive Disorder

People with a major depressive disorder often have medications and psychotherapy to effectively treat the condition. 

Psychotherapy is also known as talk therapy or psychological therapy. It is a general term for treating depression by talking about your condition and related issues with a mental health professional.  

Medications may include antidepressants such as:

  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
  • Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)
  • Atypical antidepressants
  • Tricyclic antidepressants
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)

The usually recommended medication for major depressive disorder:

  • Escitalopram – is an antidepressant drug that is used in adults and adolescents 12 to 17 years of age. It works by increasing the amount of serotonin, a natural substance in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. 

What Are The Major Risk Factors For Lung Cancer?

Lung cancer is known to be the leading cause of cancer deaths globally. The major risk factors that research has found may increase your chances of getting lung cancer. 

A risk factor is anything that increases a person’s chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, like smoking, can be changed. Others, like a person’s age or family history, can’t be changed.

Types of Lung Cancer

Lung cancer cells are categorized under the microscope into two major types. Depending on the type of lung cancer you have, your doctor will make treatment decisions.

The two general types of lung cancer include:

  • Small Cell Lung Cancer: This occurs almost exclusively in heavy smokers and is less common than non-small cell lung cancer.
  • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: This is an umbrella term for several types of lung cancers. Non-small cell lung cancers include squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell carcinoma.
smoking cigarettes

Major Risk Factors of Lung Cancer

  • Smoking

The number one risk factor for lung cancer is smoking cigarettes. Cigars and pipes are also tobacco products that increase lung cancer risk. More than 7,000 chemicals are present in tobacco smoke. Smoking increases a person’s risk the longer they smoke and the more cigarettes they smoke each day. 

  • Secondhand Smoke

Secondhand smoke (smoking from someone else’s cigarettes, pipes, or cigars) can also cause lung cancer. Inhaling secondhand smoke is like smoking. 

  • Radon

In the United States, radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. Water, soil, and rocks all contain radon, a naturally occurring gas. There is no way to see, taste, or smell it. By getting into homes or buildings through cracks or holes, radon can get trapped and build up in the air. Radon levels are high in homes and buildings where people live or work. Lung cancer can be caused by radon over long periods.

  • Personal or Family History of Lung Cancer

There is a risk that you may develop another lung cancer if you are a lung cancer survivor, especially if you smoke. Your risk of lung cancer may be higher if your parents, siblings, or children have had lung cancer. This could be true because they also smoke, or they live or work in the same place where they are exposed to radon and other substances that can cause lung cancer.

Lung Cancer Diagnosis

Treatment for Lung Cancer 

A treatment plan is based on several factors such as overall health, the stage of your cancer, and the type. In some cases, you may choose not to undergo treatment. For instance, you may feel that the side effects of treatment will outweigh the potential benefits. When that’s the case, your doctor may suggest comfort care to treat only the symptoms the cancer is causing. 

Treatment may include:

  • Surgery
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Stereotactic body radiotherapy
  • Targeted drug therapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Palliative care 

What Type Of Bacteria Causes Urinary Tract Infection?

Urinary tract infection is caused by a bacteria called Escherichia coli (E. coli). Doctors usually treat urinary tract infections with antibiotics. On the other hand, you can take steps to lessen your chances of getting the infection in the first place.

What is Urinary Tract Infection and Its Causes?

Urinary tract infection is an infection of your urinary system including kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Most infections may involve the lower urinary tract such as the bladder and the urethra. 

The different types of urinary tract infection can include:

  • Urethritis
  • Cystitis
  • Pyelonephritis 
  • Urethritis
  • Vaginitis 

This type of infection is caused by micro-organisms, usually bacteria. In the urinary tract, bacteria do not normally live. UTIs occur when bacteria multiply in the urinary tract.

Urinary infections and cystitis can be caused by a variety of germs. Escherichia coli (E.coli) is the most common germ that causes urinary tract infections. The urethra lining can easily become infected with E.coli. When the urine flows back up from the bladder to the kidneys or when the urinary flow is blocked, some people are at greater risk of infection.

Diagnosing Encephalitis

Common Symptoms of Urinary Tract Infection

  • Want to urinate more often and urgently 
  • Burning pain when urinating
  • A feeling that the bladder is still full after urinating
  • Pain above the pubic bone
  • Cloudy, bloody, or very smelly urine

Complications of Urinary Tract Infection

When a urinary tract infection is left untreated, it can have serious consequences such as:

  • Recurrent infections in women who experience two or more urinary tract infections in six months or four or more within a year.
  • Permanent kidney damage from an acute or chronic kidney infection (pyelonephritis) because of an untreated urinary tract infection.
  • Urethral narrowing (stricture) in men from recurrent urethritis that is previously seen with gonococcal urethritis.
  • Increased risk in pregnant women of delivering premature infants or low birth weight. 
  • Sepsis is a potentially life-threatening complication of an infection, especially if the infection works its way up your urinary tract to your kidneys. 

Prevention of Urinary Tract Infection

These prevention tips may be useful in reducing the risk of developing urinary tract infection:

  • Drink plenty of water and other fluids to flush the urinary system 
  • Go to the toilet as soon as you feel the urge to urinate, rather than holding
  • Avoid potentially irritating feminine products
  • Empty your bladder soon after intercourse

Treatment for Urinary Tract Infection

Urinary tract infections are very serious, especially if you suspect you may have a bladder infection or kidney infection, both of which are very dangerous. It is possible to prevent urinary infections from spreading to the bladder or kidneys if they are treated early.

You will be tested for microorganisms in your urine by your doctor. Antibiotics are usually effective in treating urinary tract infections.

  • Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim – this is a combined antibiotic medication that works by eliminating the bacteria that cause many kinds of infections including urinary tract infections. 

What Are The Signs Of Heart Failure?

The early signs of heart failure are often very subtle, but it’s dangerous to ignore them. Proper treatment can improve the signs of heart failure and may help some people live longer. Lifestyle changes such as losing weight, exercising, reducing salt in your diet, and managing stress can improve your quality of life. 

Possible Causes of Heart Failure

Heart failure often develops after other conditions have damaged or weakened the heart. However, heart failure can also occur if the heart becomes too stiff. 

Heart failure causes the main pumping chambers of the heart to become stiff and not fill properly between beats. The heart muscle may weaken and become damaged in some people. The ventricles can become too stretched to pump enough blood through the body. The heart cannot keep up with the demands placed on it to pump blood over time.

Any of the following conditions can damage or weaken your heart and can cause heart failure. Some of these can be present without your knowing it:

  • Coronary artery disease and heart attack
  • High blood pressure
  • Faulty heart valves
  • Damage to the heart muscle
  • Inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis)
  • A heart problem that you’re born with (congenital heart defect)
  • Abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias)
  • Long-term diseases (diabetes, HIV, an overactive or underactive thyroid, or a buildup of iron or protein)
Chest pain

Signs of Heart Failure

Heart failure signs may include:

  • Shortness of breath with activity or when lying down
  • Rapid or irregular heartbeat
  • Reduced ability to exercise
  • Very rapid weight gain from fluid buildup
  • Nausea
  • Lack of appetite
  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet
  • Persistent cough or wheezing with white or pink blood-tinged mucus
  • Swelling of the belly area 
  • Difficulty concentrating or decreased alertness
  • Chest pain if heart failure is caused by a heart attack

See your doctor if you think you might be experiencing signs of heart failure. Call for medical assistance if you have any of the following:

  • Fainting or severe weakness
  • Chest pain
  • Sudden, severe shortness of breath and coughing up white or pink, foamy mucus
  • Rapid or irregular heartbeat associated with shortness of breath, chest pain, or fainting

Treatment for Heart Failure

Chronic diseases such as heart failure require lifelong management. In some cases, however, heart failure can improve with treatment, and the heart may become stronger as a result.

The underlying cause of heart failure can sometimes be treated by doctors. Heart failure may be reversed, for instance, by repairing a heart valve or controlling a fast heart rhythm. In most cases, heart failure is treated with a combination of medicines and sometimes with devices that help the heartbeat. 

Doctors usually treat heart failure with a combination of medications. Depending on your symptoms, you might take one or more medications. The recommended medication can be:

  • Digoxin – this is usually along with other medications. Digoxin belongs to a class of medications called cardiac glycosides. It works by affecting certain minerals inside heart cells. This reduces strain on the heart and helps it maintain a normal, steady, and strong heartbeat. 

What Is An Acute Manic Episode?

An acute manic episode is the phase of bipolar I disorder. During acute mania, an individual may experience increased impulsivity that causes them to act in a way that is brash, untimely, or immoral. People with acute mania will also likely have increased energy, get little to no sleep and talk very fast, and often jump from topic to topic. They may experience some symptoms of psychosis, where they are not fully aware of or connected to reality. 

Possible Causes of an Acute Manic Episode

The most common cause is bipolar disorder. Those with bipolar disorder be subject to experience cycles of mania and depression over several weeks or months. In several cases, those with bipolar disorder don’t have any predictable mania triggers which makes the onset of manic episodes unpredictable.

In addition to bipolar disorder, acute mania may also be caused by drugs or medications, especially stimulants. Certain other medical conditions, especially thyroid conditions or mental health diseases, may also cause episodes.

Acute Manic Episode Risk Factors

The most significant risk factors for the manic episode are the risk factors for bipolar disorder, which commonly causes mania. These include having close relatives with bipolar disorder or having a history of substance abuse. Other risk factors of mania include using drugs recreationally or failing to treat underlying mental health conditions that may cause mania. Drug-induced mania is quite rare but is still something that may be experienced.

Diagnosis for Hypersexuality

How Is Acute Manic Episode Diagnosed?

A psychiatrist can evaluate a patient for mania by asking questions and discussing symptoms. Direct observations can indicate that a patient is having a manic episode.

The episode must occur for a week or less than a week if the patient is hospitalized. In addition to a disturbed mood, patients must experience at least three of the following symptoms:

  • Being easily distracted.
  • Engages in risky or impulsive behavior
  • Has racing thoughts.
  • Has a reduced need for sleep
  • Has obsessive thoughts

An acute manic episode disrupts a person’s life and negatively affects relationships, as well as work or school. Many manic episodes need hospitalization to stabilize the mood of the patient and prevent self-harm. In some instances, hallucinations or delusions are part of manic episodes. For the person’s state to be considered a manic episode, symptoms must not be the result of outside influences, such as abuse of drugs or alcohol.

Treatment for Acute Manic Episode

Usually, acute mania treatment is part of a broader bipolar disorder treatment. The first focus is usually placed on the more short-term mania recovery so that the person suffering from the manic episode can resume normal activities. 

Mania management may involve hospitalization and therapy with a psychiatrist. While this may be the typical course of treatment for many people, each person’s situation is unique, and someone with specific questions should seek the advice of a doctor.

Medication usually used:

Stomach Ulcers Causes and Treatment

The cause of stomach ulcers is an infection with H. pylori. Treatment for this condition depends on the cause. Usually, treatment will involve killing the H. pylori bacterium is present, removing or decreasing the use of NSAIDs if possible, and helping your ulcer to heal with medication.

What Is A Stomach Ulcer And How Common It Is?  

A stomach ulcer is an open sore that develops in your stomach lining. It occurs when the protective mucous lining in your stomach and duodenum has been eroded which allows gastric acids and digestive enzymes to eat away at your stomach and duodenal walls. This eventually causes an open sore that is continually irritated by the acid. 

Stomach ulcers are very common in Western countries. Some estimates say that 1 in 10 people will have one at some point in their lives. That’s because many of the causes that contribute to stomach ulcers are common in Western life. Fortunately, these causes are usually easy to trace and reverse, giving ulcers a chance to heal and your stomach lining a chance to repair. 

abdominal pain

What Causes Stomach Ulcer?

The two most common causes are:

  • H. pylori infection – this common bacterial infection affects up to half of the people globally. It mainly lives in the stomach. Several people have reported no problems with it. It is kept in check by their gut immune system. However, some individuals are infected with H. pylori overgrowth. Peptic ulcer disease and chronic inflammation are caused by the bacteria multiplying in the stomach lining. H. pylori infection is associated with about 60% of duodenal ulcers and 40% of gastric ulcers.
  • Overuse of NSAIDs – contributes to ulcers in several ways. They irritate the mucous lining of the stomach and repress some of the chemicals that protect and repair it. There is a 30% chance of developing peptic ulcers in people who take NSAIDs regularly. Overuse of NSAIDs causes up to 50% of stomach ulcers.

The less common cause of stomach ulcers include:

  • Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome – this is a rare condition that causes your stomach to produce too much gastric acid. 
  • Severe physiological stress – severe illness, burns, or injuries can produce stress ulcers in the stomach. Physiological stress changes your body’s PH balance, increasing stomach acid. Stress ulcers develop very quickly in response to stress, unlike normal stomach ulcers that develop gradually. 
Medications Used For Kidney Infection

Treatment for Stomach Ulcer

Treatment for stomach ulcers depends on the cause. 

You may find relief from the pain of a stomach ulcer if you:

  • Consider switching pain relievers. 
  • Control stress. Stress may worsen the symptoms of a stomach ulcer. 
  • Don’t smoke. Smoking may interfere with the protective lining of the stomach which makes your stomach more susceptible to the development of an ulcer. Smoking also increases stomach acid.
  • Limit or avoid alcohol. Excessive use of alcohol can irritate and erode the mucous lining in your stomach and intestines which causes inflammation and bleeding.

Recommended medication for stomach ulcers:

What Causes Obesity?

Obesity is considered one of the biggest health problems worldwide. When it comes to the cause of obesity, poor nutrition and lack of exercise are important factors. 

What is Obesity?

Obesity occurs when your body accumulates and stores excessive amounts of fat. If you consume high amounts of energy, particularly fat and sugars, but do not burn off the energy through exercise and physical activity, much of the surplus energy will be stored by the body as fat.


Causes of Obesity 

  • Genetics: You are at high risk of being obese if one or both parents are obese. Genetics affects hormones involved in fat regulation. 
  • Physical Inactivity: Sedentary people burn fewer calories than active people. A survey shows strong correlations between physical inactivity and weight gain in both sexes. 
  • Overeating: Overeating leads to weight gain especially if the diet is high in fat or sugar. Foods high in sugar and fat have high energy density. A study shows that diets high in fat contribute to weight gain. 
  • Frequency of Eating: The relationship between frequency of eating and weight is somewhat controversial. There is information about obese people eating less often than people of normal weight. Experts have observed that people who eat small meals four or five times daily have lower cholesterol levels and more stable blood sugar than people who eat less frequently. 
  • Medications: Medications linked with weight gain include antidepressants, anticonvulsants, diabetes medications, certain hormones, and corticosteroids. The reason for the weight gain with the medications differs for each medication. If this is a concern, you should discuss it with your physician rather than discontinuing the medication, as this could have serious effects
  • Psychological Factors: For some people, emotions influence eating habits. Several people eat too much in response to emotions such as sadness, boredom, anger, or stress. While most obese people have no more psychological disturbances than normal weight people, about 30% of the people who seek treatment for serious weight problems have difficulties with binge eating.
  • Diseases: Diseases such as insulin resistance, hypothyroidism, polycystic ovary syndrome, and Cushing’s syndrome are also contributors to obesity. 
  • Social Issues: There is a link between social issues and obesity. Lack of money to purchase healthy foods or lack of safe places to walk or exercise can increase the risk of obesity.

Complications of Obesity

Obese people are more likely to develop several potentially serious health problems such as:

Obesity Treatment 

The goal of obesity treatment is to reach and stay at a healthy weight. This improves overall health and lowers the risk of developing complications related to obesity.

Weight-loss medication is used along with diet, exercise, and behavior changes. Before selecting a medication, your doctor will consider your health history. Recommended weight loss medication may include:

  • Orlistat – this is prescribed to people suffering from obesity. Orlistat works by preventing the lipases that are needed to break down the fatty acids, thereby inhibiting the absorption of fatty acids in the diet. 

Phenytoin Sodium for Seizures 

Phenytoin Sodium is an anticonvulsant or antiepileptic drug usually recommended for managing seizures. The drug works by blocking the spread of seizure activity in the brain. It also helps keep the neurons in your brain from becoming too active. As a result, Phenytoin Sodium reduces how often you have seizures.

What Is A Seizure?

A seizure is a burst of uncontrolled electrical activity between brain cells that causes temporary abnormalities in muscle tone or movements, behaviors, sensations, or states of awareness.

There are two major types of seizures: 

  • Focal Onset – starts in one area and can spread across the brain and cause mild or severe symptoms, depending on how the electrical discharges spread. 
  • Generalized Onset – can start as focal seizures that spread to both sides of the brain. They also can occur as generalized onset seizures in which seizure activity starts simultaneously over both sides of the brain. This seizure usually starts during childhood and is similar to a thermostat surge or a light flash. 

Common Signs and Symptoms of Seizure

Signs and symptoms can range from mild to severe. Signs and symptoms may include:

  • A staring spell
  • Temporary confusion
  • Loss of consciousness or awareness
  • Uncontrollable jerking movements of the arms and legs
  • Cognitive or emotional symptoms, such as anxiety, fear, or déjà vu

Common Causes of Seizure

Brain nerve cells send and receive electrical impulses, which allow them to communicate with one another. A seizure can be caused by anything that disrupts these communication pathways. Several types of seizure disorders can be caused by genetic mutations. 

The most common cause of seizures is epilepsy. Sometimes seizures may be caused or triggered by:

Treatment and Medication for Polio 
  • Lack of sleep
  • Stroke
  • Brain tumor
  • Flashing lights, moving patterns, or other visual stimulants
  • High fever, which can be associated with an infection such as meningitis
  • Low blood sodium, which can happen with diuretic therapy
  • Head trauma that causes an area of bleeding in the brain
  • Autoimmune disorders
  • Abnormalities of the blood vessels in the brain
  • Use of illegal or recreational drugs
  • Alcohol misuse, during times of withdrawal or extreme intoxication
  • Medications such as certain antidepressants, pain relievers, or smoking cessation therapies, that lower the seizure threshold
  • COVID-19 virus infection

Treatment for Seizure

Many seizures are treated with anti-seizure medications. Anti-seizure medications come in many different forms. Finding the medicine that works best for you and causes the fewest side effects is the goal of medication. You may be prescribed more than one medication by your doctor in some cases.

If your doctor prescribes you medication, he or she will consider your condition, your frequency of seizures, and your age among other things. Also, your doctor will review any other medications you may be taking to make sure they won’t interact with the anti-epileptic medication.

Medication mostly prescribed by doctors may include:

  • Phenytoin Sodium – this is a widely used anticonvulsant drug that acts by reducing the spread of certain activities in the brain that result in seizures. 

What Is The Main Cause Of High Triglycerides?

The most common causes of high triglycerides relate to diet and metabolism. Also, excess body weight and a high-fat, high-carb diet, several health conditions may contribute. 

If you’ve been diagnosed with high triglycerides, you may be looking for ways to make your diet and exercise routines healthier, but some other culprits should also be on your radar.

What Are High Triglycerides?

Triglycerides are a kind of fat that is found in the blood. Cholesterol is another kind. Stored in fat cells for later use, triglycerides are a major energy source. Normal amounts are important for good health. Eating more fat than the body burns can lead to high triglyceride levels. 

High triglyceride levels may result in the hardening of the arteries, which increases the risks of heart attack, stroke, and heart disease. They can be part of metabolic syndrome, which also includes too much fat around the waist, high blood sugar, high blood pressure, and abnormal cholesterol levels.

Sometimes high triglyceride levels mean poorly controlled type 2 diabetes, liver or kidney disease, low thyroid hormone levels, or rare genetic conditions.


What Are the Causes and Symptoms of High Triglycerides?

Causes of High Triglycerides may include:

  • Obesity
  • Eating too much unhealthy food
  • Genetics

Certain illnesses include:

Some drugs such as:

Drinking a lot of alcohol can also increase the levels of triglycerides. 

Most people with High Triglycerides have no symptoms. Very high levels of Triglycerides can cause small fat deposits under the skin and painful inflammation of the pancreas called pancreatitis. 

losing weight

Managing High Triglycerides


  • Exercise regularly.
  • Eat fish.
  • Stop smoking.
  • Eat more fruits and vegetables and high-fiber foods. 
  • Lose weight by changing your diet and doing aerobic exercise, such as jogging, walking, bicycling, or swimming. Exercise at least 30 minutes daily.


  • Don’t drink more than two alcoholic drinks each day.
  • Don’t forget to treat other medical conditions such as diabetes and an underactive thyroid.
  • Don’t change your diet or medicines without your doctor’s approval.

How Are High Triglycerides Treated?

High triglycerides, like high cholesterol, are a potentially serious health problem. But, with lifestyle changes and, if necessary, medications, most people will be able to successfully manage their condition and reduce their cardiovascular disease risk.

If diet, exercise, and other lifestyle changes are not enough to lower your triglycerides or your doctor feels your numbers are too high to address the problem with lifestyle interventions alone, they may recommend medication. 

  • Gemfibrozil – this medication is in a class of lipid-regulating medications called fibrates. The drug works by reducing the production of triglycerides in the liver. As a result, it lowers your levels of triglycerides. 

How Can I Increase My Eyelash Hair?

If you want to increase your eyelash hair, there are several treatments you can use. Eyelash hair is known to protect the eyes from light debris. They are also like sensors that warn your eyes of potential danger when objects come close. Just like the hair on your head, eyelash hair naturally falls out and replaces itself in a natural cycle. It is normal to lose between one and five eyelashes each day. Most of the time, some shedding and thinning is completely natural and nothing to worry about.

symptoms of food allergy

Causes of Eyelash Hair Loss 

These are the most common culprits:

When to See a Specialist?

If you have ruled out the lists above and the problem persists, it may be time to see a specialist to look into underlying conditions. It is more concerning if lashes fall out on both lids, which could indicate a more systemic problem.  Seek immediate help if you notice accompanying hair loss on the eyebrows and the scalp, or you also have skin changes such as itching, redness, or scaling, this may be a sign of a health problem or condition such as:

  • Thyroid Disorders
  • Blepharitis 
  • Trichotillomania
  • Alopecia Areata 
  • Certain Cancers 

Proven Way to Increase Your Eyelash Hair 

Grooming Your Eyelash Hair 

Proper eyelash hair maintenance can improve the health of your eyelashes which makes it less likely for them to break. This can make them appear longer and thicker. Some eyelash hair grooming tips include:

  • Removing eye makeup at the end of each day
  • Regularly brushing your eyelashes with an eyelash brush
  • Washing your face and eyes with gentle soap daily


  • Bimatoprost is the only medication approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that makes eyelashes grow longer and thicker. Your doctor can prescribe this medication, which you apply regularly to the lash line of the upper eyelid. It delivers full results when used daily for at least two months. Once you begin using Bimatoprost, you must continue using it regularly to maintain the results. 

How To Prevent Eyelash Hair Loss?

  • Remove makeup gently as rubbing or tugging your eyelash hair can make them fall out. 
  • Use new mascara because you might be allergic to your brand and not know it. 
  • Ditch your eyelash hair curler. It can cause eyelash hair to come out, especially if you tug or use them while wearing mascara.
  • It is recommended to take off makeup before bed. Eyelashes coated with mascara are more brittle and prone to breakage. 
  • Remove carefully any false eyelashes and extensions. These products adhere to your natural lashes with medical-grade glue. Removing the glue can take your lashes out along with it. Make sure to use a gentle, oil-based cleanser. 

What Are The Types Of Breast Cancer?

There are many types of breast cancer and many different ways to define them. The different type of breast cancer is defined by where in the breast they begin and how much they have grown or spread. These types of breast cancer you’ve been diagnosed with will help you and your doctor decide on the best treatment options for you.

What Is Breast Cancer?

Breast cancer is a disease where cells in the breast grow out of control. This type of cancer can begin in different parts of the breast. A breast is made up of three main parts: lobules, ducts, and connective tissue. Most breast cancers begin in the ducts or lobules.

Types of Breast Cancer

A type of breast cancer is determined by the specific cells in the breast that become cancer.

1. Invasive Breast Cancer

Invasive breast cancer has spread into the surrounding breast tissue. The two most common types of invasive breast cancer are defined by where in the breast they begin to grow:

  • Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC)
  • Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC)

Some types of invasive breast cancer have features that affect how they develop and how they are treated.

2. Non-Invasive Breast Cancer

When breast cancer is called non-invasive it means it has not spread beyond the breast tissue where it started. There are two main types of non-invasive breast cancer:

mammogram result on screen
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), is non-invasive breast cancer that has not spread outside the milk ducts where it started.
  • Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), is non-invasive breast cancer that has not spread outside the lobules where it started.

3. Cancerous Phyllodes Tumors of the Breast

Phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare. Most phyllodes tumors are benign but about 25% are cancerous.

What Are The Symptoms Of Breast Cancer?

  • Redness or flaky skin in the nipple area or the breast
  • Pulling in of the nipple or pain in the nipple area
  • New lump in the breast or underarm (armpit)
  • Irritation or dimpling of breast skin
  • Any change in the size or the shape of the breast
  • Pain in any area of the breast
  • Nipple discharge other than breast milk, including blood
  • Thickening or swelling of part of the breast

Treatment for Breast Cancer

Treatment for breast cancer depends on the type of breast cancer you have. Your doctor also considers your overall health and your preferences. Most women undergo surgery for breast cancer and many also receive additional treatment after surgery. Chemotherapy might also be used before surgery in certain situations.

The medication you can use if you have breast cancer:

What Are Signs Of Acute Pain?

There are several signs associated with acute pain since the term itself is quite vague and broad. Conversely, if you’re experiencing acute pain, it’s important to take some time off to rest and receive sufficient treatment. After all, the only way to get back on track as soon as possible is to fully heal. Failing to receive proper care can only lead to complications and even more time off the field to do the things you want to get done.

What Is Acute Pain?

Acute pain is a sensation you feel as soon as you experience an injury. For instance, if you slice open a finger while chopping vegetables, break a bone, or fall down the stairs, you are going to feel acute pain. It’s a signal from your body that it has just undergone physical trauma. Commonly, the pain stops once the injury heals.

back pain

Signs of Acute Pain

Acute pain tends to be of relatively short duration. The most common signs of acute pain may include:

Common Causes of Acute Pain

Besides blunt trauma examples, a person could also suffer from acute pain because of any of the following reasons:

  • Sprains and strains of a body part
  • Going to the dentist
  • Giving birth
  • Infections on a cut
  • Getting burned
  • Slipping and falling
  • Menstrual cramps
  • Passing a kidney stone
  • Bumping a body part against a hard surface

The range of pain can vary significantly depending on what’s causing it or the severity of the injury. 

Effects of Acute Pain 

The effects of acute pain extend far beyond an injured body part. Debilitating pain will affect other areas of a person’s life as well. People suffering from severe pain often find it difficult to sleep or lose their appetite because of it. In a worst-case scenario, it may lead to depression or addiction to pain medication, depending on where the pain is located.

losing weight

Acute Pain Treatment 

Every person’s pain is unique, just as every person’s life is unique. It is also important to provide them with the right pain management treatments and medications. People differ in their pain treatment to ensure that they receive effective treatment based on their unique characteristics.

Initial treatment may include some of the following:

  • Opioid medications
  • Muscle relaxant medications
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
  • Stress reduction
  • Resting the affected part of the body
  • Application of heat or ice
  • Physical therapy
  • Exercise
  • Bioelectric therapy 

A secondary tier of treatments may include

Recommended medication:

  • Tramadol – this drug is a narcotic-like pain reliever that is effective in managing acute and chronic pain. 

Can Streptococcus Pneumoniae Be Cured?

Doctors usually recommend antibiotics to cure Streptococcus Pneumoniae. Antibiotic treatment for serious infections typically includes broad-spectrum antibiotics until results of antibiotic sensitivity testing are available.

What is Streptococcus Pneumoniae?

Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the bacteria responsible for pneumococcal disease. When someone with this disease coughs or sneezes, the bacteria spreads. Pneumococcus bacteria can cause infections in many parts of the body including:

  • Blood (bacteremia)
  • Lungs (pneumonia) 
  • Brain and spinal cord tissue (meningitis)
  • Ears (otitis)
  • Sinuses (sinusitis)

Symptoms of Streptococcus Pneumoniae

Chest pain

Symptoms of Streptococcus Pneumoniae depend on the part of the body affected. Symptoms can include:

In severe cases, pneumococcal disease can cause hearing loss, brain damage, and death. 

Who Is At Risk?

Children at Risk for Streptococcus Pneumoniae

Children at increased risk for this disease include those younger than 2 years old and those with:

  • Chronic heart, lung, or kidney disease
  • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak
  • Cochlear implant 
  • Diabetes
  • Nephrotic syndrome 
  • Sickle cell disease, a damaged spleen, or no spleen
  • HIV infection, cancer, solid organ transplant, or another condition or taking medicine that weakens the immune system

Adults at Risk for Streptococcus Pneumoniae

Adults 65 years or older are at increased risk for the disease. Adults of all ages are also at increased risk if they have:

  • Cochlear implant
  • CSF leak
  • Diabetes
  • Alcoholism
  • Chronic heart, lung, kidney, or liver disease
  • Nephrotic syndrome
  • HIV infection, cancer, solid organ transplant, or another condition or taking medicine that weakens the immune system
  • Sickle cell disease, a damaged spleen, or no spleen

Adults who smoke cigarettes are also at increased risk for the disease. Chronic lung illnesses that increase the risk of an adult for the Streptococcus Pneumoniae include asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, and emphysema.

Blood tests

How to Diagnose Streptococcus Pneumoniae?

If doctors suspect Streptococcus Pneumoniae is serious, they will collect blood or cerebrospinal fluid samples. In the brain and spinal cord, cerebrospinal fluid surrounds them. You can see how lumbar puncture fluid is collected in the illustration below. A laboratory tests the samples after they have been collected by doctors. By growing the bacteria in the laboratory, it is possible to identify the specific type of bacteria that is causing the infection. A doctor can select the right antibiotic based on the cause, including the type of infection.

Adults can be diagnosed using a urine test. The diagnosis of ear and sinus infections is usually based on the history and physical examination findings that support the diagnosis.

Treatment for Streptococcus Pneumoniae

It is common for broad-spectrum antibiotics to be used as the first line of treatment for serious infections until results of antibiotic sensitivity testing are available. Antibiotic sensitivity testing shows which antibiotics will be most successful. Broad-spectrum antibiotics work against a wide range of bacteria. Once the sensitivity of the bacteria is known, doctors may choose a more targeted antibiotic. The most recommended medicine is:

  • Cephalexin – this is a first-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that is active against streptococci. 

The Most Common Rheumatic Disorders

Osteoarthritis is the most common type of Rheumatic Disorder. This affects about 27 million adults in the United States alone. Osteoarthritis is a chronic condition characterized by the breakdown of the joint’s cartilage. 

The breakdown of cartilage causes the bones to rub against each other, causing stiffness, pain, and loss of movement in the joint. Patients who have been diagnosed with Osteoarthritis are generally cared for by an Orthopedic Specialist.

What are the Risk Factors of Rheumatic Disorder?

The rheumatic disorder can develop in people of any age, sex, or race. There are several different forms of rheumatic disorder and some people are more susceptible to some than others. Some contributing factors to the disease include age, gender, genetics, and environmental factors. Some people are at higher risk for developing a rheumatic disorder, including those people who carry the PTPN22 gene, women, Hispanics, and African Americans.

Common Types of Rheumatic Disorder

hand arthritis in x ray

What Causes Rheumatic Disorder?

In many cases, the cause depends on the type of rheumatic disorder. But researchers believe that some or all of the following may play a role:

  • Genes and family history
  • Lifestyle choices such as being overweight
  • Trauma
  • Infection
  • Nervous system problems
  • Metabolic problems
  • Too much wear and tear and stress on a joint or joints
  • Environmental triggers
  • Certain hormones

Rheumatic Disorder Diagnosis

Diagnosis of rheumatic disorder begins with a discussion of your medical history. Your doctor will talk with you about your symptoms, including:

  • How much pain you’re in
  • Factors that worsen the pain
  • Where you feel pain or other symptoms
  • When your symptoms began and whether they’re constant or change throughout the day
  • Drugs, body positions, and other things that may relieve your symptoms
Medications Used For Kidney Infection

Rheumatic Disorder Treatment

Various types of medication are prescribed to treat rheumatic disorder. Some drugs only treat symptoms like pain and inflammation, while others can alter the course of the disease.

Depending on the condition, medication may include:

  • Prednisolone – this medicine is a man-made form of a natural substance (corticosteroid hormone) made by the adrenal gland. Prednisolone lessens the immune system’s response to various diseases to reduce symptoms such as pain and swelling.

Medicine that is usually recommended for rheumatic disorder:

Besides medication, various other types of treatments may be prescribed for a rheumatic disorder such as:

  • Physical therapy
  • Hot and cold therapy
  • Occupational therapy
  • Relaxation therapy
  • Specific exercise regimes to increase muscle strength and joint flexibility
  • Splints, braces, and assistive devices to support weak joints
  • Surgery

Prevention and Treatment of Hypertension

Prevention and treatment of hypertension start with a basic understanding of blood pressure. The American Heart Association defines blood pressure as the force exerted by the heart on the artery walls as it beats. From the heart, blood flows to all parts of the body through arteries. When the blood pressure in the arteries is too high during heartbeats, the artery walls are damaged, which can contribute to heart disease. 

migraine with aura

Symptoms of Hypertension

Even if blood pressure readings reach dangerously high levels, many people with high blood pressure have no symptoms.

Symptoms of high blood pressure may include headaches, shortness of breath, or nosebleeds, but these aren’t specific and usually appear only after high blood pressure has reached a severe or life-threatening level.

Risk Factors of Hypertension

Hypertension has many risk factors including:

  • Age – your risk increases as you age, until about 64 years hypertension is more common in men, and women are more likely to develop it after the age of 65. 
  • Family history – hypertension tends to run in families. 
  • Being obese or overweight – the more you weigh, the more blood you need to supply oxygen and nutrients to your tissues. 
  • Lack of physical activity – inactive people tend to have higher heart rates. Lack of physical activity also increases the risk of being overweight.
  • Using tobacco – raise your blood pressure temporarily, but the chemicals in tobacco can damage the lining of your artery walls.
  • Too much salt and too little potassium in the diet – too much salt in your diet can cause your body to retain fluid which raises blood pressure. Also, a proper balance of potassium is critical for good heart health.
  • Drinking too much alcohol – over time, heavy drinking can damage your heart. Having more than one drink a day for women and more than two drinks a day for men may affect your blood pressure.
  • Stress – high levels of stress can lead to a temporary increase in blood pressure.
smoking cigarettes

How to Prevent and Treat Hypertension

The following lifestyle changes to help prevent and treat hypertension:

  • Eat healthily: Limiting sodium intake per day can reduce high blood pressure since sodium holds excess fluid in the body creating a burden on the heart.
  • Limit alcohol consumption: Having less than two drinks per day for men and less than one drink per day for women is recommended.
  • Exercise: Exercise strengthens the heart allowing it to pump blood with less effort. 
  • Lose weight: Losing weight will decrease the amount of pressure it takes to move blood around the body. Quit smoking: Quitting smoking should be a top priority for people with and without high blood pressure.

Medication used for Hypertension:

  • Olmesartan – this is in a class of drugs called angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Olmesartan works by blocking the action of certain natural substances that tighten the blood vessels which allows the blood to flow more smoothly and the heart to pump more efficiently.

Types and Treatment of  Candidiasis?

The treatments used for Candidiasis vary substantially and are based on the anatomic location of the infection, underlying disease and immune status, risk factors for infection, the specific species of Candida responsible for the infection, and, in some cases, the susceptibility of the Candida species to specific antifungal drugs. 

What Causes Candidiasis?

Candida albicans (Monilia albicans) is a harmless yeast fungus that causes candidiasis. In healthy people, yeast is supposed to be present. However, chemotherapy or broad-spectrum antibiotics that suppress the bacterial flora present in the body may cause the fungus to multiply in the mouth or bowels. Candida infections may also be caused by other health conditions, such as pregnancy or diabetes.

Types of Candidiasis

There are several types of Candidiasis:

strep throat

Thrush (Oropharyngeal Candidiasis) 

When the candida yeast spreads in the mouth and throat, it can cause an infection called thrush. This type of Candidiasis is most common in newborns, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems. Symptoms of Thrush may include:

  • Redness or soreness in the mouth and throat
  • White or yellow patches on the tongue, lips, gums, the roof of the mouth, and inner cheeks
  • Pain when swallowing, if it spreads to the throat
  • Cracking at the corners of the mouth

Genital Yeast Infection (Genital Candidiasis)

This happens when too much yeast grows in the vagina. A yeast infection typically happens when the balance in the vagina changes. This can be caused by:

  • Diabetes
  • Pregnancy
  • A weakened immune system
  • Some medicines, including antibiotics and birth control pills
  • Use of some douches, lubricants, vaginal sprays, or spermicides
  • Wearing a wet bathing suit or workout clothes, or underwear that doesn’t breathe  

Diaper Rash from Yeast Infection

Diaper rashes are usually caused by leaving a dirty or wet diaper on too long, but once your baby’s skin becomes irritated, infection becomes more likely. Check to see if their bottom is red and sensitive and if there’s a raised red border around the sores if their diaper rash doesn’t go away. Check for candidiasis with your pediatrician if this is the case. Antifungal creams can be applied to treat it. Preventing diaper rash and candidiasis starts with keeping your baby’s bottom clean and dry.

Invasive Candidiasis

If candida yeast enters the bloodstream, it can travel to the heart, brain, blood, eyes, and bones. This can cause a serious, life-threatening infection. Invasive Candidiasis happens most often in people who have recently been admitted to a hospital or live in a health care facility. The symptoms include fever and chills. Since it’s likely a person with this infection is already sick with another condition, it can be hard to diagnose.

Treatment for Candidiasis

When thinking about treatment for a yeast infection, it is important to know that there are many different types of yeast. Your healthcare provider may discuss different types of treatment depending on the type of yeast infection.

The most common medication recommended is:

  • Clotrimazole Cream – this is an azole antifungal medication for topical treatment of tinea infections. Clotrimazole is also used for the treatment of athlete’s foot, otomycosis, and candidiasis. This prescription is more effective in the treatment of candidiasis because of its long-lasting residual effect after once-daily application. 

What Are The Types Of Sexual Dysfunction?

Sexual Dysfunction occurs during any phase of the sexual response cycle. This prevents you from experiencing satisfaction from sexual activity. People of all ages experience sexual dysfunction, although the chances increase as you age. 

Types of Sexual Dysfunction

Sexual dysfunction is generally classified into four categories:

  • Desire Disorders: Lack of sexual desire or interest in sex.
  • Orgasm Disorders: Delay or absence of orgasm (climax).
  • Arousal Disorders: Inability to become physically aroused or excited during sexual activity.
  • Pain Disorders: Pain during intercourse.
Alcohol or drug abuse

What Causes Sexual Dysfunction?

Sexual dysfunction usually does not occur overnight. For example, pain during intercourse or ejaculatory/orgasmic challenges be susceptible to have their roots in other conditions that affect the body. Listed below are likely causes of sexual dysfunction.

  • Health Changes: When the body endures major illnesses or challenges affecting the blood vessels, this can affect sexual functioning. 
  • Hormonal Imbalance: Hormones are known to have a key role to play in sexual health and wellness. Any changes in the production of hormones can affect performance and satisfaction during sexual activities.
  • Alcohol and Drug Use: Alcohol and drug usage have many downsides including a negative impact on sexual performance.
  • Psychological Factors: In some cases, anxiety about upcoming obligations, or even performance during sex can contribute to challenges during intimate moments. 

How Is Sexual Dysfunction Diagnosed?

Most of the time, you realize something is interfering with your enjoyment (or your partner’s enjoyment) of a sexual relationship. A complete history of symptoms and physical examination are usually the first steps your provider takes. Diagnostic tests may be ordered to rule out medical problems that may be contributing to the dysfunction. In most cases, lab testing plays a very limited role in the diagnosis of sexual dysfunction.

It helps a clinician understand the underlying cause of the problem and recommend the most appropriate treatment if attitudes about sex and other contributing factors are evaluated and help diagnose the problem.

How Is Sexual Dysfunction Treated?

Most types of sexual dysfunction can be addressed by treating the underlying physical or psychological problems. Other treatment strategies include:

  • Mechanical Aids: Aids such as vacuum devices and penile implants may help men with erectile dysfunction. 
  • Behavioral Treatments: These involve various techniques including insights into harmful behaviors in the relationship or self-stimulation for treatment of problems with arousal or orgasm.
  • Sex Therapy: Therapists are often good marital counselors. For the couple who wants to begin enjoying their sexual relationship, you can work with a trained professional.
  • Psychotherapy: Therapy with a professional counselor can help you address sexual trauma from the past, feelings of anxiety, and poor body image. All of these factors may affect sexual function.
  • Medication: Tadalafil is the most recommended medication for sexual dysfunction. This drug is a class of medications called phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors. Tadalafil works to treat sexual dysfunction by increasing blood flow to the penis during sexual stimulation.

What Causes Excessive Sleepiness?

The most common causes of excessive sleepiness are sleep deprivation and disorders such as insomnia and sleep apnea. Uncontrollable yawning, heavy eyelids and the prevailing impulse to doze off during the day are signs of excessive sleepiness. Struggling to stay awake can drag down performance in daily activities, put a strain on social and personal relationships, and create serious risks especially when driving.

migraine with aura

Signs and Symptoms of Excessive Sleepiness

  • Headache
  • Loss of appetite
  • Hallucinations
  • Anxiety
  • Irritability 
  • Decreased energy
  • Restlessness
  • Constant, recurrent episodes of extreme sleepiness during the day
  • Difficulty waking up in the morning or after daytime naps, sometimes appearing confused or combative
  • Slow thinking, slow speech, inability to focus or concentrate, and memory problems
  • Sleeping longer than 10 or more hours yet still being very sleepy during the day and having difficulty remaining awake during the day

Causes of Excessive Sleepiness

Excessive sleepiness is not a condition in itself instead, it is a symptom caused by an underlying problem.

Sleepiness Caused by Sleep Deprivation

Sleep deprivation may be short-term or chronic and can itself be caused by numerous sleep disorders and other medical conditions:

  • Failure to Prioritize Sleep: Choosing to stay up late to watch a series or wake up early to go to the gym are examples of how sleep can get bumped down the list of priorities. This can cause drowsiness the next day, and the problem can accumulate over time.
  • Insomnia: This condition can make it hard to fall asleep or stay asleep for as long as you want. 
  • Sleep Apnea: It creates fragmented sleep that typically causes daytime drowsiness and may affect up to 20% of adults. 
  • Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS): This condition causes a strong sensation of needing to move one’s extremities and is a known risk for disrupting total sleep time and sleep quality.
  • Poor Sleep Quality: Sleep insufficiency isn’t just about a low quantity of sleep it’s also about sleep quality. 
  • Pain: Virtually any ailment that induces pain can complicate sleep and make a person prone to drowsiness during the day.
  • Frequent Nighttime Urination: This condition involves needing to get up from bed during the night to pee and is estimated to affect up to one out of three older adults and one out of five younger people.

Sleepiness Caused by Other Medical and Brain Conditions

Treatment and Medication for Polio 

Treatment for Excessive Sleepiness

Treatment depends on what is causing your sleepiness. There are both lifestyle changes and medication approaches:

  • Maintain good sleep habits such as establishing a regular sleeping schedule, having an environment that allows for sleep, and limiting caffeine and exercise before bedtime.
  • Taking Armodafinil promotes wakefulness. This drug is in a class of medications called wakefulness-promoting agents. It works by changing the amounts of certain natural substances in the area of the brain that controls sleep and wakefulness. 

What Causes Nausea and Vomiting?

Nausea and Vomiting can occur separately depending on the cause. Usually, nausea and vomiting are harmless, but they can be a sign of a more serious illness. 

Nausea is an uneasiness of the stomach that often comes before vomiting. Vomiting is the forcible voluntary or involuntary emptying of stomach contents through the mouth.


Possible Causes of Nausea and Vomiting

Nausea and vomiting are not diseases, but they are symptoms of many conditions such as:

  • Motion sickness or seasickness
  • Early stages of pregnancy 
  • Medication-induced vomiting
  • Infections 
  • Heart attack
  • Concussion or brain injury
  • Brain tumor
  • Ulcers
  • Some forms of cancer
  • Overeating
  • A reaction to certain smells or odors
  • Bulimia or other psychological illnesses
  • Bowel obstruction 
  • Appendicitis
  • Gastroparesis or slow stomach emptying 
  • Ingestion of toxins or excessive amounts of alcohol
  • Intense pain
  • Emotional stress 
  • Gallbladder disease
  • Food poisoning

When to Call the Doctor about Nausea and Vomiting?

Call your doctor or for medical help about nausea and vomiting if:

  • Nausea lasts for more than a few days or if there is a possibility of being pregnant.
  • The home therapy is not working, dehydration is present, or there is a known injury that occurred which may be the cause of vomiting.
  • The vomiting occurs for more than a day or if nausea and vomiting last more than 24 hours.
  • An infant or child under six years vomits for more than a few hours or if diarrhea is also present, as well as if there is a fever, signs of dehydration, or hasn’t urinated for 4-6 hours.
  • A child over the age of six years vomit lasts one day, diarrhea combined with vomiting lasts for more than 24 hours, there are signs of dehydration, a fever higher than 101 degrees, or the child hasn’t urinated for six hours.

Seek medical care if any of the following occur with vomiting:

  • Diarrhea
  • Rapid breathing or pulse
  • There is blood in the vomit
  • Severe headache or stiff neck
  • Severe abdominal pain
  • Lethargy, confusion, or a decreased alertness

How to Treat Vomiting?

Treatment for vomiting includes:

  • Drinking gradually larger amounts of clear liquids.
  • Avoid solid food until the vomiting episode has passed.
  • Pregnant women experiencing morning sickness can eat some crackers before getting out of bed or eat a high-protein snack before going to bed.
  • Vomiting linked with cancer treatments can often be treated with another type of drug therapy. 

How to Prevent Nausea? 

There are several ways to prevent nausea from developing:

  • Eat slowly.
  • Drink liquids between meals.
  • Try to eat when you feel less nauseated.
  • Avoid hard-to-digest foods.
  • Consume cold foods or room temperature if you are nauseated by the smell of hot or warm foods.
  • Rest after eating with your head elevated about 12 inches above your feet.

Medication Used For Nausea and Vomiting 

  • Dimenhydrinate – this is in a class of medications called antihistamines that is usually recommended to treat nausea and vomiting. Dimenhydrinate reduces the effects of the natural chemical histamine in the body that might be the cause of nausea and vomiting. 

What Causes Urinary Obstruction?

The causes of Urinary Obstruction depend on their type. Some types of Urinary Obstruction are present at birth and are called congenital. This condition occurs if there is a blockage in one or both of the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. Urinary Obstruction is treatable, but if left untreated, symptoms can quickly move from mild to severe. 

Signs and Symptoms of Urinary Obstruction

abdominal pain

There are various signs and symptoms of Urinary Obstruction. Patients who have stones may experience severe pain. A gradual blockage usually develops slowly and builds over time. At first, symptoms can seem mild, but can quickly worsen. The following symptoms may indicate a blocked ureter or urinary tract obstruction:

Causes of Urinary Obstruction

Different types of Urinary Obstruction have different causes including:

  • A Second (Duplicated) Ureter: This is a common condition, which is congenital that causes the two ureters to form on the same kidney. The second ureter can be fully or only partially developed. If either ureter doesn’t function well, urine can back up into the kidney and might cause damage.
  • A Blockage (Obstruction) Where the Ureter Connects to the Kidney or Bladder: This prevents the flow of the urine. A blockage where the ureter and kidney meet may cause the kidney to swell and eventually stop working. 
  • Ureterocele: If a ureter is too narrow and doesn’t permit urine to flow completely, a tiny bulge in the ureter may develop. This can block urine flow and cause urine to back up into the kidney, possibly leading to kidney damage.
  • Retroperitoneal Fibrosis: This is a rare disorder that occurs when fibrous tissue grows in the area behind the abdomen. The fibers may grow as the result of cancer tumors or from taking certain medications used for the treatment of migraines. The fibers encircle and block the ureters which cause the urine to back up into the kidneys.

Treatment for Urinary Obstruction

Urinary Obstruction treatment aims to remove blockages if possible. There are several ways to treat the condition including:

1. Drainage Procedures

A Urinary Obstruction that causes severe pain may need an immediate procedure to remove urine from your body and temporarily relieve the problems caused by a blockage. 

2. Surgical Procedures

Urinary obstruction surgery may be performed through one of these surgical approaches:

  • Endoscopic surgery
  • Open surgery
  • Laparoscopic surgery
  • Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery

3. Medication 

Treatment might include antibiotics to clear associated infections. However, there is a drug usually recommended to treat Urinary Obstruction:

This medicine helps relax the muscles in the prostate and the opening of the bladder. As a result, the drug may help increase the flow of urine and lessen the symptoms. 

Maintenance of the Female Reproductive System

The maintenance of the female reproductive system helps prevent infertility and certain diseases or infections. The female reproductive system is susceptible to trauma, imbalances, and infections that may hinder pregnancy, usher in infectious disease, or cause infertility. While there is no definite way to stop disease, there are precautions to take to keep your reproductive system healthy.

How Does The Female Reproductive System Work?

The female reproductive system performs several functions. Oocytes, also known as ova, are produced by the ovaries. The oocytes are then transferred to the fallopian tube, where they are fertilized by sperm. During the reproductive cycle, the uterine lining thickens in response to normal hormones, and then the fertilized egg moves to the uterus. After implanting into the uterus, the fertilized egg can continue to develop inside the thickened uterine lining. A lack of implantation results in menstrual flow, which sheds the uterine lining. In addition, female reproductive hormones are produced by the female reproductive system, which maintains the reproductive cycle.

A woman’s reproductive system gradually stops producing the female hormones necessary for reproduction during menopause. The result is irregular menstrual cycles or no periods at all. The woman is considered menopausal after her menstrual cycle has stopped for one year.

Depressed girl smoking
girl smoking

How to Maintain a Healthy Reproductive System?

  • Maintain A Healthy Lifestyle. Enough sleep, exercise, healthy body weight, and proper diet are habits that help your reproductive system. 
  • Quit Smoking. Studies have shown that smoking can compromise certain areas of the female reproductive system. Also, smoking during pregnancy can affect your unborn child to congenital abnormalities. 
  • Go For Regular Screenings. It is recommended to go for routine screening. These will make sure early detection of any condition and make sure a better chance of survival.
  • Practice Safe Sex. Safe sex is important for preventing diseases. 
  • Increase Consumption of Calcium and Magnesium. Calcium is effective for premenstrual fatigue, cravings, and depression. Magnesium relieves sugar cravings, headaches, dizziness, and low blood sugar linked with PMS. 

Using Estradiol Valerate to Help Maintain a Healthy Reproductive System

Estradiol Valerate is a female hormone largely responsible for the development and maintenance of the female reproductive system and secondary sexual characteristics. This medication has several functions including:

  • Female reproductive growth
  • Development of secondary sexual characteristics – the changes that begin around puberty are driven by estradiol.
  • Involvement in disease – research shows that estrogen activates certain cancer-causing genes called oncogenes that raise the risk of breast cancer and endometrial cancer. 
  • Estradiol Valerate during the menstrual cycle – during the menstrual cycle, follicles on the ovaries secrete estradiol, which triggers a series of events that may cause a surge in luteinizing hormone and induces ovulation.
  • Estradiol Valerate during pregnancy – the estradiol level rises during pregnancy. This medicine is thought to play a role in maintaining the pregnancy and in the role of estrogens in initiating labor. 
  • Estradiol Valerate in bone health – this helps support enough bone growth and maintain the health of bones and joints. 

Causes and Treatment of Laryngitis

Laryngitis is caused by an inflammation of the voice box (larynx). Swelling of the voice box can be triggered by an infection, such as bronchitis, cold, or flu. The problem could also be something as simple as overuse.

With proper treatment, Laryngitis should go away in no more than 3 weeks. Sometimes, this condition lasts longer and becomes chronic, but there are ways to help yourself feel better. 

strep throat

What Are The Symptoms Of Laryngitis?

In most cases, the symptoms of laryngitis last less than a couple of weeks and are caused by something minor. Less often, laryngitis symptoms are caused by something more serious or long-lasting. Laryngitis symptoms can include:

  • Weak voice or voice loss
  • Hoarseness
  • Sore throat
  • Dry throat
  • Dry cough
  • Tickling sensation and rawness in your throat

What Causes Laryngitis?

There are two types of Laryngitis with different causes:

Acute Laryngitis

Most cases of laryngitis are temporary and improve after the underlying cause gets better. Causes of acute laryngitis include:

  • A vocal strain that is caused by yelling or overusing your voice
  • Viral infections similar to those that cause a cold
  • Bacterial infections, even though these are less common
smoking cigarettes

Chronic Laryngitis

Chronic laryngitis lasts longer than three weeks. This type of laryngitis is generally caused by exposure to irritants over time. Chronic laryngitis can cause vocal cord strain and injuries or growths on the vocal cords. Chronic laryngitis can be caused by:

  • Chronic sinusitis
  • Excessive alcohol use
  • Inhaled irritants, such as chemical fumes, allergens, or smoke
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  • Habitual overuse of your voice (such as in singers or cheerleaders)
  • Smoking

Less common causes of chronic laryngitis include:

Other causes of chronic hoarseness include:

  • Cancer
  • Bowing of the vocal cords
  • Vocal cord paralysis can cause nerve injury due to surgery, cancer, injury to the chest or neck, nerve disorders, or other health conditions

Diagnosis for Laryngitis

Laryngitis is characterized primarily by hoarseness. Voice changes can range from mild hoarseness to almost complete voice loss, depending on the severity of infection or irritation. Symptoms and medical history may be reviewed by your doctor if you have chronic hoarseness. Your doctor may listen to your voice and examine your vocal cords, and you may be referred to an ear, nose, and throat specialist. 

These techniques sometimes are used to help diagnose laryngitis:

  • Biopsy – if there are any suspicious areas, your doctor may use this technique 
  • Laryngoscopy – your doctor can visually examine your vocal cords by using a light and a tiny mirror to look into the back of your throat

Treatment for Laryngitis

Laryngitis often gets better on its own within a week. Self-care measures, such as voice rest, drinking fluids, and humidifying your air, also can help improve symptoms. 

Medication used for this condition:

  • Azithromycin – this is proven to be effective to treat Laryngitis. Azithromycin is in a class of medications called macrolide antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. 

What Are The First Signs Of Metastatic Breast Cancer?

Metastatic Breast Cancer is known as stage IV which has spread to another part of the body, most commonly to the bones, lungs, brain, or liver. Breast cancer can have different signs for different people. Most don’t notice any signs at all. The most common sign is a lump in your breast or armpit. Others include skin changes, pain, a nipple that pulls inward, and unusual discharge from your nipple.

What Are the Early Signs of Metastatic Breast Cancer?

migraine with aura

Without treatment, breast cancer can spread to other parts of your body. You may have:

  • Bone pain
  • Double vision
  • Nausea
  • Loss of appetite and weight loss
  • Headache
  • Changes in brain function
  • Trouble breathing
  • Belly swelling
  • Muscle weakness 
  • Yellow skin or eyes (jaundice)

What Causes Metastatic Breast Cancer?

A cancerous cell can invade nearby lymph nodes or blood vessels. The cancer cells then travel through lymph vessels or blood vessels throughout the body. Fluids and blood flow through these vessels. Small tumors can form when cancer cells migrate to new locations.

Who Is At Risk For Metastatic Breast Cancer?

Some people are at higher risk for metastatic breast cancer after finishing certain cancer treatments. The risk depends on various features of cancer including:

  • The stage at your first diagnosis
  • Tumor characteristics (type of cancer cells)
  • Treatment received
Blood tests

Diagnosis for Metastatic Breast Cancer

If you have a history of breast cancer and develop any signs of metastatic breast cancer, your doctor may recommend one or more of the following tests to see if cancer has returned:

  • Blood tests 
  • Whole-body bone scan, with or without x-rays of specific bones
  • MRI of the spine or brain
  • CT scan of the chest, abdomen, pelvis, or brain
  • PET scan
  • X-ray or ultrasound of the abdomen or chest
  • Biopsy of any suspicious area
  • Bronchoscopy, if you have a constant cough or trouble breathing
  • A tap, removal of fluid from the area with symptoms to check for cancer cells

Treatment for Metastatic Breast Cancer

The main treatment for metastatic breast cancer is a systemic therapy. This treatment cures the entire body. Systemic therapy may be linked with a combination of:

  • Chemotherapy
  • Hormonal therapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Targeted therapy

Your health care team will plan your treatment based on:

  • Past breast cancer treatments
  • Symptoms
  • Body parts cancer has reached
  • Tumor biology, or how the cancer cells look and behave

Medication can be used for Metastatic Breast Cancer:

This medicine is a hormone-based drug that works by binding to estrogen receptors and blocking the effects of estrogen, a natural female hormone in the breast tissue. This slows down the growth and multiplication of breast cancer cells. As a result, it slows the progression of metastatic breast cancer

Treatment For Rheumatism

Rheumatism treatment helps slow the progression of many rheumatic diseases. It is recommended to seek an early diagnosis as rheumatism is painful and progressive which means they worsen over time. 

What is Rheumatism?

Rheumatism is classified as several diseases under rheumatic disorders. Several diseases are classified under rheumatic disorders. The term rheumatism is a loosely used layperson term to describe rheumatoid arthritis. 

Rheumatoid disorders include those that affect joints, muscles, and bones. They are common and have a huge impact on the health of a vast population worldwide. The more severe conditions lead to inflammatory rheumatic diseases that cause joint and organ destruction. These are a leading cause of severe pain, disability, and even death that affects the quality of life and may lead to several comorbidities or associated ailments.

Symptoms of polio

Common Symptoms of Rheumatism

Symptoms of Rheumatism may include:

Early rheumatism tends to affect your smaller joints first, mainly the joints that attach your fingers to your hands and your toes to your feet. As the condition progresses, the symptoms often spread to the wrists, elbows, shoulders, knees, ankles, and hips. In most cases, symptoms occur in the same joints on both sides of your body. 

Causes of Rheumatism

Rheumatism is caused by the immune system that attacks the healthy body tissue. The immune system normally makes antibodies that attack bacteria and viruses that help fight infection. If rheumatism attacks, your immune system mistakenly sends antibodies to the lining of your joints, where they damage the tissue surrounding the joint.

This causes the thin layer of cells that covers the joints to become inflamed and sore and releases chemicals that damage nearby:

  • Ligaments
  • Tendons
  • Cartilage 
  • Bones 

If rheumatism is not treated, these chemicals slowly cause the joint to lose its shape and alignment. Eventually, it can destroy the joint completely.

Treatment for Rheumatism

Treatment for Rheumatism can help reduce inflammation in the joints, relieve pain, prevent or slow down joint damage, lessen disability and allow you to be as active as possible. There are medications available to help stop Rheumatism from getting worse and lessen your risk of further problems.

Even though there’s no cure for rheumatism, early treatment, and support including medicine, lifestyle changes, supportive treatments, and surgery can reduce the risk of joint damage and limit the impact of the condition.

Medications usually used:

Medicine mostly recommended to manage Rheumatism:

This medicine is in a class of medications called opiate (narcotic) analgesics. Tramadol works by changing the way the brain and nervous system respond to pain. 

What Is The Treatment Of Acute Malaria?

Malaria is a tropical disease transmitted by mosquitoes. Without early diagnosis and treatment, it can be fatal. People who have acute malaria usually feel sick with chills.

The world health program distributes preventive drugs and insecticide-treated bed nets to protect people from mosquito bites to reduce malaria infections. WHO recommends malaria vaccines for children who live in malaria-prone countries.

Causes of Acute Malaria

The mosquito becomes infected when it bites someone with malaria. When a mosquito bites someone else, it transmits a parasite to the other person’s bloodstream. From there, the parasite multiplies. Various parasites may infect humans with malaria.

Malaria can be transmitted to an unborn child in rare cases when the mother is pregnant and has the illness. It’s possible, but unlikely, for malaria to be passed through blood transfusions, organ donations, and hypodermic needles.

migraine with aura

Signs and Symptoms of Acute Malaria

Signs and symptoms of acute malaria are similar to the symptoms of flu including:

As malaria worsens, it causes jaundice and anemia. The most severe form of malaria is known as cerebral malaria which may progress to a coma.

Malaria symptoms usually appear 10 days to one month after the person was infected. Depending on the type of parasite, symptoms can be mild. Some people don’t feel sick for up to a year after the mosquito bite. Parasites can sometimes live in the body for several years without causing symptoms.

Diagnosis for Hypersexuality

Diagnosis for Acute Malaria

You will be asked about your symptoms and travel history by your health care provider. It is important to share the information about the countries you have visited recently so that your health care provider can identify your risk.

Your health care provider will take a sample of your blood and send it to a lab to see if you have malaria parasites. The blood test will tell your health care provider if you have malaria and will also identify the type of parasite that causes your symptoms. Your health care provider will use this information to decide the right treatment.

Treatment for Acute Malaria

It is recommended to seek treatment right away if you have malaria. Your doctor will prescribe you medications to kill the malaria parasite. Some medications are given along with other drugs.

  • Hydroxychloroquine is usually recommended for the treatment and management of acute malaria. This drug is relatively well-tolerated. It has been proven to be safe and has been used for several decades already. Hydroxychloroquine can be prescribed to adults and children of all ages. It can also be safely taken by pregnant women and nursing mothers.

What Are The Types Of Psychosis?

Psychosis is a condition that affects the way your brain processes information. This might involve seeing or hearing things that other people cannot see or hear and believing things that are not true. Psychosis should be treated as soon as possible, as early treatment can be more effective. The doctor may ask you some questions to help determine what’s causing your psychosis.

Types Of Psychosis

1. Hallucinations 

old guy in blue head swirling confusion

Hallucinations could include:

  • Hearing voices that other people don’t 
  • Experiencing smells, tastes, and sensations that have no apparent cause
  • Seeing objects that seem to be distorted or move in ways that they usually wouldn’t
  • Seeing things that other people don’t

2. Delusions 

Many people have beliefs that lots of other people don’t share, but a delusion is usually a belief that nobody else shares and which other experiences show can’t be true. It is natural for delusions to feel completely real to you when you are experiencing them. 

You might think that you are a very important person. For instance, you may believe that you are powerful and rich or that you can control the weather or the stock markets. These kinds of beliefs are sometimes called delusions of grandeur. Some delusions can also be very frightening and can make you feel endangered or unsafe. For example, you might feel that something or someone is trying to control, harm, or kill you. These ideas are sometimes called paranoid delusions.

3. Disorganized Thinking and Speech

Hallucinations and delusions can make your thoughts and emotions feel confused and disorganized, but disorganized thinking can also be a specific type of psychosis

Mental health experts may use the following terms to describe what you are experiencing:

  • A flight of ideas is when your thoughts move very quickly between ideas, making connections and seeing meaning between things that other people might not see.
  • A racing thought is when your thoughts fly through your head very quickly. You may feel as if they are out of control when you experience them.

Several people find that they experience racing thoughts and a flight of ideas at the same time. If you have disorganized thinking you might:

  • Find it difficult to keep your attention on one thing.
  • Speak very fast and trip over your words so that other people may find it hard to understand what you are saying.
  • Change the topic of conversation very quickly as your thoughts move from one thing to another.
  • Link words together because of the way they sound rather than what they mean, which can make your speech sound jumbled to other people.

When To Get Medical Advice?

If you are experiencing symptoms of psychosis you should see a medical doctor right away. Psychosis must be treated as soon as possible, as early treatment can be more in effect.

The medical doctor may ask you some questions to help define what’s causing your psychosis. They should also refer you to a mental health specialist for further assessment and treatment.

Treatment for Psychosis

Treatment for psychosis may involve using a combination of:

Some people are recommended to take antipsychotics on a long-term basis. The medicine usually recommended is:

  • Cholopormazine – this medication belongs to the class of drugs called phenothiazine antipsychotics. It works by helping to restore the balance of certain natural substances in the brain which lessens aggressive behavior and the desire to hurt yourself or others.

Symptoms and Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis is a central nervous system disease wherein the symptoms vary widely and depend on the amount of nerve damage it causes. Some people with a severe condition of Multiple Sclerosis may lose the ability to walk independently or not at all, others as well may experience long periods of remission without any new symptoms. Treatment for Multiple Sclerosis helps speed recovery from attacks and manage the symptoms it causes. 

What Causes Multiple Sclerosis?

It is unknown what causes multiple sclerosis. It is regarded as an autoimmune disease in which the body’s immune system attacks its tissues. The immune system malfunction that causes multiple sclerosis destroys the fatty substance that coats and protects nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord (myelin).

Myelin is like the insulation coating on a wire. When the protective myelin is damaged and the nerve fiber is exposed, the signals traveling along that nerve fiber may be slowed or blocked. There is no clear reason why multiple sclerosis develops in some people but not others. Environmental and genetic factors seem to play a role.

Signs and Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis Xray

Signs and symptoms of multiple sclerosis may vary greatly from person to person and throughout the disease depending on the location of affected nerve fibers. Common symptoms include:

  • Tremor, lack of coordination, or unsteady gait
  • Weakness or numbness in one or more limbs that typically occurs on one side of your body at a time, or on your legs and trunk
  • Electric-shock sensations that happen with certain neck movements, especially bending the neck forward 

Vision problems are also common including:

  • Blurry vision
  • Prolonged double vision
  • Partial or complete loss of vision, usually in one eye at a time, often with pain during eye movement

Other symptoms that may also occur are:

  • Fatigue
  • Dizziness
  • Slurred speech
  • Tingling or pain in parts of your body
  • Problems with sexual, bowel, and bladder function

Risk Factors of Multiple Sclerosis 

These factors may increase your risk of developing multiple sclerosis:

  • Women are more than two to three times as likely as men are to have multiple sclerosis. 
  • Family history.
  • Having low levels of vitamin D and low exposure to sunlight.
  • Smokers who experience an initial event of symptoms that may signal multiple sclerosis are more likely than nonsmokers to develop a second event that confirms relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.
  • Certain autoimmune diseases may have a slight chance of developing multiple sclerosis. 

Treatment for Multiple Sclerosis

Treatment for Multiple Sclerosis typically focuses on speeding recovery from attacks, slowing the progression of the disease, and managing the symptoms of the condition.

Treatment may include:

  • Plasma exchange (Plasmapheresis)
  • Corticosteroids such as oral prednisone and intravenous methylprednisolone 
  • Ocrelizumab 
  • Glatiramer Acetate
  • Fingolimod
  • Dimethyl Fumarate
  • Teriflunomide
  • Siponimod

What Are The Stages Of Gum Disease?

The stages of gum disease are quite different from each other, and treatment and management options vary. The outlook for each stage also depends significantly on how far it is allowed to progress. 

When you think of gum disease, you might think of one condition, with one set of symptoms. However, gum disease is a term that covers a whole range of illnesses in the tissue surrounding your teeth. 

Gum Disease Causes and Risks 

You may think that gum disease can only affect people who don’t brush or floss their teeth regularly. Gum disease, however, is far more complicated. It is affected by a variety of factors.

  • The most common cause of gum disease is plaque that has built up around your gum line. Plaque is a sticky substance that has a lot of bacteria. Regular brushing and cleaning in between your teeth help keep plaque at bay. 
  • Tartar is much harder to remove than plaque, and it retains huge numbers of bacteria. Only professional cleaning by a dentist, hygienist, or periodontist can remove tartar. If left unchecked, tartar can cause gum disease that damages your gums and even your bone irreversibly.
smoking cigarettes

Other factors that can increase your chances of getting gum disease:

Stages of Gum Disease

There are two different stages of gum disease; gingivitis and Periodontitis. 

1. Gingivitis is the mildest and most common stage of gum disease and can be cured or reversed. If Gingivitis is left unchecked, can turn into the more destructive and incurable Peridontitis.  

2. Peridontitis is broken down into four stages:

  • Initial – this is when the inflammation in the gums becomes destructive.
  • Moderate – this has more damage which can be seen by your dental team. 
  • Severe with potential for tooth loss – if your gum disease has reached this stage, you are still unlikely to experience pain. However, you might notice a bad taste and bad breath, and you might notice your teeth look longer because your gums will have receded.
  • Severe with potential for loss of all the teeth – people are often already missing several teeth at this stage, and the ones that remain are often loose. The teeth don’t have enough gum or bone that supports them, they may not be strong enough to support the force of your bite when you try to chew.

Treatment for Gum Disease

There are different ways to treat gum disease depending on the severity of the condition. There are two categories of treatment, non-surgical and surgical. Both can be performed under general or local anesthetic usually at your periodontist’s practice.  

Medication used:

How to Manage Obesity?

Managing obesity includes several ways such as eating a healthy, reduced-calorie diet and exercising regularly. Obesity can also be managed with medication, an appetite suppressant approved for short-term use. In addition, you may also benefit from receiving psychological support from a trained healthcare professional to help change the way you think about food and eating. 

What Is Obesity And What Causes It?

Obesity is an increasingly common problem because for many people modern living involves eating excessive amounts of cheap high-calorie food and spending a lot of time sitting down. This condition is generally caused by consuming more calories, mainly those in fatty and sugary foods than you burn off through physical activity. The excess energy is stored by the food as fat. 

Some underlying health conditions can sometimes contribute to weight gain, such as an underactive thyroid gland, although these types of conditions do not usually cause weight problems if they’re effectively controlled with medicines.


Obesity-Related Problems 

Obesity can cause several further problems including difficulties with daily activities and serious health conditions. Day-to-day problems linked to obesity include:

  • Snoring
  • Breathlessness
  • Increased sweating
  • Difficulty doing physical activity
  • Low confidence and self-esteem
  • Often feeling very tired
  • Joint and back pain
  • Feeling isolated
  • Psychological problems such as depression.

Ways to Manage Obesity 

Dietary Changes

Dietary changes to treat obesity include:

  • Cutting calories the key to weight loss is decreasing how many calories you take in. The first step is to review your typical eating and drinking habits to see how many calories you normally consume and where you can cut back. 
  • Feeling full on less – some foods contain a lot of calories for a small portion. In contrast, fruits and vegetables provide a larger portion size with fewer calories. 
  • Making healthier choices –eat more plant-based foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Emphasize also lean sources of protein and lean meats. Limit salt and added sugar. 

Exercise and Activity 

Increased physical activity or exercise is an essential part of obesity treatment:

  • Exercise – people with obesity need to get at least 150 minutes a week of moderate-intensity physical activity to prevent further weight gain or to maintain the loss of a modest amount of weight. 
  • Keep moving – any extra movement helps burn calories. Gradually increase the number of steps you take daily to reach that goal.

Weight Loss Medication 

Weight-loss medications are meant to be used along with diet, exercise, and behavior changes, not instead of them. 

  • Phentermine is an appetite suppressant and a weight loss pill medically approved for short-term use. Taking phentermine helps suppress your appetite, thereby limiting how many calories you eat. Over time, this can lead to weight loss. 

What Are Autoimmune Disorders?

Autoimmune disorders are broadly grouped into two categories organ-specific which is one organ is affected and non-organ-specific disorders which is multiple organs or body systems may be affected. 

Various autoimmune disorders range in severity from mild to disabling, depending on which system of the body is under attack and to what degree. For unknown reasons, women are more susceptible than men, particularly during their childbearing years. It is thought that sex hormones may be at least partly responsible. There is generally no cure, but the symptoms of autoimmune disorders can be managed. 

Types of Autoimmune Disorders

Autoimmune disorders can affect nearly every organ and system of the body. Some autoimmune disorders may include:

  • Diabetes (Type I): This affects the pancreas. Symptoms include thirst, weight loss, frequent urination, and increased susceptibility to infection.
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease: This includes ulcerative colitis and possibly, Crohn’s disease. Symptoms include abdominal pain and diarrhea.
  • Graves’ Disease: This affects the thyroid gland. Symptoms include elevated heart rate, weight loss, anxiety, and diarrhea.
  • Psoriasis: this affects the skin. Features include the development of thick, reddened skin scales.
  • Multiple Sclerosis: This affects the nervous system. Depending on which part of the nervous system is affected, symptoms can include numbness, vision impairment, and paralysis.
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis: This affects the joints. Symptoms include deformed and swollen joints. The heart, lungs, and eyes may also be targeted.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: This affects connective tissue and can strike any organ system of the body. Symptoms include fever, joint inflammation, weight loss, and a characteristic facial rash.
  • Scleroderma: This affects the skin and other structures and causes the formation of scar tissue. Features include thickening of the skin, skin ulcers, and stiff joints.
hair loss

Early Symptoms of Autoimmune Disorders

The early symptoms of many autoimmune disorders are very similar such as:

  • Achy muscles
  • Swelling and redness
  • Fatigue
  • Hair loss
  • Skin rashes
  • Low-grade fever
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Numbness and tingling in the hands and feet

Risk Factors for Autoimmune Disorders

The risk factors for autoimmune may include:

  • Gender
  • Genetics
  • Environmental factors
  • Infection
  • Sex hormones 
Blood tests

Diagnosis of Autoimmune Disorders

It can be hard to diagnose an autoimmune disorder, especially in its earlier stages, and if multiple organs or systems are involved. Depending on the disorder, diagnosis methods may include:

  • Medical history
  • Physical examination
  • Blood tests, including those to detect autoantibodies
  • X-rays
  • Biopsy

Treatment for Autoimmune Disorders

Autoimmune disorders can be controlled in many cases. Treatments may include:

  • Anti-inflammatory drugs that help reduce inflammation and pain.
  • Corticosteroids help reduce inflammation. 
  • Pain-killing medication such as codeine and paracetamol
  • Immunosuppressant drugs that inhibit the activity of the immune system
  • Physical therapy to encourage mobility

Medication usually used for Autoimmune Disorders:

  • Chloroquine – this drug is believed to have a broad spectrum of antiviral action. Chloroquine is in the class of drugs known as an antimalarial drugs. The drug works by killing the organisms that cause certain autoimmune disorders. 

What Are The Risk Factors Of Heart Disease?

There are several risk factors for heart disease and each one has its symptoms and treatment. Heart disease describes a range of conditions that affect your heart including a disease of the heart muscle and blood vessel diseases such as coronary artery disease.  Heart disease may also include heart rhythm and congenital heart defects. Several forms of heart disease can be prevented and treated with healthy lifestyle choices. 

Chest pain

Symptoms of Heart Disease

  • Chest tightness or discomfort 
  • Pain in the throat, neck, or jaw
  • Dizziness
  • Lightheadedness
  • Racing heartbeat 
  • Fluttering in your chest 
  • Easily tiring during exercise or activity 
  • Shortness of breath 
  • Changes in your heart rhythm 
  • Fainting 

Heart disease is easier to treat when detected early, so talk to your health care provider about your concerns regarding your heart health. This is especially important if you have a family history of heart disease.

Risk Factors of Heart Disease

  • Age: As you age, you increase your risk of damaged and narrowed arteries and a weakened or thickened heart muscle.
  • Stress: Unrelieved stress may damage your arteries and worsen other risk factors for heart disease.
  • Sex: Men are mostly at greater risk of heart disease. Women are at risk after menopause.
  • Family history: A family history of this disease increases your risk of coronary artery disease, especially if a parent developed it before age 55 for a male relative and 65 for a female relative.
  • Smoking: Nicotine tightens your blood vessels, and carbon monoxide can damage their inner lining which makes them more susceptible to atherosclerosis.
  • Poor diet: A diet that’s high in fat, cholesterol, salt, and sugar can contribute to the development of heart disease.
  • Obesity: Excess weight typically worsens other heart disease risk factors.
  • High blood pressure: Uncontrolled high blood pressure can result in hardening and thickening of your arteries which narrows the vessels through which blood flows.
  • Diabetes: Diabetes increases your risk of heart disease. Both conditions share similar risk factors, such as obesity and high blood pressure.
  • High blood cholesterol levels: High levels of cholesterol in your blood can increase the risk of plaque formation and atherosclerosis.
  • Physical inactivity: Lack of exercise also is linked with several forms of heart disease and some of its other risk factors as well.

Treatment for Heart Disease

The type of treatment you receive depends on the type of heart disease you have. In general, treatment for heart disease usually includes:

  • Lifestyle changes such as eating a low-fat and low-sodium diet, getting at least 30 minutes of moderate exercise on most days of the week, limiting alcohol intake, and quitting smoking
  • Medications that may be prescribed by your doctor to control heart disease. 
  • Medical surgery or procedures if medications are not enough. 

Medications that can be taken for heart disease may include:

Managing Anxiety-Related Insomnia

Anxiety and insomnia are not the same conditions, but people with insomnia could have anxiety. Insomnia is characterized by difficulty falling asleep, trouble staying asleep, and/or early waking. Anxiety and stress are closely linked, and they are among the chief causes of insomnia. Anxiety-related Insomnia may have several factors and treatment may vary depending on the condition. 

What Are The Possible Of Causes Anxiety And Insomnia?

Anxiety is a normal part of life. The causes of anxiety disorders aren’t fully understood. Life experiences such as traumatic events seem to trigger anxiety in people who are already prone to anxiety. Inherited traits also can be a factor. 

Insomnia is a sleep disorder that is marked by problems getting to sleep, staying asleep through the night, and sleeping as long as you would like into the morning. Common causes of insomnia include stress, an irregular sleep schedule, mental health disorders like anxiety, poor sleeping habits, depression, physical illnesses and pain, neurological problems, medications, and specific sleep disorders. For many people, a combination of these factors can initiate and aggravate insomnia.

The Link between Anxiety and Insomnia

Constant worry during the day often carries over into night which can cause mental hyperarousal. It can keep you from falling asleep.

Once you do get to sleep, anxiety also can prevent you from staying asleep long enough to feel fully rested. Anxiety has been compared to your body’s alarm system, it can help keep you safe and out of potentially dangerous situations. However, if that alarm goes off all the time and for no real reason, it can keep you from getting enough deep sleep. All of this can create stress over not being able to get to sleep or get enough sleep which can lead to even more anxiety.

Treatment and Medication for Polio 

How to Manage Anxiety-Related Insomnia?

  • Try To Relax: If you’re lying awake at night with your heart pounding, it’s likely your fight or flight response has been triggered. Try to get your body back into a relaxed, resting state and take a deep breath. 
  • Get Up And Do Something: Sometimes, a useful way to lessen your anxiety is to physically focus on something completely different.
  • Give Yourself Enough Time For Sleep: You must give yourself the chance to get this amount of sleep.
  • Be Organized And Prepare For The Next Day: You can try making a to-do list so you know you’ve got everything covered before you go to bed. This can help to lessen your worries as you know everything is in hand for the next morning.
  • Practice Good Sleep Hygiene: Try and keep a consistent sleep routine. You should also try to limit your intake of caffeine, sugar, and alcohol late at night.

Medications Can Be Used for Anxiety-Related Insomnia

It may take some trial and error to discover which treatments work best for you. For an appropriate prescription, it is best to consult your doctor. 

Causes of Erectile Dysfunction

Causes of Erectile Dysfunction may include physical and psychological issues. For instance, a minor physical condition that slows your sexual response might cause anxiety about maintaining an erection. The anxiety that it causes may lead to or worsen erectile dysfunction. 

Erectile Dysfunction is the inability to get and keep an erection firm enough for sex, which is also known as impotence. If this condition is an ongoing issue, however, it can cause stress which could affect your self-confidence and contribute to relationship problems. Problems getting or keeping an erection can also be a sign of an underlying health condition that needs treatment and a risk factor for heart disease. 

What Are the Symptoms of Erectile Dysfunction?

Erectile dysfunction symptoms might include persistent:

  • Reduced sexual desire
  • Trouble getting and keeping an erection

If you have any erectile problems, see your doctor right away if you have:

  • Diabetes, heart disease, or another known health condition that might be associated with erectile dysfunction
  • Concerns about your erections or you’re experiencing other sexual problems such as premature or delayed ejaculation
  • Other symptoms along with erectile dysfunction

What Causes Erectile Dysfunction?

Male sexual arousal is a complicated process that includes the brain, hormones, emotions, nerves, muscles, and blood vessels. Any of these can lead to erectile dysfunction. Stress and mental health concerns can also worsen erectile dysfunction.

Erectile dysfunction can be caused by a combination of physical and psychological issues. An erection might be difficult to maintain if you suffer from a minor condition that slows your sexual response. Erectile dysfunction can be worsened or caused by anxiety.

Blood tests

How To Diagnose Erectile Dysfunction?

For several people, a physical exam and answering questions are all that is needed for a doctor to diagnose erectile dysfunction and recommend a treatment. If you have chronic health conditions or your doctor suspects that an underlying condition might be involved, you might need further tests or a consultation with a specialist including:

  • Blood tests
  • Physical exam 
  • Psychological exam 
  • Urine tests 

Treatment for Erectile Dysfunction

The first thing your doctor will do is to make sure you’re getting the right treatment for any health conditions that could be causing or worsening your erectile dysfunction.

Oral medications are a successful erectile dysfunction treatment for many men. They include:

These medications enhance the effects of nitric oxide, a natural chemical your body produces that relaxes muscles in the penis. This increases blood flow and allows you to get an erection in response to sexual stimulation. Sexual stimulation is needed first to cause the release of nitric oxide from your penile nerves. These medications amplify that signal which allows normal penile function in some people. Your doctor will consider your particular situation to determine which medication might work best. 

Health Risks of Chronic Alcohol Abuse

Chronic Alcohol Abuse refers to drinking in a way that is not controlled, being preoccupied with alcohol, or continuing to drink despite its negative effects. It is also associated with having to consume more alcohol to achieve the same effect and experiencing withdrawal symptoms when you reduce or stop drinking rapidly. Alcohol abuse can lead to alcoholism.

Alcohol use that risks your health or safety or causes other alcohol-related problems is considered unhealthy. The term also refers to binge drinking, when a male or female has five or more drinks within two hours. Binge drinking causes significant health risks. 

Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease

Health Risks of Chronic Alcohol Abuse

Too much alcohol can harm you physically and mentally in lots of ways. Health risks may include:

Factors That May Affect Chronic Alcohol Abuse

Many factors influence how drinking alcohol affects your body and behavior, including genetics, psychology, social factors, and the environment. Certain people may be more susceptible to alcohol use disorders due to a different and stronger impact of drinking.

Too much alcohol may alter the normal function of the areas of your brain responsible for pleasure, judgment, and the ability to control your behavior over time. The result may be a craving for alcohol to try to restore good feelings or reduce negative ones.

Diagnosis for Hypersexuality

Diagnosis for Chronic Alcohol Abuse 

You are likely to start by seeing your primary health care provider. If your provider suspects that you have a problem with alcohol, you may be referred to a mental health provider. To evaluate your problem with alcohol, your provider will likely:

  • Ask you some questions related to your drinking habits
  • Perform a physical exam
  • Suggest lab tests and imaging tests
  • Complete a psychological evaluation

Treatment for Chronic Alcohol Abuse 

Treatment for chronic alcohol abuse can vary, depending on your needs. Treatment may involve a short-term intervention, individual or group counseling, an outpatient program, or a residential inpatient stay. Working to stop alcohol use to improve quality of life is the main treatment goal. Treatment for chronic alcohol abuse may include:

  • Detox and withdrawal – this generally takes 2 to 7 days. You may need to take sedating medications to prevent withdrawal symptoms.
  • Learning new skills and making a treatment plan – this may include goal setting, use of self-help manuals, behavior change techniques, counseling, and follow-up care at a treatment center. 
  • Psychological counseling – will help you better understand your problem with alcohol and support recovery from the psychological aspects of alcohol use. 
  • Treatment for psychological problems – chronic alcohol abuse commonly occurs along with other mental health disorders. If you have a certain mental health condition, you may need talk therapy, medications, or other treatment. 
  • Oral medications – certain medications may help you prevent drinking. 

Medications used for chronic alcohol abuse:

Types and Treatment of Chronic Pain

Chronic pain can come in many different types and appear across your body. This kind of pain is a very common condition, and one of the most common reasons why someone seeks medical care. Treatment for chronic pain has a variety of options including medications.  

What Is Chronic Pain?

Chronic pain may last for over three months. The pain can be there all the time, or it may come and go. It can happen anywhere in your body. The pain can interfere with your daily activities. It can lead to anxiety, depression, and trouble sleeping, which can make your pain worse. This response creates a cycle that’s difficult to break. 

Common Types of Chronic Pain and What Causes It

The body has three main types of chronic pain. There is not always a known cause of chronic pain, whereas other times, the pain is a lingering symptom of an injury or accident. 

1. Neuropathic Pain

Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease

Neuropathic pain is a result of tissue injury or nerve damage. The damaged nerve fibers change the nerve function and send incorrect signals to the brain. These signals are sometimes faulty because of a malfunction in the way nerves transmit pain signals to the brain. Chronic pain occurs when these nerves are injured or diseased. Neuropathic pain is caused by:

  • Infections 
  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
  • Accidents
  • Disease
  • Surgery
  • Arthritis
  • Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
  • Parkinson’s Disease
  • Facial Nerve Problems

2. Nociceptive Pain

Nociceptive pain is caused by an injury, inflammation of a body part, or physical pressure. There are two types of nociceptive pain: somatic pain and visceral pain.

  • Somatic Pain: This is a pain that originates in your arms, legs, face, muscles, tendons, and extrinsic areas of the body. Somatic pain is triggered by an acute injury or chronic diseases such as a cut, bruise, arthritis, or joint injuries.  
  • Visceral Pain: This pain is detected by nociceptors in internal organs that contain sensory nerves that transmit signals to the brain after an injury. Visceral pain is caused by conditions such as stomach infections, constipation, cancer, or internal bleeding. 
Blood tests

How To Diagnose Chronic Pain?

Your healthcare provider may physically examine your body and order tests to look for the cause of the pain. The following tests may include:

  • Blood tests
  • Spinal fluid tests
  • Reflex and balance tests
  • Urine tests
  • Nerve conduction studies to see if your nerves are reacting properly
  • Electromyography to test muscle activity
  • Imaging tests, such as X-rays and MRI

Treatment for Chronic Pain

Health care providers treat chronic pain in several ways. The approach depends on various factors including the type of pain you have and the cause of pain. Your age and overall health may also be the basis of the treatment. Your health care provider may recommend certain medications to relieve chronic pain including:

What Are The Warning Signs Of A Heart Attack?

On the onset of the warning signs of a heart attack, call 911 or the local emergency team immediately.  A heart attack is caused by reduced or blocked blood flow to the heart. Blockages in coronary arteries are typically caused by fat, cholesterol, and other substances accumulating. Plaques consist of fatty deposits, which contain cholesterol. There is a possibility that a plaque may rupture and produce a clot. This may cause the heart muscle to be damaged or destroyed. Heart attacks are also known as myocardial infarction.


Eight Warning Signs of A Heart Attack

1. Uncomfortable Pressure

This is the first symptom of a heart attack which is an uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, fullness, or pain in the center of your chest. This discomfort may come in waves lasting more than a few minutes at a time.

2. Pain in Other Areas of the Body

Heart attack pain can occur in places other than the chest, like the shoulders, arms, back, neck, or jaw. Considering the vagus nerve is connected to not only the heart, but also the brain, chest, neck, and abdomen, you may feel those pain signals in other areas of the body aside from the heart area.

3. Dizziness

Lightheadedness or dizziness coupled with shortness of breath and chest pain may signify a reduction in blood volume and a drop in blood pressure, which means a heart attack could be on its way.

4. Fatigue

Feeling exhausted after a sleepless night or a stressful day is normal. This sign is especially prominent in women.

5. Nausea or Indigestion 

Gastric symptoms develop when the heart and other areas of the body aren’t receiving enough blood supply. It can be misjudged as acid reflux or heartburn, so it’s important to reach out to your doctor.

6. Sweating 

Unless you have just exercised, breaking out into a cold sweat or perspiring extremely could signal a heart attack. During a heart attack, your nervous system activates a fight or flight response that puts you in survival mode and might cause sweating.

7. Heart Palpitations 

The heart can begin to get irritable when it lacks nutrient-filled blood, which leads to the sensation of heart palpitations. If you feel like you’re having heart palpitations, make sure you contact your doctor right away.

8. Shortness of Breath 

Walking up the stairs used to be a breeze, but if you recently have been finding it harder and harder to make the climb, seek medical attention immediately. Although this doesn’t certainly mean you’re about to have a heart attack at this moment, it could be a sign that your heart is in danger. 

Treatment for Heart Attack 

Each minute after a heart attack, more heart tissue is damaged or dies. Urgent treatment is necessary to fix blood flow and restore oxygen levels. Oxygen is given straightaway.

Medications to treat a heart attack or its symptoms might include:

Symptoms and Types of Ulcerative Colitis

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic disorder of the digestive system that affects the large intestine. People with this condition experience abnormal inflammation which may result in open sores called ulcers inside the colon and rectum.

What Causes Ulcerative Colitis?

  • Genetic Causes: In some families, ulcerative colitis is inherited. Researchers have identified genetic variations that may contribute to Ulcerative Colitis, but they are not sure exactly how these differences are linked directly to the disease.
  • Overactive Intestinal Immune System: By attacking viruses, bacteria, and other threats, the immune system protects the body. These invaders are suspected of confusing the immune system and tricking it into launching an immune response against the lining of the large intestine, resulting in Ulcerative Colitis. 
  • Emotional Stress: Ulcerative colitis does not appear to be caused by this. Some studies suggest that it can cause Ulcerative Colitis flare-ups in some people who have already developed it.

Symptoms of Ulcerative Colitis

  • Abdominal cramps, discomfort or pain
  • Persistent diarrhea with blood, pus, or mucus in the stool
  • Urgent and loose bowel movements
  • Bloody stool
  • Nausea
  • Weight loss
  • Slowed or delayed growth in children
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • Anemia due to excessive intestinal bleeding

Types of Ulcerative Colitis

Five types of Ulcerative Colitis are identified largely by where they are located in the body or their severity. 

1. Ulcerative Proctitis

This is usually the mildest form of Ulcerative Colitis. It is limited to the rectum and rectal bleeding may be the only sign or symptom.

2. Proctosigmoiditis

This type affects the lower end of the colon along with the rectum and is sometimes called the sigmoid colon. Symptoms include abdominal cramps/pain and bloody diarrhea.

3. Left-Sided Colitis

This type causes cramps on the left side of the abdomen that affects the rectum and the portion of the colon on the left side of the body. Signs and symptoms include weight loss and bloody diarrhea.

4. Pancolitis

Pancolitis can affect the entire colon which causes multiple symptoms including major weight loss, bloody diarrhea, pain, abdominal cramps, and fatigue.

5. Acute Severe Ulcerative Colitis

This condition is rare but affects the entire colon. Symptoms include pain, fever, and bloody diarrhea.

How To Diagnose Ulcerative Colitis?

To diagnose ulcerative colitis, doctors review your symptoms and medical and family history and perform a physical exam and tests. Medical tests may include stool tests, blood tests, and endoscopy of the large intestine.

Medications Used For Kidney Infection

Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis

Ulcerative colitis treatment usually involves either drug treatment or surgery.

1. Anti-inflammatory drugs

  • Sulfasalazine 
  • Mesalamine 
  • Balsalazide 
  • Olsalazine 

2. Corticosteroids

3. Immune System Suppressors

  • Azathioprine
  • Mercaptopurine 
  • Cyclosporine
  • Tofacitinib

4. Biologics

  • Infliximab 
  • Adalimumab
  • Golimumab 
  • Vedolizumab
  • Ustekinumab

5. Other Medications 

  • Loperamide 
  • Acetaminophen

Even when you are not experiencing symptoms, take your medication as prescribed. You may experience flare-ups if you skip the medications you’re supposed to take. The best way to manage ulcerative colitis is to follow your treatment plan and talk to your healthcare provider on a regular basis.

What is Hypersensitivity Syndrome?

Hypersensitivity Syndrome is your body’s reactions to medications that result from an enhanced immunologic or inflammatory response. Infection-fighting T-cells in your immune system are unleashed in response to the medication which causes eruptions on your skin and damage to your internal organs.

Several factors make Hypersensitivity Syndrome different from an ordinary drug reaction. These include when it:

  • Symptoms appear to go into remission, but relapses can occur later
  • Causes autoimmune disorders to develop down the line
  • Re-activates common herpes viruses that may be dormant in your body
  • Involves more than one organ in your body

What Are The Symptoms Of Hypersensitivity Syndrome?

While several drug allergies cause an instant reaction, the symptoms of Hypersensitivity Syndrome generally appear 3 weeks to 3 months after the medication was started. Symptoms can come and go for months or even years.

Hypersensitivity Syndrome

Common symptoms may include:

  • Scaly, flaky skin
  • Fever
  • Facial swelling
  • A pink or red rash with or without pus-filled bumps or blisters
  • Swollen or tender lymph nodes
  • Swollen saliva glands
  • Difficulty moving normally
  • Headache
  • Dry mouth
  • Abnormalities in your white blood cell counts
  • Seizures
  • Coma

Who’s At Risk for Hypersensitivity Syndrome?

Scientists have discovered that genes play an essential role in whether you’re likely to have a severe drug reaction. However, genetics is not the only factor. Studies show you may be more likely to experience Hypersensitivity Syndrome if:

  • You’re over 20 years old
  • You’ve had a rheumatic or collagen rheumatic disease before
  • You’ve had a viral infection in the past few weeks
  • You have a condition that requires you to take antibiotics often

Possible Causes of Hypersensitivity Syndrome

Scientists are still learning about these interactions, but what they have discovered so far shows that certain drugs are more likely to be involved in these reactions:

  • Medications used to treat tuberculosis include Ethambutol, Rifampin, Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, and Streptomycin
  • Seizure medications including Mexiletine, Phenytoin, Phenobarbital, Carbamazepine, Lamotrigine, Valproic Acid, and Zonisamide
  • Antibiotics such as Ampicillin, Azithromycin, Dapsone, Amoxicillin, Levofloxacin, Piperacillin/Tazobactam, Clindamycin, Minocycline, and Vancomycin
  • Antiretrovirals such as Nevirapine and Efavirenz
  • Anti-inflammatory medications, including ibuprofen, celecoxib, and diclofenac
  • Cancer therapies including Sorafenib, Vismodegib, Imatinib, and Vemurafenib
  • Drugs used to treat hepatitis C, including Boceprevir and Telaprevir
  • Allopurinol and Febuxostat, lower uric acid in people with gout, kidney stones, and cancer
  • Rivaroxaban, a blood thinner
  • Acetaminophen, an over-the-counter pain reliever
  • Omeprazole, an over-the-counter heartburn medication  
  • Sulfasalazine, an arthritis medication

How Is Hypersensitivity Syndrome Treated?

The first step in treating Hypersensitivity Syndrome is to stop the medication that’s causing the reaction. You must be prepared for your symptoms to get worse right after you stop taking the medication. 

It’s also important to understand that your symptoms may come and go for some time after you’re treated. That pattern is also common with this condition. After stopping the medication, your doctor may treat you with corticosteroids to control some of your symptoms. If you’ve developed a secondary infection as a result of the reaction, you may also need a course of antibiotics. 

Heartburn Prevention Tips

What Is Heartburn?

Heartburn is an uncomfortable burning feeling in your chest that can move up your neck and throat. The pain is often worse after eating, in the evening, or when lying down or bending over. The uncomfortable burning feeling that is more frequent or interferes with your daily routine may be a symptom of a more serious condition that needs medical care. 

It’s not uncommon to experience occasional heartburn. However, you may have chronic acid reflux called GERD if you suffer from frequent and severe heartburn. You should seek medical attention if you frequently suffer from heartburn.

What Does Heartburn Feel Like?

Chest pain

Heartburn typically feels like a burning sensation behind your breastbone, in the center of your chest. Other symptoms of heartburn may include:

  • Difficulty swallowing 
  • Pain in your chest when you bend over or lay down
  • A burning feeling in your chest that can last anywhere from a few minutes to a couple of hours
  • A hot, sour, acidic, or salty taste in the back of your throat
  • A burning feeling in your throat

What Can Trigger Heartburn?

The things you do daily can cause heartburn. Some people suffer from heartburn due to their eating habits and lifestyle. Eating large portions of food, eating too close to bedtime, or even being stressed can be considered these habits.

Certain foods and drinks can also trigger heartburn for some people including:

  • Citrus juices
  • Caffeinated beverages
  • Carbonated beverages
  • Tomatoes
  • Tomato-based products
  • Alcohol
  • Onions
  • Citrus fruits
  • High-fat foods

Heartburn can also be caused by lifestyle habits. Lifestyle habits play a significant role in heartburn-related illnesses. Among the lifestyle habits that may trigger heartburn are:

  • Having a high-stress level
  • Wearing tight clothes and belts
  • Being overweight
  • Being a smoker

How Is Heartburn Treated?

Prevention Tips

You can often prevent and manage heartburn by making changes to your lifestyle. These changes include:

  • Avoiding overeating
  • Not going to bed with a full stomach
  • Wearing loose-fitting clothes
  • Eating slowly
  • Avoiding certain foods that might trigger heartburn 
  • Not smoking. Nicotine can weaken the lower esophageal sphincter. 
  • Sleeping on your left side helps with digestion and the removal of acid from your stomach and esophagus more quickly. 
  • Raising the head of your bed so that your head and chest are higher than your feet.
  • Planning your exercise to avoid heartburn. Wait at least two hours after a meal before exercising. If you work out any sooner, you may trigger heartburn. You should also drink plenty of water before and during exercise.


Over-the-counter medications for heartburn usually include acid blockers and antacids. If nonprescription treatments don’t work or you rely on them often, see your health care provider. You may need prescription medication and further testing.

Symptoms of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects more than just the joints. Some people can suffer damage to many different body systems, including the skin, eyes, lungs, heart, and blood vessels.

The immune system mistakenly attacks your body’s tissues when rheumatoid arthritis occurs. Rheumatoid arthritis, in contrast to osteoarthritis, causes swelling of your joints that can eventually result in bone erosion and joint deformity, instead of the wear-and-tear damage associated with osteoarthritis.

The inflammation associated with rheumatoid arthritis can also damage other parts of the body. While new treatments for severe rheumatoid arthritis have improved dramatically, they still can lead to severe disabilities.

back pain

What Are The Symptoms Of Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Symptoms of Rheumatoid Arthritis may include:

Early rheumatoid arthritis tends to affect your smaller joints first, particularly the joints that attach your fingers to your hands and your toes to your feet. As it progresses, the symptoms often spread to the shoulders, hips, elbows, ankles, knees, and wrists. In most cases, symptoms occur in the same joints on both sides of your body. 

Risk Factors for Rheumatoid Arthritis

Factors that may increase your risk of rheumatoid arthritis include:

  • Family history – if a member of your family has rheumatoid arthritis, you may have an increased risk of the disease.
  • Your sex – women are more likely than men to develop rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Age – rheumatoid arthritis can occur at any age, but it most commonly begins in middle age.
  • Excess weight – people who are overweight appear to be at a somewhat higher risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Smoking – cigarette smoking increases your risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis, particularly if you have a genetic predisposition for developing the disease. Smoking also appears to be associated with greater disease severity.

Diagnosis for Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis can be difficult to diagnose in its early stages because the early symptoms imitate those of many other diseases. There is no one blood test or physical finding to confirm the diagnosis. During the physical exam, your doctor will check your joints for swelling, redness, and warmth. Your doctor may also check your reflexes and muscle strength.

Medications Used For Kidney Infection

Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis

There is no specific cure for rheumatoid arthritis. However, clinical studies indicate that remission of symptoms is more likely when treatment begins early with medications known as disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs).

Medications can be used for rheumatoid arthritis:

The types of medications recommended by your doctor will depend on the severity of your symptoms and how long you’ve had rheumatoid arthritis. Always ask for instructions when taking certain medications. 

Type 2 Diabetes Treatment

Type 2 Diabetes is a common type of diabetes. It is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose is too high. Blood glucose or blood sugar is the main source of energy and comes mainly from the food you eat. 

A hormone made by the pancreas called insulin helps glucose get into your cells to be used for energy. Your body doesn’t produce enough insulin or doesn’t use it efficiently if you have type 2 diabetes. In this case, too much glucose remains in your blood and not enough reaches your cells.

woman having a glass of water

Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes

Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes often develop slowly. You can be living with this disease for years and not know it. When symptoms are present, they may include:

  • Unintended weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Blurred vision
  • Increased thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Increased hunger
  • Numbness or tingling in the hands or feet
  • Areas of darkened skin, usually in the armpits and neck
  • Slow-healing sores
  • Frequent infections

Who Is At Risk Of Developing Type 2 Diabetes?

You are more likely to develop Type 2 Diabetes if you:

Complications of High Blood Sugar Levels 

Potential complications of high blood sugar levels from Type 2 diabetes can include:

  • Heart disease
  • Kidney disease
  • Skin conditions
  • Stroke
  • Urinary tract infections and bladder infections
  • Digestive problems
  • Eye problems
  • Hearing loss
  • Liver problems, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
  • Foot problems, including leg and foot ulcers
  • Gum disease and other mouth problems
  • Peripheral neuropathy (nerve damage)
  • Sexual dysfunction

Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes

check for blood sugar

These steps will help keep your blood sugar level closer to normal, which can delay or prevent complications.

1. Healthy Eating

  • Modest servings of low-fat dairy, low-fat meats, and fish
  • Healthy cooking oils, such as olive oil or canola oil
  • Fewer calories
  • A regular schedule for meals and healthy snacks
  • Fewer refined grains, starchy vegetables, and sweets
  • Smaller portion sizes
  • More high-fiber foods, such as fruits, nonstarchy vegetables, and whole grains

2. Physical Activity

Exercise is important for losing weight or maintaining a healthy weight. It also helps with regulating blood sugar levels. 

  • Aerobic exercise
  • Resistance exercise
  • Limit inactivity

3. Weight Loss

Blood sugar levels, cholesterol levels, triglycerides, and blood pressure are better controlled with weight loss. Overweight people may notice improvements in these factors after losing as little as 5% of their body weight. As you lose weight, you will see a greater impact on your health and disease management.

4. Monitoring Your Blood Sugar

Your doctor will direct you on how often to check your blood sugar level to make sure you remain within your target range. You should keep a record of your measurements to share with your doctor.

5. Diabetes Medications 

Diabetes medications that help lower insulin levels or insulin therapy may be prescribed by your doctor if diet and exercise are not sufficient to maintain your target blood sugar level. Diabetes medications that help lower insulin levels include the following.

Causes and Symptoms of Anemia

Anemia is a condition where you lack enough healthy red blood cells to carry sufficient oxygen to the tissues in your body. Having anemia means you also have low hemoglobin which can make you feel weak and tired. 

There are several forms of anemia, each with its cause. Anemia can be temporary or long-term and can range from mild to severe. In most cases, anemia has more than one cause. See your doctor if you suspect that you have anemia. It can be a warning sign of a serious disorder.

Possible Causes of Anemia 

Different types of anemia have different causes. They include:

  • Iron deficiency anemia – is caused by a shortage of iron in your body. Without adequate iron, your body can’t produce enough hemoglobin for red blood cells. 
  • Vitamin deficiency anemia – your body needs folate and vitamin B-12 to produce enough healthy red blood cells. 
  • Anemia of inflammation – certain diseases such as HIV/AIDS, kidney disease, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, and other acute or chronic inflammatory diseases can interfere with the production of red blood cells.
  • Aplastic anemia – life-threatening anemia occurs when your body doesn’t produce enough red blood cells. Causes of aplastic anemia include certain medications, infections, autoimmune diseases, and exposure to toxic chemicals.
  • Anemia associated with bone marrow disease – leukemia and myelofibrosis can cause anemia by affecting blood production in your bone marrow.
  • Hemolytic anemia – this develops when red blood cells are destroyed faster than bone marrow can replace them.
  • Sickle cell anemia – this is an inherited and sometimes serious condition is hemolytic anemia. It’s caused by a defective form of hemoglobin that forces red blood cells to assume an abnormal crescent shape.
migraine with aura

Symptoms of Anemia

Symptoms of anemia vary depending on the cause and severity of anemia. If symptoms occur, they may include:

As anemia worsens, symptoms can also worsen. 

Treatment for Anemia 

Anemia treatment depends on the cause.

  • Iron deficiency anemia – treatment for this form of anemia usually involves taking iron supplements and changing your diet. 
  • Vitamin deficiency anemias – treatment for folic acid and vitamin C deficiency involves dietary supplements and increasing these nutrients in your diet. 
  • Anemia of chronic disease – there’s no specific treatment for this type of anemia. Doctors focus on treating the underlying disease.
  • Aplastic anemia – treatment can include blood transfusions to boost levels of red blood cells. You might need a bone marrow transplant if your bone marrow can’t make healthy blood cells.
  • Anemias associated with bone marrow disease – treatment of these various diseases can include medication, chemotherapy, or bone marrow transplantation.
  • Hemolytic anemias – managing this anemia includes avoiding suspect medications, treating infections, and taking drugs that suppress your immune system.
  • Sickle cell anemia – treatment might include oxygen, pain relievers, and oral and intravenous fluids to reduce pain and prevent complications. Doctors might also recommend blood transfusions, folic acid supplements, and antibiotics

Treatment for Alopecia

Treatment for Alopecia is crucial. Before pursuing it, you may need to talk with your doctor about the cause and the treatment options.

Alopecia is a condition that causes hair loss which may affect just your scalp or your entire body. This condition can be the result of hormonal changes, heredity, medical condition, or a normal part of aging. Alopecia is more common in men.

hair loss

Symptoms of Alopecia

Alopecia can appear in many different ways. It can come on suddenly or slowly and might affect just the scalp or the whole body.

Symptoms may include:

  • Patches of scaling that spread over the scalp
  • Full-body hair loss
  • Sudden loosening of hair
  • Circular or patchy bald spots
  • Gradual thinning on top of the head

See your doctor if you are troubled by persistent hair loss in you and want to pursue treatment. For women who are experiencing a receding hairline, talk with your doctor about early treatment to avoid significant permanent baldness. Also, talk to your doctor if you notice sudden or patchy hair loss or more than usual hair loss when combing or washing your hair. Sudden hair loss can signal an underlying medical condition that requires treatment.

Causes of Alopecia

Hair loss is typically related to one or more of the following factors:

  • Family history (heredity)
  • Hormonal changes and medical conditions
  • Medications and supplements
  • Radiation therapy to the head
  • A very stressful event
  • Hairstyles and treatments
Blood tests

Diagnosis for Alopecia

Before making a diagnosis, your doctor will likely give you a physical exam and ask about your hair care routine, your diet, and your medical and family history. You might also have tests such as:

  • Pull test – your doctor gently pulls several dozen hairs to see how many come out. This helps determine the stage of the shedding process.
  • Blood test – this might help uncover medical conditions that can cause hair loss.
  • Scalp biopsy – your doctor scrapes samples from the skin or a few hairs plucked from the scalp to examine the hair roots under a microscope. This can help determine whether an infection is causing hair loss.
  • Light microscopy – your doctor uses a special instrument to examine hairs trimmed at their bases. Microscopy helps uncover possible disorders of the hair shaft.

Treatment for Alopecia

Effective treatments for some types of hair loss are available. You might be able to reverse hair loss, or at least slow it. Treatments for hair loss include medications and surgery.

  • Hair transplant surgery – hair transplant can make the most of the hair you have left. During a hair transplant procedure, a dermatologist or cosmetic surgeon removes hair from a part of the head that has hair and transplants it to a bald spot.
  • Laser therapy – The FDA has approved a low-level laser device as a treatment for hereditary hair loss in men and women. A few small studies have shown that it improves hair density.
  • Medications – medications are available to treat pattern baldness. The most common options include Minoxidil (Rogaine), Finasteride (Propecia), Dutasteride (Avodart), and Spironolactone.

Crohn’s Disease Symptoms and Treatment

Crohn’s disease symptoms and treatment vary depending on what’s causing your symptoms and how severe they are for you. This disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease. Crohn’s disease causes your digestive tract to become swollen and irritated. If you have the disease, you might experience symptoms like diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, and rectal bleeding.

Crohn’s disease can affect any part of your small or large intestine, and it can involve multiple segments of your intestine. In some cases, the disease is confined to the colon, which is part of the large intestine. Mild to severe Crohn’s disease symptoms are possible. The symptoms usually develop gradually, but sometimes suddenly appear without warning. There may also be periods without symptoms.

abdominal pain

What Are The Symptoms Of Crohn’s Disease?

When the disease is active, symptoms may include:

People with severe Crohn’s Disease may also experience:

  • Kidney stones
  • Inflammation of the liver or bile ducts 
  • Inflammation of skin, eyes, and joints
  • Delayed growth or sexual development 
  • Iron deficiency 

See your doctor if you have persistent changes in your bowel habits or if you have any of the symptoms of Crohn’s disease, such as:

  • Unexplained fever lasting more than a day or two
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Abdominal pain
  • Blood in your stool
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting 
smoking cigarettes

What Causes Crohn’s Disease?

Certain factors may increase your risk of developing Crohn’s Disease, including:

  • Genes – Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often runs in families. If you have a parent, sibling, or other family members with Crohn’s, you may be at an increased risk of also having it. 
  • Smoking – Cigarette smoking could as much as double your risk of Crohn’s disease.
  • Autoimmune disease – Bacteria in the digestive tract may cause the body’s immune system to attack your healthy cells. 

Treatment of Crohn’s Disease

Your healthcare provider may recommend one or more of these treatments for Crohn’s disease:


Anti-inflammatory drugs 

Immune system suppressors


  • Natalizumab (Tysabri)
  • Vedolizumab (Entyvio)
  • Infliximab (Remicade)
  • Adalimumab (Humira)
  • Certolizumab Pegol (Cimzia)
  • Ustekinumab (Stelara)

Other medications

  • Psyllium Powder (Metamucil)
  • Methylcellulose (Citrucel)
  • Acetaminophen (Tylenol)
  • Ibuprofen
  • Naproxen Sodium (Aleve)
Blood tests

How Is Crohn’s Disease Diagnosed?

Most people with Crohn’s disease first see a doctor because of ongoing diarrhea, unexplained weight loss, or belly cramping. To find the cause of your symptoms, your doctor may order one or more of these tests:

  • Blood test
  • Stool test
  • Colonoscopy
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan
  • Upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy
  • Upper gastrointestinal (GI) exam

Causes of Gestational Diabetes

Causes of Gestational Diabetes are various factors as this condition occurs when your blood sugar levels become high during pregnancy. Gestational Diabetes is a type of diabetes that appears between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy.

Developing Gestational Diabetes doesn’t mean you already had diabetes before you got pregnant. The condition appears because of the pregnancy. Women with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes have their own, separate challenges when it comes to pregnancy.


What Causes Gestational Diabetes?

In pregnancy, gestational diabetes occurs when your body cannot produce enough insulin. Your pancreas produces insulin, a hormone that acts as a key to allowing blood sugar into your cells for energy.

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The body produces more hormones and undergoes other changes during pregnancy, such as weight gain. Cells in your body become less effective at using insulin as a result of these changes, resulting in insulin resistance. Insulin resistance makes your body require more insulin.

It is normal for pregnant women to have some insulin resistance during late pregnancy. Some women have insulin resistance before becoming pregnant. During pregnancy, they require more insulin and are more likely to have gestational diabetes.

What Are The Symptoms Of Gestational Diabetes?

Gestational Diabetes does not usually cause any symptoms. However, some women may experience:

  • Tiredness
  • Thirst
  • Nausea
  • Frequent urination

What Are The Risks Factors Associated With Gestational Diabetes?

Even though any woman can develop Gestational Diabetes during pregnancy, some of the factors that may increase the risk include the following:

  • Family history of diabetes
  • Overweight or obesity
  • Prediabetes or also known as impaired glucose tolerance
  • Having given birth previously to an infant weighing greater than 9 pounds
  • Age (women who are older than 25 are at a greater risk for developing gestational diabetes than younger women)

How Is Gestational Diabetes Diagnosed?

To diagnose Gestational Diabetes, your doctor will test your blood sugar during pregnancy. The test may have two parts including:

  • Glucose challenge test: You drink a sweet liquid. After about an hour, you’ll have a blood test to check your blood sugar level. If your blood sugar is high, your healthcare provider will do a glucose tolerance test.
  • Glucose tolerance test: This is an oral test that is only done if your challenge test results are unusual. You fast before the tolerance test. Your healthcare provider draws your blood before and after you drink a sweet liquid. The tolerance test can confirm a diagnosis of gestational diabetes.

Treatment for Gestational Diabetes

Specific treatment for gestational diabetes will be determined by your doctor based on expectations for the course of the disease, age overall well-being, medical history, and the extent of the disease. Treatments may also depend on your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies. Treatment for gestational diabetes focuses on keeping blood glucose levels in the normal range this may include:

  • Insulin injections
  • Daily blood glucose monitoring
  • Special diet
  • Exercise

Medications Used for Gestational Diabetes

Before taking any medications, it is important to consult your doctor first for appropriate dosage, especially during pregnancy.

Symptoms of Glaucoma

Symptoms of glaucoma may vary depending on the type of glaucoma a person has. Most people have open-angle glaucoma and angle-closure glaucoma, the most common types of glaucoma.  

Glaucoma is an eye condition that damages the optic nerve. The damage is often caused by abnormally high pressure in your eye. Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness for people over the age of 60. It can occur at any age but is more common in older adults.

symptoms of food allergy

Symptoms of Glaucoma

The signs and symptoms of glaucoma vary depending on the type and stage of your condition. For example:

Open-Angle Glaucoma

  • Tunnel vision in the advanced stages
  • Patchy blind spots in your side or central vision, frequently in both eyes

Acute Angle-Closure Glaucoma

If glaucoma is left untreated, it will eventually cause blindness. Even with treatment, about 15% of people with glaucoma become blind in at least one eye within 20 years.

Who Are At Risk Of Having Glaucoma?

Chronic forms of glaucoma can destroy vision before any symptoms are apparent. Be aware of these risk factors:

Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease
  • Taking corticosteroid medications, especially eyedrops, for a long time
  • Being over age 60
  • Being extremely nearsighted or farsighted
  • Having a family history of glaucoma
  • Having certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, and sickle cell anemia
  • Having corneas that are thin in the center
  • Having high internal eye pressure 
  • Having had an eye injury or certain types of eye surgery

How To Diagnose Glaucoma?

To diagnose glaucoma, your doctor will review your medical history and conduct a comprehensive eye examination. However, there are several tests including:

  • Measuring corneal thickness (pachymetry)
  • Inspecting the drainage angle (gonioscopy)
  • Testing for optic nerve damage with a dilated eye examination and imaging tests
  • Checking for areas of vision loss (visual field test)
  • Measuring intraocular pressure (tonometry)

Treatment for Glaucoma

Treatment and regular checkups can help slow or prevent vision loss, especially if you catch the disease in its early stages.

Glaucoma is treated by lowering your eye pressure. Depending on your situation, your options may include prescription eye drops, oral medications, laser treatment, surgery, or a combination of any of these.

Some of the eye drop medication is absorbed into your bloodstream, you may experience some side effects unrelated to your eyes. To lessen this absorption, close your eyes for one to two minutes after putting the drops in. 

If you have been prescribed multiple eye drops or you need to use artificial tears, space them out so that you are waiting at least five minutes in between types of drops. Ask your health care provider for proper instructions. 

Causes of Eye Redness

Eye redness or also called the bloodshot eye. The appearance of red eyes can vary widely. It can look like there are several squiggly pink or red lines on the sclera or the entire sclera may appear diffusely pink or red.

What Are The Common Causes Of Eye Redness?

symptoms of food allergy

1. Allergies 

Allergies affect the eyes which may lead becoming red and swollen. Other symptoms that you may experience include:

  • Itching
  • A burning sensation
  • Increased tearing

2. Dry Eyes 

Dry eyes are common. If you have dry eyes, you may notice that your eyes appear red. Symptoms may include:

  • Sensitivity to light
  • Blurred vision
  • A stinging, scratchy, or burning sensation
  • Feeling like something is in your eye

3. Conjunctivitis

This occurs when the membrane covering the insides of your eyelids and the conjunctiva becomes inflamed. Inflammation of the conjunctiva causes the whites of your eyes to appear pink or red.

4. Blepharitis

This occurs when your eyelids become inflamed. It can cause your eyelids or eyes to appear red and swollen. Some other symptoms may include:

  • Increased tearing
  • Crusty eyelids in the morning
  • Sensitivity to light

5. Uveitis

This is an inflammation that occurs in the middle part of your eye called the uvea. Inflammation because of uveitis can lead to eye redness.

6. Scleritis

Scleritis is when inflammation affects the sclera. When this occurs, the white of your eye can become red and swollen. 

7. Subconjunctival Hemorrhage

This occurs when a blood vessel in an eye can break and leak blood on the surface of your eyes. Subconjunctival hemorrhage may look serious but it’s often benign and goes away on its own in 1 to 2 weeks. 

8. Eyelid Stye

A stye is a blockage of the meibomian gland in the eye that causes inflammation. It might affect the outside or inside of your upper or lower eyelid.

9. Angle-Closure Glaucoma

Glaucoma is an illness where the pressure in your eye increases because the eye produces more fluid than the normal rate. This can damage your optic nerve and potentially may lead to vision loss.

10. Corneal Ulcers

Corneal ulcers are ulcers or sores that affect the outer part of your eye. This condition is also called keratitis. Several things can cause corneal ulcers to develop:

  • Showering or swimming in contact lenses, or using well water to clean contacts
  • Dry eyes
  • Sleeping in contact lenses

11. Injury 

Sustaining an injury that affects your eye may cause it to become red, frequently because of bleeding or irritation.

12. Contact Lens Wear

Individuals who wear contact lenses have to touch their eyes and the surrounding area more often than those who don’t wear contact lenses. For this reason, they are at an increased risk of eye redness because of a variety of factors.

Treatment for Eye Redness

Medications for eye redness are wide-ranging. Oftentimes, rest, cool compresses over closed eyes, gently washing the eyelids, lightly massaging the eyelids, or over-the-counter eye drops can relieve the symptoms.

Medications may include:

Different Types of Generalized Seizures

A generalized seizure occurs when electrical activity on both sides of the brain is disturbed, leading to loss of body control and, often, consciousness. A generalized seizure may have a variety of symptoms.

Seizures are likely to last only a few seconds or minutes. If a seizure lasts longer than this, it is important to seek medical attention right away. The affected person will typically return to normal after it has taken place, but complications can arise, such as injury from collapsing or an inability to regain consciousness. 

Types of Generalized Seizures

1. Absence Seizures

This is known as petit mal seizures. These are staring spells that start suddenly and might be mistaken for simple daydreaming. The individual may have an absence seizure for 15 seconds or less, typically not moving and just staring in one direction. The episode resolves on its own, and even though the person may not recall what happened during the seizure, their normal state of alertness returns right away afterward.

2. Atonic Seizures (Drop Attacks)

Drop attacks involves a sudden reduction in muscle tone which causes a person’s body to go limp, slump or collapse, possibly causing injury. This type of seizure characterizes certain epilepsy syndromes such as Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

3. Myoclonic Seizures

This is characterized by sudden body jolts or an increase in muscle tone as if the person had been jolted with electricity. 

  • Infantile Spasms – this is a subtype of Myoclonic Seizures. This typically begins between the ages of 3 and 12 months of age and may persist for several years. Infantile spasms usually consist of a sudden jerk followed by stiffening. 

4. Tonic and Clonic Seizures

  • The person with a tonic seizure may experience muscles stiffening and lose consciousness. The person may make gurgling sounds while struggling to breathe.
  • Clonic seizures cause muscle spasms and jerking. Muscles in the elbows, legs, and neck flex and then relax in rapid succession. 
  • Tonic-clonic seizures or also known as grand mal or convulsive seizures occur when tonic and clonic movements happen at the same time. 
Blood tests

Diagnosis of Generalized Seizures

If a person is affected by symptoms consistent with a seizure, then it is recommended that they visit a medical professional. Several tests can be run to check whether a person may be epileptic. 

  • Electroencephalograph
  • Brain scans
  • Blood tests
  • Nonepileptic seizures

A doctor will typically be unable to confirm a diagnosis of epilepsy until at least a second seizure has taken place. What appears to be a generalized seizure may sometimes be down to another, non-epileptic condition, such as a panic attack or Tourette’s syndrome

Treatment for Generalized Seizures

There are various types of medication are used to control seizures. These medications may include:

In certain cases, doctors may recommend stopping the use of anti-seizure medication, for instance, if several years have passed since a seizure has taken place. 

Hookworm Infection Treatment

Hookworm infection is caused by roundworms. The disease affects the small intestine and lungs. Hookworms are parasites that live in the intestines of infected people. Hookworm eggs called larvae spread in the feces or poop of people with hookworm disease. Many people have no symptoms, but signs of a hookworm infection include fever, skin rash, stomach pain, and diarrhea.

Symptoms of Hookworm Infection

You might not have any symptoms of hookworm infection if you’re otherwise healthy, have a low parasite burden, and eat foods with plenty of iron. In general, symptoms of an infestation usually begin with itchiness and a small rash caused by an allergic reaction in the area where the larvae entered your skin. Hookworms usually cause diarrhea as they grow in your intestines. 

itchy skin

Other symptoms include:

Causes of Hookworm Infection and How Does It Affect You

There are two major types of hookworms that cause hookworm infection. It includes Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. The eggs of these hookworms end up on the ground after passing through human feces. They hatch into larvae, which stay in the soil until they have a chance to break through human skin.

After infected larvae enter through your skin, they travel through your body:

  • They move through your blood vessels to your heart and then your lungs.
  • You cough up the larvae from your lungs and swallow them.
  • The larvae follow the digestive tract into the small intestine, where they attach to the walls, grow, and mature.
  • Fertilized eggs leave your body in your stool to infect another host.
  • The whole process can take two to three months. The worms can live in your body for two years or more.

 Diagnosis for Hookworm Infection

Your health care provider will test a sample of your poop if you have symptoms of hookworm disease. They analyze the stool sample under a microscope to look for hookworm eggs.

If you have recently traveled to an area where hookworm is common, your health care provider may recommend blood tests. A complete blood count can show eosinophilia. This sign of hookworm disease can show up weeks before eggs are present in your stool. 

Treatment of Hookworm Infection

If tests show that you have hookworm infection, your health care provider will prescribe medications that treat the infection. 

Hookworm infections treatment options may include:

  • No treatment: Your body may clear the infection on its own, but it could take a few years.
  • Anthelmintic medicines: These medicines get rid of parasitic worms in the body. Common medications for hookworm infection include Mebendazole, Albendazole, and Pyrantel Pamoate. To treat infection by hookworm larvae, you can put the drug Thiabendazole on your skin or take medicine like Albendazole or Ivermectin by mouth.
  • Supplements: Iron supplements can treat anemia from the infection. If you have anemia and malnutrition, your treatment will include nutrition support and other supplements, including folate.
  • Hospitalization: Seldom, hookworms can cause severe anemia and congestive heart failure. For these cases, you may need treatment in a hospital.

What Triggers Hives?

Hives are a skin reaction that causes bumps, raised patches, or both to suddenly appear on the skin. The bumps and raised patches are often itchy and may look swollen. Fortunately, you cannot get hives by touching someone with hives or being around someone who has hives. However, some people develop hives when they have a contagious disease like the common cold or strep throat. 

Symptoms of Drug Allergy

Types of Hives

1. Allergic Reactions

This the most common types of hives. Allergic reactions can be caused by any allergen you might be sensitive to. 

2. Anaphylaxis

This is a severe type of hives that can be life-threatening. In this condition, hives are often accompanied by breathing difficulties, nausea or vomiting, severe swelling, and dizziness. 

3. Chronic Hives

A chronic hive is an ongoing case that doesn’t have an identifiable cause. Chronic hives are marked by recurring hives that can interfere with your lifestyle. This condition may last between six weeks and several months. You may suspect chronic hives if you have welts that don’t go away within six weeks. 

4. Dermatographism

Dermatographism is considered mild. Unnecessary scratching or continuous pressure on the skin causes it. This condition usually clears up on its own in a short period without treatment.

5. Temperature-Induced Hives

A change in temperatures can induce hives in people who are sensitive to such changes. 

6. Infection-Induced Hives

Both bacterial and viral infections can cause hives. Common bacterial infections causing hives include urinary tract infections and strep throat. Viruses that cause infectious mononucleosis, hepatitis, and colds often cause hives.

Hives Triggers

Triggers that most commonly cause hives to include:

  • Foods such as peanuts, eggs, nuts, and shellfish
  • Latex
  • Blood transfusions
  • Medications such as antibiotics, aspirin, and ibuprofen
  • Insect stings or bites
  • Physical stimuli, such as pressure, cold, heat, exercise, or sun exposure
  • Pollen
  • Some plants
  • Pet dander

Avoid The Triggers 

If the cause of hives can be identified, the best treatment is to avoid the trigger or eliminate it:

  • Don’t eat foods that have been identified to cause your symptoms.
  • Avoid tight clothing. Pressure hives can be relieved by wearing loose-fitting clothes.
  • Avoid harsh soaps. Frequent baths may lessen itching and scratching. Itching and scratching can make the hives feel worse.
  • Wear protective clothing; apply sunblock.
  • If you develop hives when exposed to cold, do not swim alone in cold water. Avoid exposure to cold air and use a scarf around your nose and mouth in cold weather. If you must be out in the cold, wear warm clothing. 
Taking HIV Medicine during Pregnancy 

Medication Used For Hives 

Your doctor will likely recommend you first treat your symptoms with home remedies. If self-care steps don’t help, talk with your doctor about finding the prescription medication or combination of drugs that works best for you. Usually, effective treatment can be found. These medications may include:

Types of Viral Infection

What Is Viral Infection?

 A virus is a small piece of material that looks for a host to live inside and multiply. Unlike bacteria, they can survive on their own while viruses need a living host to survive. When a virus enters the host cell, it takes over the command center of the cell and starts to imitate the copies of itself. 

The viral infection occurs when a virus infects a host cell and begins replicating. The infection may be localized, known as a localized infection, or may spread throughout the body, known as a systemic infection.

What Are The Types Of Viral Infection?

Viral Respiratory Infections

Viral infections can affect different areas and systems of the body, the most common of which is the respiratory system. The following are some examples of common viral infections may include:

1. Viral Respiratory Infections

  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
  • Adenovirus
  • Rhinovirus (common cold)
  • Influenza (the flu)

2. Viral Infections with Skin Rashes

3. Viral Sexually Transmitted Infections 

4. Other Viral Infections 

  • Norovirus (stomach flu)
  • Viral hepatitis

How To Prevent Viral Infection?

Several viral infections can be completely avoided by a simple vaccine. Vaccines are currently available for:

  • HPV
  • Hepatitis B
  • Chickenpox and shingles
  • Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR)
  • Influenza 
  • COVID-19

Practicing good personal hygiene and lifestyle habits is another effective strategy for preventing disease. This includes:

  • Learning about strategies to reduce your risk of contact with virus-bearing vectors, like ticks and mosquitoes
  • Practicing food safety techniques to lessen exposure to pathogens that can cause food poisoning
  • Engaging in safe sex practices to reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
Medications Used For Kidney Infection

Treatment for Viral Infection

Symptom management is usually used to treat viral infections. Over-the-counter pain relievers can be used to ease pain and reduce fever while resting for fatigue until the virus is gone. Viral infections are difficult to treat. Hepatitis C, for instance, requires a strict medication regimen for several weeks up to a few months before the virus is cleared from your body. If you take medications early enough after being exposed to other viruses, you may speed up your recovery. The medications in this category include those that treat influenza and shingles (herpes zoster). While HIV medications keep the virus under control, they do not cure it. Their primary role is to prevent it from replicating and causing more damage.

Medications used for viral infections may include:

For viral infections, their lots of things that you can do over the counter to help your symptoms. Unfortunately, there is no medication that we can give that will speed your recovery, so mainly it’s making you feel better while your body’s fighting off the infection over about a week.

Triggers of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Triggers of Irritable bowel syndrome affect the large intestine. Cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, gas, and diarrhea or constipation are the signs and symptoms of IBS. Only a small number of people with IBS have severe signs and symptoms. Some people can control their symptoms by managing their diet, lifestyle, and stress. More severe symptoms can be treated with medication and counseling.

What Triggers Irritable Bowel Syndrome?


Irritable Bowel Syndrome symptoms can be triggered by:

  • Stress – most people with IBS have worse or more frequent signs and symptoms during periods of increased stress. While stress may aggravate symptoms, it doesn’t cause them.
  • Food – food allergy rarely causes IBS, but many people have worse symptoms when they eat or drink certain foods or beverages, including wheat, citrus fruits, dairy products, cabbage, beans, milk, and carbonated drinks.

What Causes Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

  • Muscle contractions in the intestine – Contractions that are stronger and last longer than normal can cause gas, bloating, and diarrhea. Weak intestinal contractions can slow food passage and lead to hard, dry stools.
  • Nervous system – Abnormalities in the nerves in your digestive system may cause you to experience greater than normal discomfort when your abdomen stretches from gas or stool. 
  • Severe infection – IBS can develop after a severe bout of diarrhea caused by bacteria or a virus. 
  • Changes in gut microbes – changes in bacteria, fungi, and viruses, which normally reside in the intestines and play a key role in health. 

How To Diagnose Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

During the first visit, your doctor will likely conduct a complete medical history, a physical examination, and tests to rule out other conditions. Your doctor will most likely use one of the following sets of diagnostic criteria for IBS once other possible causes have been ruled out:

  • Rome criteria: These criteria include abdominal pain and discomfort lasting on average at least one day a week in the last three months.
  • Type of IBS: For treatment, IBS can be divided into three types, based on your symptoms: constipation-predominant, diarrhea-predominant or mixed.
abdominal pain

Warning Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Treatment for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

The following types of drugs are used to treat IBS:

Symptoms and Causes of Lazy Eye

A lazy eye is also known as amblyopia. This condition is characterized by a reduced vision in one eye caused by abnormal visual development early in life. The lazy eye often wanders inward or outward. This condition usually develops from birth up to age 7 years. It is the leading cause of decreased vision among children. Rarely, lazy eye affects both eyes.

Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent long-term problems with your child’s vision. The eye with poorer vision can usually be corrected with glasses or contact lenses, or patching therapy.

What are the symptoms of a Lazy Eye?

symptoms of a Lazy Eye

The symptom of the lazy eye may include:

  • Squinting or shutting an eye
  • Head tilting
  • Poor depth perception
  • Abnormal results of vision screening tests
  • An eye that wanders inward or outward
  • Eyes that appear to not work together

See a doctor if you notice an eye wandering after the first few weeks of life. A vision check is especially important if there’s a family history of crossed eyes, childhood cataracts, or other eye conditions.

What causes Lazy Eye?

A lazy eye develops as a result of abnormal visual experiences early in life which alter the nerve pathways between the thin layer of tissue behind the eye and the brain. Weakened eyes are less sensitive to visual stimuli. As the ability of the eyes to work together diminishes, the brain suppresses or ignores input from the weaker eye. Lazy eyes can be caused by anything that blurs a child’s vision or causes the eyes to cross or turn out. Among the most common causes are:

  • Muscle imbalance (strabismus amblyopia)
  • The difference in sharpness of vision between the eyes (refractive amblyopia)
  • Deprivation is a problem with one eye. 

Diagnosis of Lazy Eye

Diagnosis of Lazy Eye

A doctor will perform an eye exam to check for eye health, wandering eyes, differences in vision between both eyes, or poor vision in both eyes. The eyes are usually dilated with eyedrops. It is common for eye drops to cause blurred vision for several hours to a day. The method used to test vision depends on your child’s age and stage of development:

  • Preverbal children – a lighted magnifying device can be used to detect cataracts
  • For children aged 3 and older – tests using pictures or letters can assess the child’s vision. Each eye is covered in turn to test the other.

Treatment for Lazy Eye

Treatment options depend on the cause of the lazy eye and on how much the condition is affecting the vision. Your doctor might recommend:

  • Corrective eyewear
  • Eye patches
  • Bangerter filter
  • Surgery
  • Eyedrops

For most children with lazy eyes, proper treatment improves vision within weeks to months. Treatment might last from six months to two years.


Parkinsonism is a condition that causes a combination of the movement abnormalities seen in Parkinson’s disease. These include slowness, stiffness, tremor, and imbalance. However, not everyone who has Parkinsonism has Parkinson’s disease. 

The most common form of Parkinsonism is Idiopathic Parkinson’s. A person who has Parkinsonism will also have another disorder that causes additional neurological symptoms, ranging from dementia to the inability to look up and down.

Symptoms of polio

Symptoms of Parkinsonism 

People with Parkinsonism usually start to develop symptoms at anywhere from age 50 to 80. Parkinson’s disease can cause varying and progressive symptoms throughout its course. Some of the most common symptoms associated with the disease include:

  • Slowed, affected movements
  • Difficulty showing facial expressions
  • Muscle stiffness
  • Tremor, especially on one hand
  • Speech changes

A person with Parkinsonism may have some of these symptoms. Other symptoms of the disease may include:

  • Dementia
  • Rapid onset and progression of symptoms
  • Early problems with balance
  • Issues with the autonomic nervous system, such as problems with controlled movements or spasms
  • Each underlying cause of Parkinsonism, such as dementia with Lewy bodies, also has its own unique set of symptoms.

What Causes Parkinsonism?

Parkinsonism can be caused by Parkinson’s disease itself as well as another underlying condition. Other causes may include:

  • Repeated head trauma, such as injuries sustained in boxing
  • Medications such as those used to treat psychosis, major psychiatric disorders, and nausea
  • Certain neurodegenerative disorders, such as multiple system atrophy, Lewy body dementia, and progressive supranuclear palsy
  • Exposure to toxins, such as cyanide, carbon monoxide, and organic solvents
  • Certain brain lesions, such as tumors, or fluid buildup
  • Metabolic and other disorders, such as Wilson’s disease or chronic liver failure 
Diagnosis for Hypersexuality
diagnose Parkinsonism

How to diagnose Parkinsonism?

  • A doctor will start by taking a person’s health history and reviewing their current symptoms. They will ask for a medication list to determine if any medicines could be causing the symptoms.
  • A doctor will also recommend blood testing to check for underlying potential causes. 
  • In addition, a doctor will also order imaging scans to examine the brain and body for other causes, such as a brain tumor.
  • Doctors can perform a test that tracks the movement of dopamine in the brain. This is known as the DaT-SPECT test. 

Treatment for Parkinsonism

These medications are related to dopamine and can increase the amount of dopamine available in the brain. However, people with Parkinsonism not only have problems producing dopamine but also have damaged or destroyed cells that cannot respond to dopamine. Doctors can find Parkinsonism challenging to treat because the symptoms of the condition do not always respond as well or at all to medications that boost dopamine.

Parkinsonism treatment usually helps reduce the symptoms whenever possible to help them maintain independence. Doctors often recommend physical and occupational therapy because they can help a person keep their muscles strong and improve balance. 

Age-Related Vision Changes

Age-related vision changes are normal. A few common changes for older adults include a need for more time to adjust to changing levels of light or losing the ability to see up close. Having trouble distinguishing colors is also a sign of age-related vision changes. These problems are often easily corrected.

Glasses, contact lenses, and improved lighting may help and allow you to maintain your lifestyle and independence. Your risk for some eye diseases and conditions increases as you grow older, and some eye changes are more serious. Keep your eyes as healthy as possible by getting regular eye exams so any problems can be spotted early.

Symptoms of Age-Related Vision Changes 

While not everyone will experience the same symptoms, the following are common age-related vision changes:

Symptoms of migraine withourtaura
  • Need for more light: As you age, you need more light to see as you used to. Brighter lights will help make close-up tasks easier.
  • Difficulty reading and doing close work: Printed materials can become less clear because the lens in your eye becomes less flexible over time. This makes it harder for your eyes to focus on near objects.
  • Changes in color perception: The normally clear lens located inside your eye may start to discolor. This makes it harder to see and distinguish between certain color shades.
  • Problems with a glare: When driving, you may notice additional glare from headlights at night or sun reflecting off windshields or pavement during the day. Changes in the lenses in your eyes cause light entering the eye to be scattered rather than focused precisely on the retina. 
  • Reduced tear production: With age, the tear glands in your eyes will produce fewer tears. This is mainly accurate for women experiencing hormone changes. Consequently, your eyes may feel dry and irritated. Having a sufficient amount of tears is vital for keeping your eyes healthy and for maintaining clear sight.

Age-Related Eye Disease and Conditions 

The following are eye problems that may lead to vision loss and blindness in older adults. They may have few or no early symptoms. Regular eye exams are your best protection. 

  • Age-related macular degeneration (AMD): This can harm the sharp, central vision needed to see objects clearly and to do common things like driving and reading. 
  • Diabetic retinopathy: This may occur if you have diabetes. It develops slowly, often with no early warning signs. If you have diabetes, be sure to have a dilated eye exam at least once a year. 
  • Cataracts: These are cloudy areas in the eye’s lens which causes blurred or hazy vision. Some cataracts stay small and don’t change your eyesight much. Others become large and reduce vision. 
  • Glaucoma: This is usually caused by too much fluid pressure inside the eye. People with glaucoma often have no early symptoms or pain. 
  • Dry eye: This occurs when tear glands don’t work well. You may feel stinging or burning, a sandy feeling as if something is in the eye, or another discomfort. 

Medication Used For Age-Related Vision Conditions

These medications are used to reduce intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension.  

Measles: Signs and Symptoms

Measles is a childhood infection caused by a virus that can now almost always be prevented with a vaccine. This infection is also called rubeola. Measles can be serious and even fatal for small children. For more than a decade, the infection hasn’t been widespread in the U.S. as they have a high vaccination rate in general. 

Most of the measles cases originated outside the country and occurred in people who were unvaccinated or who didn’t know whether or not they had been vaccinated.

What Causes Measles?

Measles is caused by an extremely contagious virus called morbillivirus. If 10 people weren’t vaccinated in a room with someone with measles, 9 of them would get measles. This infection is spread by:

  • Sharing drinks or food with someone with measles.
  • Contaminated droplets are spread through the air when you sneeze, cough, or talk.
  • Kissing someone who has measles.
  • Shaking hands or holding hands or hugging someone with measles.
  • From pregnant people to their babies either during the pregnancy, delivery, or while nursing.
stuffy nose

What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Measles?

The signs and symptoms of measles appear around 10 to 14 days after exposure to the virus. The signs and symptoms usually may include:

  • Fever
  • Runny nose
  • Sore throat
  • Dry cough
  • Inflamed eyes 
  • A skin rash made up of large, flat blotches that often flow into one another
  • Tiny white spots with bluish-white centers on a red background are found inside the mouth on the inner lining of the cheek 

How to Diagnose Measles?

Your doctor can usually diagnose measles depending on the characteristics of the disease. However, many doctors have never seen measles, and the rash can be confused with several other illnesses. If needed, a blood test can confirm whether the rash is truly measles. The measles virus can also be established with a test that usually uses a throat swab or urine sample. 

Treatment for Measles

There’s no exact treatment for established measles infection. However, some measures can be taken to protect vulnerable individuals who have been exposed to the virus.

  • Immune serum globulin – infants, pregnant women, and people with weakened immune systems who are exposed to the virus may receive an injection of antibodies called immune serum globulin. These antibodies can prevent measles or make symptoms less severe when given within six days of exposure to the virus. 
  • Post-exposure vaccination – Non-immunized people, including infants, may be given the measles vaccination within 72 hours of exposure to the measles virus to protect against the disease. 
Medications Used For Kidney Infection

Medications used for measles:

You should not give aspirin to children or teenagers who have measles symptoms. Though aspirin is approved for use in children older than age 3, children and teenagers recovering from chickenpox or flu-like symptoms must never take aspirin. Aspirin has been linked to Reye’s syndrome, a rare but potentially life-threatening condition, in such children.

Types Of Warts

What are Warts?

Warts are a type of skin infection caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The infection causes skin-colored bumps to form on the skin. You can get warts from touching someone who has them. Warts most commonly appear on the hands, but they can also affect the feet, face, genitals, and knees.

symptoms of HPV Infection

What Are The Types Of Warts?

  • Common Warts: These often develop on the fingers, nails, toes, or the back of the hand. Sometimes, common warts develop on the knees. Common warts usually occur in areas of broken skin, such as around bitten fingernails or where someone has pulled a hangnail.
  • Plantar Warts: These usually occur on the feet or ankles. Plantar warts resemble thick, calloused skin, often with black dots on the surface.
  • Flat Warts: These are also called plane warts which are slightly raised and smooth in appearance. 
  • Filiform Warts: These are long and spiky and often appear around the eyes, nose, and mouth. Filiform warts grow quickly.
  • Periungual Warts: These grow around the finger and toenails, usually spreading underneath the nail.
  • Genital Warts: Genital warts are a form of sexually transmitted infection (STI). 

What Causes Warts?

When the human papillomavirus (HPV) enters a cut in the skin, it causes a skin infection that forms warts. Warts are very contagious. The virus can spread from person to person or from different parts of the body through:

  • Touching something contaminated with the virus, such as doorknobs, towels, and shower floors
  • Direct contact with a wart
  • Sexual intercourse (genital warts)
  • Shaving
  • Nail-biting and cuticle picking
Anxiety and stress

How to Prevent Warts?

You can lower your risk of picking up the virus or stop warts from spreading by taking these steps:

  • Don’t touch another person’s wart.
  • Break the habit of biting your nails or picking at cuticles.
  • Don’t share towels, washcloths, clothing, nail clippers, razors, or other personal items.
  • Avoid shaving over a wart.
  • Try not to scratch, cut or pick at a wart.
  • Keep your feet dry to prevent the spread of plantar warts.
  • Wear flip-flops or shoes when using a public locker room, pool area, or shower.
  • Get the HPV vaccine and use condoms to prevent genital warts.

Treatment for Warts 

Warts often go away on their own after your immune system fights off the virus. Because warts can spread, cause pain and be unsightly, your doctor may recommend treatment. Options include:

  • At-home wart removal – OTC wart removal medications that contain salicylic acid is used. This chemical dissolves warts one layer at a time. 
  • Immunotherapy – immunotherapy helps your immune system fight the virus. 
  • Laser treatment – your doctor uses laser light to heat and destroy tiny blood vessels inside the wart. The process cuts off blood supply, killing the wart. 
  • Topical medicine – your doctor may apply a liquid mixture containing the chemical cantharidin. 

Medication usually used for warts:

  • Imiquimod Cream – this is in a class of medications called immune response modifiers as it increases the activity of the body’s immune system. 

Types Of Bacterial Infections

A bacterial infection is a proliferation of a harmful strain of bacteria on or inside the body. Several strains of bacteria are harmless, and some of them may even be beneficial to human health, such as those in the human gastrointestinal tract, which promote digestion and produce vitamins.

Bacteria are among the earliest known life forms on earth. There are thousands of different types of bacteria on every continent, and they live in every kind of environment. Some are airborne and others are mostly found in water, soil, plants, animals, and even people.

What are Bacterial Infections?

Bacterial infections are caused by the proliferation of a harmful strain of bacteria in the body. Infections can occur anywhere in the body. Meningitis, pneumonia, food poisoning, and meningitis are but a few of the diseases caused by bacteria.

  • Bacteria come in three basic shapes: rod-shaped, spherical, or helical.
  • Bacteria may also be classified as gram-positive or gram-negative: Gram-positive bacteria have a thick cell wall while gram-negative bacteria do not.
skin care infection

Types of Bacterial Infections

1. Bacterial Skin Infections

This infection is usually caused by gram-positive strains of Staphylococcus and Streptococcus or other organisms. Common bacterial skin infections include:

2. Foodborne Bacterial Infections

Bacterial infections are one cause of foodborne illnesses. Common symptoms may include abdominal pain, chills, fever, diarrhea, vomiting, and nausea. Poultry, eggs, fish, raw meat, and unpasteurized dairy products may harbor harmful bacteria that can cause illness. Unsanitary food preparation and handling can also encourage bacterial growth. Bacteria that cause food poisoning include:

  • Vibrio
  • Salmonella
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • Escherichia coli
  • Clostridium botulinum
  • Campylobacter jejuni

3. Sexually Transmitted Bacterial Infections

There lots of sexually transmitted diseases are caused by harmful bacteria. At times, these infections are not linked with any symptoms but can still cause serious damage to the reproductive system. Common STDs caused by bacterial infections include:

4. Other Bacterial Infections

Harmful bacteria can affect almost any area of the body. Other types of bacterial infections include the following:

antibiotics on pillbox

Treatment for Bacterial Infections

Antibiotics are medications that fight bacterial infections. They work by disrupting the processes necessary for bacterial cell growth and proliferation. It’s important to take antibiotics exactly as prescribed. Failure to do so could make a bacterial infection worse. Antibiotics don’t treat viruses, but they’re sometimes prescribed in viral illnesses to help prevent secondary bacterial infection.

The following are some of the antibiotics usually prescribed for bacterial infections:

NOTE: Overuse and misuse of antibiotics have led to a rise in antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria are no longer sensitive to a medication that should eliminate an infection. For this reason, any of these medications should be taken as given.

Pregnancy and Postpartum Depression

Recent research shows that about 1 in 8 women experience symptoms of postpartum depression. Also, a recent analysis found the rate of depression diagnoses at delivery is increasing and it was seven times higher in the present years.

Having a baby is challenging and every woman deserves support. If you are experiencing emotional changes or think that you may be depressed, make an appointment to talk to your health care provider as soon as possible. Most people get better with treatment and getting help is the best thing you can do for you and your baby.

When Do Symptoms of Postpartum Depression Occur?

Symptoms usually develop within the first few weeks after giving birth, but may begin earlier, during pregnancy, or later up to a year after birth. Women with postpartum depression have intense feelings of sadness, anxiety, or despair that prevent them from being able to do their daily tasks. This condition may be mistaken for baby blues at first, but the symptoms are more intense and last longer, and may eventually interfere with your ability to care for your baby and handle other daily tasks.

Anxiety and stress

Postpartum Depression Symptoms

  • Intense irritability and anger
  • Fear that you’re not a good mother
  • Hopelessness
  • Depressed mood or severe mood swings
  • Loss of appetite or eating much more than usual
  • Excessive crying
  • Difficulty bonding with your baby
  • Diminished ability to think clearly, concentrate or make decisions
  • Withdrawing from family and friends
  • Inability to sleep or sleeping too much
  • Overwhelming fatigue or loss of energy
  • Reduced interest and pleasure in activities you used to enjoy
  • Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide
  • Feelings of worthlessness, shame, guilt, or inadequacy
  • Restlessness
  • Severe anxiety and panic attacks
  • Thoughts of harming yourself or your baby

Can Postpartum Depression Be Prevented Or Avoided?

Postpartum depression cannot be prevented or avoided. However, if you have a history of depression or postpartum depression after giving birth to other children, you can prepare for it by keeping your mind and body healthy. Eat healthy during your pregnancy, exercise, and learn stress reduction strategies. Once your baby is born, stay away from alcohol and caffeine. Continue to make healthy lifestyle decisions.

Treatment for Postpartum Depression

Effective depression treatment can include a combination of medication therapy, counseling, and referrals. When discussing medications with your provider, let her or him know if you are pregnant, thinking about becoming pregnant, or breastfeeding. You and your provider can decide if taking medicine while pregnant or breastfeeding is right for you.

See your doctor earlier in your pregnancy or sooner after giving birth if you are worried you will have postpartum depression. Postpartum depression is treated much like any other depression. Support, counseling or talk therapy, and prescription medicines such as antidepressants can help.

Treatment for HPV Infection

What is HPV Infection?

HPV Infection is a viral infection that causes skin or mucous membrane growths. There are more than 100 varieties of human papillomavirus (HPV). Some types of infection cause warts and others might cause certain types of cancer. 

illustration of hpv

What causes HPV Infection?

HPV is transmitted to your body through a cut, abrasion, or small tear in your skin. It is mainly transmitted through direct skin contact. HPV infections in the genital region can be contracted through sexual activity, anal sex, and another skin-to-skin contact. In some cases, HPV infections resulting in oral or upper respiratory lesions can be contracted through oral sex.

Your baby may get an infection if you have an HPV infection with genital warts while you are pregnant. A noncancerous growth in the baby’s voice box (larynx) may be caused by the infection.

What are the symptoms of HPV Infection?

In most cases, your body’s immune system defeats an HPV infection before it creates warts. When warts do appear, they vary in appearance depending on which kind of HPV is involved:

warts on skin hpv
  • Plantar warts: These are hard, grainy growths that usually appear on the heels or balls of your feet. 
  • Flat warts: These are flat-topped, slightly raised lesions. Flat wars can appear anywhere, but children usually get them on the face and men in the beard area. 
  • Genital warts: These might appear as flat lesions or tiny stem-like protrusions. In women, genital warts appear mostly on the vulva. In men, genital warts appear on the penis and scrotum or around the anus.
  • Common warts: These might appear as rough, raised bumps and usually occur on the hands and fingers. 

Who is at risk of having HPV Infection?

Risk factors for HPV infection include:

  • Common warts occur mostly in children. Genital warts occur most often in adolescents and young adults.
  • The more sexual partners you have, the more likely you are to contract a genital HPV infection. 
  • Touching someone’s warts or not wearing protection before contacting surfaces that have been exposed to HPV might increase your risk of HPV infection.
  • Areas of skin that have been punctured or opened are more prone to develop common warts.
  • People who have weakened immune systems are at greater risk of HPV infections. 

Treatment for HPV Infection

Medications to reduce the infection are usually applied directly to the lesion and usually take many applications before they are successful. Examples include:

  • Imiquimod – This prescription cream might enhance the ability of your immune system to fight HPV. Imiquimod is in a class of medications called immune response modifiers. It treats genital and anal warts by increasing the activity of the body’s immune system. 

Symptoms and Causes of Contact Dermatitis

Contact Dermatitis is an itchy rash that is caused by direct contact with a substance or an allergic reaction to it. The rash is not contagious or life-threatening, but it can be very uncomfortable. Many substances can cause such reactions including plants, jewelry, fragrances, cosmetics, and soaps. 

For successful treatment of Contact Dermatitis, you need to categorize and avoid what causes your reaction, if you can avoid certain substances, the rash will eventually clear up in 2-4 weeks.  

Skin rashes

What are the symptoms of Contact Dermatitis?

Contact dermatitis usually occurs on areas of your body that have been directly exposed to the reaction-causing substance. The rash usually develops within minutes to hours of exposure and can last 2-4 weeks.

Symptoms of contact dermatitis may include:

  • A red rash
  • Bumps and blisters, sometimes with oozing and crusting
  • Dry, cracked, scaly skin
  • Swelling, burning, or tenderness
  • Itching, which may be severe

See your doctor if any of the following occurs:

  • You are embarrassed by the way your skin looks
  • The rash affects your face or genitals
  • The rash doesn’t get better within three weeks
  • The rash is so uncomfortable that you are losing sleep or are distracted from your daily activities
  • The rash is sudden, painful, severe, or widespread

Seek medical care right away if the following situations happen:

  • You think the rash has damaged the mucous lining of your mouth and digestive tract.
  • Your lungs, eyes, or nasal passages are painful and inflamed, perhaps from inhaling an allergen.
  • You think your skin is infected.

What Causes Contact Dermatitis?

Contact dermatitis is caused by a substance that you’re exposed to which can irritate your skin or might trigger an allergic reaction. The substance could be one of the thousands of known allergens and irritants. Some people react to strong irritants after a single exposure. Others may develop symptoms after repeated exposures to even mild irritants, while some people develop a tolerance to the substance over time.

cause of contact dermatitis

Common irritants that cause contact dermatitis include:

  • Bleach and detergents
  • Shampoos
  • Solvents
  • Rubbing alcohol
  • Airborne substances
  • Plants
  • Fertilizers and pesticides

Treatment for Contact Dermatitis

Lifestyle and Home Remedies 

To help lessen itching and soothe the infected skin, try these self-care approaches:

  • Protect your hands
  • Soak in a comfortably cool bath 
  • Avoid scratching
  • Apply cool, wet compresses
  • Take an oral anti-itch drug
  • Apply an anti-itch cream or lotion to the affected area
  • Avoid the irritant or allergen 

Medication used:

What Causes Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia?

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease as men get older wherein the prostate gland is enlarged and not cancerous. The prostate goes through two main growth periods as a man ages. 

  • The first phase occurs early in puberty when the prostate doubles in size.
  • The second phase of growth is when around the age of 25 and continues during most of a man’s life. BPH often occurs with the second growth phase.

As the prostate enlarges, the gland presses against and pinches the urethra. The bladder wall becomes thicker. In due course, the bladder may weaken and lose the ability to empty which leaves some urine in the bladder. The narrowing of the urethra and urinary retention is the failure to empty the bladder because of many of the problems associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Symptoms of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia


The severity of BPH symptoms varies in people, but it tends to worsen gradually. Common symptoms of BPH may include:

  • Inability to empty the bladder
  • Dribbling at the end of urination
  • Weak urine stream or a stream that stops and starts
  • Difficulty starting urination
  • Difficulty starting urination
  • Frequent or urgent need to urinate
  • Less common symptoms may include:
  • Blood in the urine
  • Inability to urinate
  • Urinary tract infection 

Causes of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

It is not known what causes benign prostatic hyperplasia. This condition is mostly found in older men. When a man’s testicles are removed before puberty, BPH does not develop. Researchers believe benign prostatic hyperplasia may be caused by factors related to aging and the testicles.

The male body produces testosterone throughout their lives, as well as small amounts of estrogen, a female hormone. When men age, they lose active testosterone from their blood, leaving more estrogen in their blood. Researchers suggest that benign prostatic hyperplasia occurs because a high level of estrogen within the prostate causes substances that promote prostate cell growth to be more active.

Another theory involves dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a male hormone that affects prostate development and growth. There is some evidence that even when blood testosterone levels drop, older men continue to produce and accumulate high levels of DHT in the prostate. As a consequence, prostate cells may continue to grow. Researchers have noted that men without DHT do not develop benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Treatment for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

A wide variety of treatments are available for enlarged prostate. The best treatment choice for you depends on several factors, including:

  • Your age
  • Your overall health
  • The size of your prostate
  • The amount of discomfort or bother you are experiencing

However, medication is the most common treatment for mild to moderate symptoms of prostate enlargement. The options include: 

The medicine usually recommends to treat BPH is:

Treatment for Jock Itch

What is Jock Itch?

Jock Itch is a fungal infection that causes a red, itchy rash in warm and moist areas of the body. The rash often affects the groin and inner thighs and may be shaped like a ring. 

This infection is usually not serious even though it can often be uncomfortable and bothersome. Treatment for Jock Itch may involve keeping the groin area clean and dry and applying topical antifungal medications

What Causes Jock Itch?

Jock itch is caused by organisms that thrive in damp, confined environments. A fungus causes jock itch, which spreads from person to person or through the sharing of towels or clothing. An athlete’s foot fungus often causes this condition. Fungi can travel on your hands or a towel from your feet to your groin, spreading the infection.

What are the symptoms of Jock Itch?

The symptoms of Jock itch usually begin with a reddened area of skin in the crease in the groin. It often spreads to the upper thigh in a half-moon shape. The rash may be ring-shaped and bordered with a line of small blisters. It may burn or feel itchy, and the skin may be flaky or scaly. 

See your doctor if your rash is painful or you develop a fever. Also, see your doctor if the rash has not improved after a week of treatment or if it has not cleared up completely after three weeks of treatments. 


Who is at risk of having Jock Itch?

You’re at greater risk of jock itch if you:

  • Are male
  • Are overweight
  • Are a teen or young adult
  • Have diabetes
  • Have a weakened immune system 
  • Wear tight underwear
  • Sweat heavily 

How to diagnose Jock Itch?

Your doctor can often diagnose Jock Itch by looking at the rash. If the diagnosis isn’t precise, your doctor may take skin scrapings or samples from the infected area for study under a microscope.  

How to Prevent Jock Itch?

Reduce your risk of jock itch by taking these steps:

  • Keep your groin area dry. Dry your feet last to avoid spreading the athlete’s foot fungus to the groin area.
  • Wear clean clothes. Change your underwear at least once a day or more often if you sweat a lot. 
  • Make sure your clothes fit correctly, especially underwear, athletic supporters, and sports uniforms. Avoid tight-fitting clothes, which can rub and chafe your skin and put you at increased risk of jock itch
  • Do not share personal items. Don’t let others use your clothing, towels, or other personal items. 
  • Treat or prevent athlete’s foot. Control any athlete’s foot infection to prevent its spread to the groin. 

Treatment and Medication for Jock Itch

For mild jock itch, your doctor may suggest first using over-the-counter antifungal medication. Apply the medication as your doctor recommends for one to two weeks even if the rash clears up quickly.

Medications usually used for fungal infections:

Vitiligo: Types, Causes, and Treatment

Vitiligo is a skin condition that causes the skin to lose its color. Smooth white areas appear on a person’s skin. If you have this condition, a place that has hair on your body may also turn white. 

This skin disorder may have the signs and symptoms of:

  • Patches of hair on your head or face turn prematurely gray or white.
  • Patches of skin lose color including the eyes and/or the mucous membranes in your mouth or nose.

Vitiligo is not painful, but you can get painful sunburns on the lighter patches of the skin. You must protect yourself against the sun. Some people with this condition have reported having itchy skin sometimes. 


What are the types of Vitiligo?

Generalized: This is the most common type when macules appear in various places on the body.

  • Segmental: This is limited to one side of the body or one area, such as the hands or face.
  • Mucosal: This affects mucous membranes of the mouth and the genitals.
  • Focal: This is a rare type wherein the macules are in a small area and do not spread in a certain pattern within one to two years.
  • Trichome: This means that there is a white or colorless center, then an area of lighter pigmentation, and then an area of normally colored skin.
  • Universal: This is another rare type of vitiligo, and one in which more than 80% of the skin of the body lacks pigment. 

What causes Vitiligo?

The exact cause of Vitiligo is not completely understood, but these factors may play a role:

  • Genetic factors: Certain factors that may increase the chance of getting vitiligo can be inherited. There are about 30% of vitiligo cases run in families.
  • Neurogenic factors: A substance that is toxic to melanocytes may be released at nerve endings in the skin.
  • Autoimmune disorder: The immune system of the affected person may develop antibodies that destroy melanocytes.
  • Self-destruction: A defect in the melanocytes causes them to destroy themselves. 

How is Vitiligo treated?

The goal of medical treatment is to create a uniform skin tone by either restoring color or eliminating the remaining color. Common treatments may include:

Clotrimazole Cream

1. Camouflage Therapy

  • The use of sunscreen with an SPF of 30 or higher. The use of sunscreens minimizes tanning, thereby limiting the contrast between affected and normal skin.
  • Hair dyes if vitiligo affects the hair.
  • Depigmentation therapy with the drug monobenzone can be used if the disease is extensive. This medication is applied to pigmented patches of skin and will turn them white to match the areas of vitiligo.

2. Repigmentation Therapy

  • Topical vitamin D analogs
  • Topical immunomodulators such as calcineurin inhibitors
  • Corticosteroids can be taken orally or topically. Results may take up to 3 months. The doctor will monitor the patient for any side effects, which can include skin thinning or striae if used for a prolonged period.

3. Light Therapy

  • Narrowband ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) needs two to three treatment sessions per week for several months.
  • Excimer lasers emit a wavelength of ultraviolet light close to that of narrow-band UVB. 
  • Combining oral psoralen and UVA (PUVA) is used to treat large areas of skin with vitiligo. 

4. Surgery

  • Autologous skin grafts: Skin is taken from one part of the patient and used to cover another part. 
  • Micropigmentation: A type of tattooing that is usually applied to the lips of people affected by vitiligo.

5. Medications

Symptoms and Causes of Prostatitis

Prostatitis is a condition of the prostate gland usually accompanied by inflammation. This condition often causes difficult or painful urination, and pain in the groin, genitals, or pelvic area. Bacterial infections cause some but not all cases of Prostatitis. The prostate gland is about the size of a walnut located below the bladder in men. It surrounds the top portion of the tube that drains urine from the bladder.

What are the symptoms of Prostatitis?

back pain

Symptoms of Prostatitis depend on the type of disorder. They may include:

  • Difficulty urinating
  • Frequent urination especially at night 
  • Pain or burning sensation when urinating 
  • Cloudy urine
  • Blood in the urine
  • Urgent need to urinate
  • Pain or discomfort of the penis or testicles
  • Painful ejaculation
  • Pain in the abdomen, groin, or lower back
  • Pain in the area between the scrotum and rectum 
  • Chills
  • Fever
  • Muscle aches or flu-like symptoms 

Causes of Prostatitis vary depending on their type:

What causes Prostatitis?

  • Acute bacterial prostatitis: This is usually caused by common strains of bacteria and may have spread from other parts of the urinary or reproductive systems. 
  • Chronic bacterial prostatitis: This generally has the same cause as acute bacterial infection and may occur when treatment for an acute infection fails to kill all the bacteria.
  • Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: Research suggests that there are various factors may collectively play a role. These include previous infection, immune system dysfunction, nervous system dysfunction, irregular hormone activity, or psychological stress.
  • Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis: This is generally found only during an exam for other medical conditions and is not treated. 

Who is at risk of having Prostatitis?

Risk factors for prostatitis include:

  • Having a history of prostatitis
  • HIV infection or AIDS
  • Young or middle-aged adulthood
  • Infection of the urinary or reproductive system
  • Use of a tube inserted into the urethra to drain the bladder 
  • A diagnostic sampling of prostate tissue
  • Psychological stress
  • Nerve damage in the pelvic region due to surgery or trauma
Blood tests

How to diagnose Prostatitis?

The symptoms of Prostatitis can be caused by various conditions. Your doctor will conduct a physical exam, review your symptoms and medical history, and order tests to identify the cause and rule out certain conditions. 

  • Digital rectal exam
  • Urinalysis
  • Blood test
  • Cystoscopy
  • Transrectal ultrasound

Treatment and Medication for Prostatitis

Antibiotics can kill the bacteria that cause Prostatitis. Rarely, men may also need surgery to drain an abscess on the prostate. The entire course of antibiotic treatment is usually 4 to 6 weeks or longer in some cases. Taking all the prescribed medication is important for eliminating the infection and reducing the risk of chronic bacterial prostatitis. 

Medications used for the treatment of Prostatitis and managing its symptoms:

In addition, your health care provider may recommend psychotherapy with a mental health care professional to help you manage stress, anxiety, and depression that may be associated with chronic pain. 

Psoriasis Treatment

Psoriasis is a scaly and red skin disease characterized by patches of red, itchy skin most commonly on the knees, elbows, trunk, and scalp. There is no cure for this long-term (chronic) disease. The condition goes through cycles, flaring for a few weeks or months, then subsiding or remitting for a while. You can manage symptoms with treatments. In addition, lifestyle habits and coping strategies can help you cope with psoriasis better.

There are several types of psoriasis including:

  • Plaque psoriasis
  • Nail psoriasis
  • Guttate psoriasis
  • Inverse psoriasis
  • Pustular psoriasis
  • Erythrodermic psoriasis
  • Psoriatic arthritis
Skin rashes

Symptoms of Psoriasis

The symptoms of Psoriasis can vary from person to person. Common symptoms may include:

  • Thickened, pitted, or ridged nails
  • Swollen and stiff joints
  • Dry, cracked skin that may bleed or itch
  • Itching, burning, or soreness
  • Red patches of skin covered with thick, silvery scales
  • Small scaling spots (commonly seen in children)

Causes of Psoriasis

Research has a general idea of two key factors that cause Psoriasis:

  • Genetics: The condition may run in families. Having one parent with psoriasis increases your risk of getting the disease, and having two parents with psoriasis increases your risk even more.
  • Immune system: Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease. Autoimmune diseases occur when the body attacks itself. Psoriasis is caused by white blood cells known as T cells attacking your skin cells. Usually, white blood cells are deployed in the body to attack and destroy invading bacteria and mount a defense against infections. Skin cell production goes into overdrive due to this mistaken autoimmune attack. New skin cells are developed too quickly as a result of accelerated skin cell production. The cells are pushed to the skin’s surface, where they collect.

Diagnosis for Psoriasis

Two tests or examinations may be needed to diagnose psoriasis. 

  • You will be asked about your health and your skin, scalp, and nails will be examined. 
  • A biopsy of a small piece of skin may be taken by your doctor. This helps determine the type of psoriasis and rules out other disorders.  

Treatment and Medication for Psoriasis

Psoriasis treatments aim to reduce the rate at which skin cells grow and remove scales. Treatment depends on the severity of psoriasis and how responsive it has been to previous treatments. You might need to try different drugs or a combination of treatments before you find an approach that works for you. Usually, however, the disease returns.

1. Topical therapy

therapy at clinic

2. Light therapy

  • Sunlight
  • UVB broadband
  • UVB narrowband
  • Psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA)
  • Excimer laser

3. Oral or injected medications

Medications usually recommended used for the treatment of Psoriasis:

If you are considering dietary supplements or other alternative therapy to ease the symptoms of psoriasis, consult your doctor. Your doctor can help you weigh the pros and cons of specific alternative therapies. 

Symptoms and Causes of Scalp Ringworm

Scalp Ringworm is also known as tine Capitis which is a rash caused by a fungal infection. It is usually itchy, scaly, and causes bald patches on the head. No worm is involved in Scalp Ringworm. Ringworm gets its name because of its circular appearance. 

This fungal infection is contagious. Scalp Ringworm is the most common among toddler and school-age children. Medications can help kill the fungus that causes the infection. Also, medicated shampoos may help keep a person from spreading the infection to others. 

red itchy patch on skin due to ring worm

Symptoms of Scalp Ringworm

Symptoms of Scalp Ringworm may include:

  • Tender or painful areas on the scalp
  • Brittle or fragile hair that can be easily broken or pulled out
  • Patches that slowly get bigger and have small back dots where the hair has broken off
  • One or more round, scaly or inflamed patches where the hair has broken off near the scalp 

If you have any hair loss, scaling or itchiness of the scalp, or other unusual appearance of the scalp, call your health care provider right away. 

Causes of Scalp Ringworm

Scalp Ringworm is caused by a common fungus called dermatophytes. Fungi are organisms that thrive on dead tissue such as hair, fingernails, and the outer layers of your skin. Dermatophytes prefer moisture and warmth, so they thrive on sweaty skin. Overcrowding and poor hygiene increase the spread of ringworm. 

Among children, ringworm can be easily spread. You can get ringworm from touching the skin of an infected person. If you use bedding, combs, or other objects that have been used by an infected person, you’re also at risk. 

Diagnosis for Hypersexuality

Diagnosis of Scalp Ringworm

  • Scalp Ringworm is diagnosed by its appearance and the results of an examination of a sample of plucked hairs or hairs and scales from the scalp. Doctors examine the samples under a microscope.
  • Sometimes a type of ultraviolet light is shined on the scalp to distinguish the type of fungus.
  • Doctors may also do a culture of the samples of material taken from a kerion. Culture is the process of growing an organism in a laboratory for identification. 

Treatment and Medication for Scalp Ringworm

Your doctor may recommend that you wash your hair with a prescription-strength medicated shampoo. The shampoo removes fungus spores and helps prevent spreading the infection to others or other areas of the body.

Also, treatment for Scalp Ringworm scalp requires a prescription-strength antifungal medication taken by mouth. These medications may include:

You might need to take one of these medications for six weeks or more until your hair regrows. Usually, with successful treatment, the bald spots will grow hair again and the skin will heal without scarring. 

Symptoms of Polio and How Does It Infect Others

Polio is also called poliomyelitis which is a highly contagious disease caused by a virus that attacks the nervous system. This disease can take several different forms:

  • Paralytic polio – this type includes weakness that develops quickly and turns into paralysis. 
  • Cases with mild symptoms – people with this type of polio may have a mild illness with symptoms similar to those of the flu. But, the illness does not appear to affect the brain. People affected with this usually recover within a week. 
  • Inapparent polio – most cases have this type of polio. When people have this form, they don’t have symptoms but they can still pass the virus on to other people. 

How Does Polio Infect Someone?

Polio is transmitted by direct contact with infected feces. Viruses can also be transmitted by objects like toys that have been in contact with infected feces. The virus lives in the throat and intestines, so it can be spread by sneezing or coughing. This is a rare occurrence.

People living in areas with limited access to running water or flush toilets often contract polio from drinking water contaminated by infected human waste. In addition, people with a weakened immune system, pregnant women, and young children are the most susceptible to polio

If you have not been vaccinated, you can increase your risk of contracting polio when you:

  • Have extreme stress or strenuous activity after exposure to the virus
  • Have your tonsils removed
  • Take care of or live with someone infected with polio
  • Travel to an area that has had a recent polio outbreak 
  • Handle a laboratory specimen of the virus 
Symptoms of polio

What Are The Symptoms Of Polio?

Polio causes a variety of symptoms. Depending on the severity of the case, the symptoms may include:

How to Diagnose Polio?

Polio is often diagnosed by its symptoms, such as neck and back stiffness, abnormal reflexes, and difficulty swallowing and breathing. Samples of your throat secretions, stool, and cerebral spinal fluid (a colorless liquid that surrounds your brain and spinal cord) are tested for poliovirus to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment and Medication for Polio 

Doctors can only treat polio symptoms while the infection runs its course. Since there’s no cure, the best way to treat polio is to prevent it with vaccinations. 

Treatment and Medication for Polio 

The most common supportive treatments include:

Medications usually used for polio:


Herpes is a common virus that causes sores on your genitals or mouth. It can be annoying and painful, but it usually doesn’t lead to serious health problems. This infection is easily spread from skin-to-skin contact with someone who has the virus. 

Skin rashes

What Are The Symptoms Of Herpes?

Primary symptoms occur when a person first develops the infection. Alongside sores or blisters, herpes may cause:

Herpes symptoms come and go, but that doesn’t mean the infection goes away or that you can’t spread it to other people. Once you have herpes, it might stay in your body for life.

What Causes Herpes?

Herpes infection is caused by herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. These viruses are contagious and transmitted from one person to another through the skin to skin contact. Touching or kissing is the main cause of herpes simplex virus type 1 and sexual contact is the main cause of herpes simplex virus type 2 transmission. 

Lifestyle Risk Factors of Herpes

Herpes is a common virus and there is an especially high risk of exposure associated with certain activities including:

  • Unprotected sex – herpes simplex virus type 2 is most often transmitted from one person to another through sex. Having multiple sexual partners and having unprotected sex with partners who could be infected raise your risk. 
  • Sharing items – The herpes simplex virus type 1 virus can be transmitted by sharing items that have recently been exposed to the virus. 
  • Kissing – Kissing or other mouth contact is one of the most common ways of transmission of herpes simplex virus type 1. 
  • Prolonged skin-to-skin contact – Herpes gladiatorum, a type of infection caused by herpes simplex virus type 1, is characterized by sores on the face, head, and neck. This type of herpes infection is most often noted among wrestlers. 

How to Diagnose Herpes?

Herpes can be diagnosed based on the appearance of lesions and laboratory tests. In general, if you don’t have any symptoms, there is no need for you to have any diagnostic testing for herpes simplex virus type 1. However, if you may have been exposed to the herpes simplex virus type 2, you may need to be tested even if you do not have lesions. The two types of herpes may cause visible skin lesions. You must see a healthcare provider, especially if you’ve never had an outbreak before.

Taking HIV Medicine during Pregnancy 

Treatment and Medication for Herpes

Certain symptoms of herpes such as blisters typically improve on their own, without medical treatment. But if you experience severe or frequent outbreaks, a doctor can prescribe antiviral medications. Options include:

Fungal Infections

Fungal infections can affect anyone, and they can affect a wide range of body parts. This infection can be caused by a variety of fungi. Occasionally, fungi that are normally present on or inside your body can multiply out of control and lead to an infection.

Infections caused by fungi can be contagious. They can be transmitted from person to person. Disease-causing fungi can also be caught from infected animals or soil that is contaminated. If you develop signs or symptoms of a fungal infection, make an appointment with your doctor.

Types and Symptoms of Fungal Infections

1. Athlete’s foot

It’s a type of fungal infection that can affect the skin on your feet, as well as your hands and nails. The infection is caused by dermatophytes, a group of fungi that can thrive in the warm and humid areas between your toes.

Common symptoms may include:

  • Itching, stinging, or burning sensation between your toes or on other parts of your foot
  • Crack, peel, or blister on the skin 

2. Jock itch

It’s a fungal infection that can affect the skin on your groin area, as well as your inner thighs and buttocks. This type of infection mostly affects men and boys, but women and girls can develop it too.

The symptoms of Jock itch are:

  • Changes in skin color
  • Flaking or cracking skin
  • Itchiness
  • A burning feeling
  • Redness
  • A rash that gets worse when you exercise

3. Ringworm

This affects the skin and scalp. Ringworm is also part of a group of fungi that grow on the skin, particularly in damp and humid parts of your body. This usually starts as a scaly, itchy rash. Over time, patches of ringworm can spread and form red rings.

4. Yeast infection

It is normal for lesser quantities of candida Albicans to be present on your skin and in your body. But when these fungi grow too much, they can cause an infection known as a yeast infection. In women, vaginal yeast infections are relatively common. They can cause:

5. Onychomycosis, or fungal infection of the nail

This usually starts as a small light-colored spot on your nail. Over time, it can cause your nail to become thicker and more brittle.

Common symptoms may include:

  • Thick or brittle nail
  • Lifting off the nail bed
  • Flakiness or crumbling of the nail
  • White or yellow streaks under the nail
  • Scaling under the nail
Blood tests

Diagnosis for Fungal Infections

Diagnosis of fungal infection will begin with a physical exam and discussion of your symptoms. For fungal infections affecting other parts of the body, your physician may take a sample of bodily fluids, including:

  • Blood
  • Vaginal secretions
  • Sputum 
  • Urine
  • Cerebrospinal fluid 

In some cases, your physician may take a biopsy of the affected organ. In the case of fungal masses in the respiratory system, an X-ray can help determine the amount of tissue damage. 

Treatment and Medication for Fungal Infections

Some types of medications can reduce your body’s ability to ward off fungal infections. For example, antibiotics destroy helpful bacteria along with harmful bacteria. Antibiotics you can use include:

Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease is a progressive nervous system disorder that affects movement. The symptoms begin slowly and sometimes it starts with a barely noticeable tremor in just one hand. Tremors are common but the disorder also commonly causes stiffness or slowing of movement. Some people with Parkinson’s disease are detected when they are 60 years old or older, but early-onset Parkinson’s disease also occurs.

What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease?

Alzheimer's Disease

Here are some early signs of Parkinson’s disease:

  • Gait – the person’s posture may change so that they lean forward slightly as if they were hurrying. They may also develop a shuffling gait.
  • Movement – there may be a tremor in the hands.
  • Facial expression – this can become fixed, due to changes in the nerves that control facial muscles.
  • Coordination – a reduced sense of coordination and balance can cause people to drop items they are holding. They may be more likely to fall.
  • Handwriting – this may become more cramped and smaller.
  • Sleep problems – are a feature of Parkinson’s, and they may be an early sign. Restless legs may contribute to this.
  • Sense of smell – a loss of sense of smell can be an early sign.
  • Voice – there may be a tremor in the voice, or the person may speak more softly than before.

Other common symptoms may include: 

What Causes Parkinson’s Disease?

Certain nerve cells in the brain slowly break down if you have Parkinson’s disease. Several symptoms occur due to a loss of neurons that produce a chemical messenger in your brain called dopamine. When its level is decreased, it causes abnormal brain activity which may lead to impaired movement and other symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. 

Several factors may be the cause of this disease, including:

  • Environmental triggers – exposure to certain toxins or environmental factors may increase the risk of later Parkinson’s disease, but the risk is relatively small. 
  • Genes – experts have identified particular genetic mutations that can cause Parkinson’s disease, but these are uncommon except in rare cases with many family members affected by Parkinson’s disease. 

How to Diagnose Parkinson’s Disease?

Blood tests

Your doctor will diagnose Parkinson’s disease based on your medical history, a review of your symptoms, as well as neurological and physical examination. Your doctor may suggest some tests including:

  • Dopamine transporter scan (DaTscan)
  • Blood tests
  • Imaging tests

Sometimes it takes time to diagnose Parkinson’s disease. Doctors may recommend regular follow-up appointments with neurologists trained in movement disorders to evaluate your condition and symptoms over time and diagnose Parkinson’s disease.

Treatment and Medication for Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease doesn’t have a certain cure, but medications can help control your symptoms. In some more advanced cases, surgery may be advised.

Medications your doctor may prescribe include:

Dental Infections

A dental infection begins in a tooth or its supporting structures and may spread to surrounding tissues. Typically, dental infections are caused by bacteria invading the pulp and spreading to the surrounding tissues. Also, infections can affect the gums, causing gingivitis, which leads to periodontitis later on. 

What Causes Dental Infections?

broken tooth

Anything that creates an opening for bacteria to get into the tooth or surrounding tissues can lead to dental infection. Causes may include:

  • Broken, chipped, or cracked teeth: Bacteria can seep into any opening in a tooth and spread to the pulp.
  • Severe tooth decay: A cavity, or tooth decay, is the destruction of the hard surfaces of the tooth. This occurs when bacteria break down sugars in food and drink that produce acid that attacks the enamel.
  • Injury to the tooth: Trauma to a tooth can injure the inner pulp even if there’s no visible crack. The injury makes it susceptible to infection.
  • Gum disease: It is an infection and inflammation of the tissues around the teeth. As gum disease progresses, the bacteria gain access to deeper tissues.

What Are The Symptoms Of Dental Infections?

If your tooth is infected, you may be:

  • Radiating to the jawbone, neck, or ear
  • Continuous or only when chewing
  • Sharp or shooting
  • Gnawing or throbbing 

Other symptoms of infection include:

  • Gum redness and swelling
  • Foul-smelling breath 
  • Bitter taste in the mouth 
  • Tooth sensitivity to hot or cold temperatures 
  • Swollen area in the upper or lower jaw
  • Loosening of the tooth  

You may also experience generalized symptoms such as:

Who Are At Risk Of Dental Infections?

You are more likely to develop dental infections if you:

  • Smoke
  • Have a weakened immune system
  • Have poor dental hygiene
  • Have dry mouth

How to Diagnose Dental Infections?

Along with examining the tooth and surrounding tissue for signs of infection, your dentist may:

  • Recommend an X-ray: This helps detect sources of dental disease that may have led to the infection. 
  • Tap and press on your teeth: A tooth with an abscess is often sensitive to touch or pressure.
  • Recommend a CT scan: If the infection has spread to other areas within the neck, this will help to identify the extent of the infection.
  • Thermal tests: These tests will help your dentist know the health of your pulpal tissues.

What Are The Treatment And Medication For Dental Infections?

dentist checking on woman's tooth

Treatment for dental infection may remove the infection and prevent complications. Treatment options include:

  • Incision and drainage: Your dentist drains the pus from the abscess by making a small incision. It is sometimes necessary to place a small rubber drain to allow drainage.
  • Tooth extraction: When a tooth cannot be saved, your dentist may have to extract it and allow pus to drain from the socket.
  • Root canal: Your tooth is saved if you choose this option. During this procedure, the tooth’s infected inner pulp is removed and the space filled with the material to prevent another infection. Your restored tooth can last a lifetime if you care for it properly.

Medications usually used for the treatment of dental infection include:


Pain Reliever

Autism and ADHD

What is Autism?

Autism is also known as an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that refers to a broad range of conditions characterized by repetitive behaviors, challenges with social skills, speech, and nonverbal communication.

Several factors might influence the development of autism, and it is often accompanied by sensory sensitivities and medical issues such as:

What is ADHD?

ADHD is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood. It is usually first diagnosed in childhood and often lasts in adulthood. Children with this disorder may have trouble paying attention, may act without thinking about what the result will be, or be overly active. 

The Relationship between Autism and ADHD

Autism and ADHD are related in several ways. ADHD is not on the autism spectrum, but they have some of the same symptoms. Having one of these conditions increases the chances of having the other. These conditions are related genetically as well. A person with autism has a bigger chance of having a close relative with ADHD. 

Kids with autism and ADHD can have similar signs, some of the ways to help with one can be helpful for the other. For example, kids with both usually benefit from sticking to a routine and knowing what to expect. However, there are big differences in the type of therapy recommended for each. Treatment for autism can help with communication skills. It can also help decrease repetitive behaviors, which is one of the hallmarks of autism. The treatment of ADHD is geared toward improving attention and organization. 

Symptoms That ADHD and Autism

Symptoms That ADHD and Autism Have in Common

Here are some of the symptoms and challenges that people with ADHD and autism often share:

  • Challenges with social interaction and making friends
  • Learning differences and disabilities
  • Sensory challenges
  • Emotional immaturity
  • Impulsivity – speaking out of turn and jumping up when it’s inappropriate
  • Lack of focus – in ADHD, usually being distracted by external events, and in autism, being distracted by your thoughts and ideas
  • Problems with executive functioning – difficulties in the ability to organize time, tasks, and projects

It is important to note that these symptoms, while they look similar, may result from different causes.

Getting a Proper Support 

The first step to getting the proper support to those with autism and ADHD is getting a correct diagnosis. You may need to seek out a child behavior disorder specialist. 

Treatment for Autism

Treatment for Autism

There is a wide range of treatments for autism depending on particular needs. The most common treatment may include:

  • Medications can help with specific symptoms such as anxiety.
  • Behavioral therapy builds specific skills and reduces negative behaviors.
  • Speech therapy because some people with autism have severe speech delays or no spoken language at all.
  • Occupational therapy because many people with autism have fine-motor difficulties and sensory challenges that make it hard to be around bright lights and loud noises.
  • Social skills therapy because most people with autism need help to learn how to interact socially, build friendships, and manage emotions.

Treatment for ADHD

Most people with ADHD are treated, at least partially, with pharmaceuticals to help lessen impulsivity and increase focus. These medications may be stimulants or non-stimulants, and the choice of treatment may depend on the age of the patient. In addition, treatments may include:

  • Counseling
  • Skills training
  • Behavioral therapy, since behaviors related to ADHD, are somewhat different from those related to autism but can also cause serious problems in school or at work

Stress and Headache Treatment

The modern world is stressful, and that is unlikely to change anytime soon. You will likely experience some level of stress from the moment your alarm clock wakes you up until you’re done for the day. Stress may take the form of anxiety or other psychological pressures, or physical stress, such as eye and neck strain from sitting at a computer for long periods. Stress is tolerable in small amounts, but too much can harm your health.

How Can Stress Cause Headaches?

Anxiety and stress

Everyday stress can bring on headaches in a variety of ways because stress causes us to change our behavior without even realizing it.

  • Lots of people clench their jaws and grind their teeth when they’re stressed, both of which can trigger headaches all on their own.
  • When people are stressed, they frequently tighten their necks and shoulders. Tense muscles in the back of the neck and even on the scalp can cause compression several people use to describe stress-related headaches.
  • Anxiety and stress are common culprits of restless nights, and insomnia is a risk factor for tension headaches and migraines alike.
  • Our bodies react to stressful events with a fight or flight response. This involves the release of certain chemicals that can cause physical changes. This, in turn, can bring on tension headaches.
  • Stress can trigger changes in your appetite, which affect the way you eat and drink. Many people may find themselves eating less and even skipping meals when they’re stressed. This can throw blood sugar levels off balance, potentially causing tension headaches and migraines. 
  • Physical stress can also cause tension headaches.

Stress and Headache Prevention 

Regular exercise and relaxation techniques can help reduce stress. 

  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy – this is a talk therapy that may help you learn to manage stress and may help lessen the occurrence and severity of your headaches.
  • Biofeedback training – a technique that teaches you to control certain body responses that help reduce pain. You will learn how to reduce muscle tension and slow your heart rate and breathe yourself.
  • Other relaxation techniques – anything that helps you relax, including yoga, deep breathing, meditation, and progressive muscle relaxation, may help your headaches
Drink plenty of water

Additionally, living a healthy lifestyle may help prevent headaches:

  • Drink plenty of water
  • Limit alcohol, caffeine, and sugar
  • Get enough, but not too much, sleep
  • Don’t smoke
  • Exercise regularly
  • Eat regular, balanced meals

Treatment for Stress and Headache 

Using medications along with stress management techniques may be more effective than either treatment alone in lessening your headaches.

Medications used may include:

These medications help you to relieve headaches. Your doctor may prescribe medicines to lessen the frequency and severity of attacks, especially if you have frequent or chronic headaches that aren’t relieved by pain medication and other therapies.

Whooping Cough

Whooping cough is a highly contagious respiratory tract infection. The name of the disease comes from the whooping noise you might make when you try to breathe in after coughing. Whooping cough is very contagious and can affect anyone. But it can be especially serious in babies who did not yet get the vaccine. About half of babies under age one who get whooping cough need care in the hospital.

What Causes Whooping Cough?

A type of bacteria called Bordetella pertussis causes whooping cough. If a person with whooping cough sneezes, coughs, or laughs, small droplets that have the bacteria may fly through the air. If you breathe in the droplets, you may get sick. 

When the bacteria get into your airways, they attack the tiny hairs in the lining of the lungs. The bacteria then causes swelling and inflammation which may lead to a long-lasting cough and other cold-like symptoms. 

stuffy nose

What Are The Symptoms Of Whooping Cough?

When you are infected with whooping cough, it may take 7-10 days for the symptoms to appear. They’re usually mild at first and resemble those of a common cold:

After a week or two, symptoms worsen. Thick mucus accumulates inside your airways which may cause uncontrollable coughing. Severe and prolonged coughing attacks may:

  • Result in a red or blue face
  • Provoke vomiting
  • Cause extreme fatigue
  • End with a high-pitched whoop sound during the next breath of air

How to Diagnose Whooping Cough?

Diagnose Whooping Cough

Whooping Cough diagnosis in the early stages can be difficult because the symptoms resemble those of other common respiratory illnesses. Sometimes, doctors diagnose this condition simply by asking about the symptoms and listening to the cough. Medical tests may be needed to confirm the diagnosis including:

  • A nose or throat culture and test. Your doctor takes a swab or suction sample from the area where the nose and throat meet. 
  • A chest X-ray. Your doctor may order an X-ray to check for the presence of inflammation or fluid in the lungs.
  • Blood tests. A blood sample is to check your white blood cell count because white blood cells help the body fight infections.

Treatment and Medication for Whooping Cough

Infants are usually hospitalized for treatment because whooping cough is more dangerous for that age group. If your child can’t keep down liquids or food, intravenous fluids may be needed. Your child will also be isolated from others to prevent the infection from spreading. Treatment for older children and adults usually can be managed at home.

Medications that can be used for whooping cough:

Antibiotics kill the bacteria causing whooping cough and help speed recovery. Exposed family members may be given preventive antibiotics.

Chest Tightness

Chest Tightness may appear in several forms that range from a sharp stab to a dull ache. Sometimes, it feels crushing or burning. In most cases, the pain travels up the neck, into the jaw, and then spreads to the back or arms. 

Several factors can cause chest pain. The most life-threatening causes involve the heart or lungs because chest pain can indicate a serious problem, it is important to seek help right away. 


Symptoms of Chest Tightness

Although chest pain is often associated with heart disease, there are several patients with the disease who say that they have a vague discomfort that isn’t necessarily identified as pain. In general, chest discomfort related to a heart attack or another heart problem may be described by or associated with one or more of the following:

  • Cold sweats
  • Dizziness or weakness
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Shortness of breath
  • Pain that lasts more than a few minutes, gets worse with activity, or goes away and comes back
  • The crushing or searing pain that spreads to your back, neck, jaw, shoulders, and one or both arms
  • Pressure, fullness, burning, or tightness in your chest

Causes of Chest Tightness

Chest pain has many possible causes, all of which need medical attention.

1. Heart-related causes

  • Heart attack
  • Angina
  • Aortic dissection
  • Inflammation of the sac around the heart (pericarditis)
Chest pain

2. Digestive causes

Chest pain can be caused by disorders of the digestive system, including:

3. Muscle and bone causes

Some types of chest pain are along with injuries and other problems affecting the structures that make up the chest wall, including:

4. Lung-related causes

Many lung disorders can cause chest pain, including:

  • Pulmonary embolism
  • Inflammation of the membrane covering the lungs (pleurisy)
  • Collapsed lung
  • Pulmonary hypertension

Chest pain can also be caused by:

  • Panic attack
  • Shingles
  • Diagnosis of Chest Tightness

Chest pain is not always a signal of a heart attack, but that’s what doctors in the emergency room usually test for first. It is because it can be potentially the most immediate threat to life. 

Some of the first tests your doctor may order when evaluating chest pain include:

  • CT Scan
  • Chest X-ray
  • Blood tests 
  • ECG or EKG

Depending on the results from the initial tests for chest pain, you may need follow-up testing, which may include:

  • Echocardiogram
  • Stress tests
  • Coronary catheterization (angiogram)

Treatment and Medications for Chest Tightness

Based on your specific situation, your doctor will be able to explain the recommended treatment options and the outlook for your condition. A variety of treatment options are available, from simple lifestyle changes to medication or a detailed treatment plan. 

Drugs used for the treatment of some of the most common causes of chest pain may include:

Causes of Muscle Cramps

A muscle cramp happens when a muscle contracts suddenly and uncontrollably. These cramps can occur in one or more muscles at a time. Muscle cramps can be a symptom of various medical issues. They are often linked with muscle strain, but they can also be a sign of medical conditions such as liver disease or circulation problems.

Muscle cramps can interfere with your daily activities because they often happen at night which affects your sleep. As a result, they may reduce your quality of life. But in most cases, muscle cramps are not serious. Muscle cramps occur most often in the:

  • Feet
  • Legs
  • Arms
  • Hands
  • Ribcage
  • Abdomen or belly

What Causes Muscle Cramps?


Several medical conditions may contribute to cramping such as;

  • Aging: Losing muscle mass can put more strain on your muscles, and it occurs over time. As you age, these changes can lead to more frequent muscle cramps.
  • Hypothyroidism: Having a thyroid gland that is less active than normal may cause muscle cramps.
  • Dehydration: Losing body fluids while exercising can cause muscles to cramp.
  • Low electrolyte levels: Low levels of substances such as calcium or potassium in the blood can cause muscle cramps.
  • Medication: Taking certain medicines, including pseudoephedrine and statins can cause involuntary muscle cramping.
  • Pregnancy: Often, women who are pregnant experience leg cramps due to low electrolyte levels, circulation changes, and pressure on the nerves caused by the growing baby.
  • Nerve disorders: In rare cases, issues such as a pinched nerve or spinal cord injury can cause nerve compression which can lead to muscle cramps.
  • Physical strain: Overusing your muscles during exercise or strenuous activities.
  • Tight muscles: Inactivity and not enough stretching can cause muscles to contract involuntarily.

How to Diagnose Muscle Cramps?

A physical exam may be recommended if you have frequent or severe muscle cramps. When you have cramps, your doctor will feel the affected areas and move them to check for muscle issues. Your doctor may also assess your activities or work to determine the trigger.

Blood and urine tests may also be used to determine the cause of muscle cramps. It detects underlying conditions such as liver or kidney disease that can cause cramps. If leg cramps are caused by neurologic problems, your doctor may order an MRI to diagnose them.

Treatment and Medication for Muscle Cramps

Muscle cramps can usually be treated with self-care measures. You can do stretches with your doctor to reduce the likelihood of getting muscle cramps. Making sure you stay well-hydrated also can help. For recurrent cramps that disturb your sleep, your doctor might prescribe a medication to relax your muscles.

Yeast Infection

Yeast is a fungus usually found on your skin and in your digestive system. If you’re a woman, you also have yeast in your vaginal area. When too much yeast grows on your skin or other areas, it can cause an infection. This infection is also called candidiasis.

Pain or burning when you pee

What Are The Symptoms Of Yeast Infection?

Discomfort and itchiness are the main symptoms of yeast infection. You may also experience any of the following:

  • A thick, white, odorless discharge, similar to cottage cheese
  • Pain during sex
  • Pain or burning when you pee
  • Burning, redness, and swelling of the vagina and the vulva 

See your doctor if you think you have a yeast infection before treating yourself. The symptoms of yeast infections are similar to other, more serious conditions, including sexually transmitted infections and bacterial vaginosis. An accurate diagnosis is important so you can get the best treatment. 

What Causes Yeast Infection?

Yeast infection occurs when the healthy yeast that normally lives in your vagina grows out of control. It often leads to itching and other irritating symptoms. The medical name for this infection is candidiasis because they’re usually caused by a type of yeast called candida.

tester for diabetes

If your vaginal chemistry gets thrown off balance, the normal yeast that lives in your vagina can grow too much and might lead to an infection. Some things that can cause changes in your vagina’s environment are:

  • Antibiotics, cortisone, and other drugs
  • A natural reaction to another person’s genital chemistry
  • A weak immune system
  • Diabetes
  • Normal changes in hormone levels
  • Pregnancy

How to Diagnose Yeast Infection?

Your doctor may assess you on certain things to diagnose a yeast infection. It includes:

  • Ask questions about your medical history (gathering information about past vaginal infections or sexually transmitted infections). 
  • Perform a pelvic exam (examines your external genitals for signs of infection). 
  • Test vaginal secretions (sample of vaginal fluid for testing to determine the type of fungus causing the yeast infection).

How to Prevent Yeast Infection?

To lessen your risk of yeast infections, wear underwear that has a cotton crotch and does not fit too tightly. It might also help to avoid:

  • Tight-fitting pantyhose
  • Scented feminine products
  • Unnecessary antibiotic use
  • Hot tubs and very hot baths
  • Douching that removes some of the normal bacteria in the vagina that protect you from infection
  • Staying in wet clothes, such as swimsuits and workout attire, for long periods 

Treatment and Medication for Yeast Infection

Over-the-counter antifungal creams, ointments, or suppositories with Clotrimazole or Miconazole are the most common ways to treat yeast infections

Your doctor may also choose to prescribe an oral antifungal medication, such as:

You need to know that some yeast infection medications weaken condoms or diaphragms. That makes it easier for you to get pregnant or contract a sexually transmitted disease. Be sure to read instructions and warnings before using. 

Symptoms and Treatment for Sinusitis

Sinusitis is an inflammation or swelling of the sinuses. The sinuses are four pairs of cavities in the head. These cavities are connected by narrow channels. A thin mucus drains from the sinuses into the nasal channels. The mucus keeps the nasal passages clean and free of bacteria. The sinuses are normally filled with air but can become blocked and filled with fluid. As a result, bacteria can grow and cause an infection.

stuffy nose

What Are The Symptoms Of Sinusitis?

Common symptoms of sinusitis include:

  • Tiredness
  • Fever
  • Postnasal drip 
  • Halitosis 
  • Cough
  • Nasal discharge or stuffy nose
  • Facial pressure, headache, and or pain in your teeth or ears

What Causes Sinusitis?

The sinuses can become inflamed and blocked by a virus, bacteria, or fungus. A few specific causes include:

  • The common cold
  • Polyps
  • Nasal and seasonal allergies
  • A weak immune system from illness or medications
  • A deviated septum. The septum is the line of cartilage that divides your nose. A deviated septum means that it isn’t straight, so it is closer to the nasal passage on one side of your nose, causing a blockage.

Other causes may include:

  • For infants and young children, spending time in daycares, using pacifiers, or drinking bottles while lying down could increase the chances of getting sinusitis. 
  • For adults, smoking increases the risks for sinus infections. You should stop if you smoke. Smoking is harmful to you and the people around you.

How to Diagnose Sinusitis?

You may be asked about your symptoms by your doctor. A physical exam will involve feeling for tender spots on your nose and face and examining your nose. Methods for diagnosing chronic sinusitis include:

  • Imaging tests – this can show details of your sinuses and nasal area. These might pinpoint a deep inflammation or physical blockage that’s difficult to detect using an endoscope.
  • Looking into your sinuses – a thin, flexible tube with a fiber-optic light inserted through your nose allows your doctor to see the inside of your sinuses. This can help your doctor see a deviated nasal septum, polyps, or tumors.
  • An allergy test – a skin test is safe and quick and can help detect what allergen is responsible for your nasal flare-ups.

Treatment and Medication for Sinusitis

Treatment and Medication for Sinusitis

Sinusitis is treated in several ways, each depending on how severe the case of your condition is. 

 A simple sinusitis infection is treated with:

If symptoms of sinusitis don’t improve after 10 days, your doctor may prescribe:

  • Antibiotics
  • Oral or topical decongestants
  • Intranasal steroid sprays 

Long-term sinusitis may be treated by focusing on the underlying condition. This is usually treated with:

  • Intranasal steroid sprays
  • Topical antihistamine sprays or oral pills
  • Leukotriene antagonists 

Medications can be used for sinusitis:

Kidney Infection

Kidney Infection is a serious infection that needs to treat right away. When bacteria or viruses get into your kidneys, usually through your urinary tract, they can cause a kidney infection. If a kidney infection is not treated, it can get worse and sometimes cause permanent kidney damage. 

What Causes Kidney Infection?

The viruses or bacteria that cause kidney infections usually come from another part of your urinary tract, such as your bladder, ureters, or urethra, and spread to your kidneys. Less commonly, the viruses or bacteria come from an infection elsewhere in your body. 

Kidney infection can also happen if the flow of urine through your urinary tract is blocked. This can happen because of:

  • An enlarged prostate
  • Kidney stones
  • A problem with the shape of your urinary tract that makes it harder for urine to pass through

What Are The Symptoms Of Kidney Infection?


Symptoms of a kidney infection may include:

  • Feeling sick to your stomach 
  • Throwing up
  • Chills
  • Fever
  • Diarrhea
  • Urine that is cloudy or smells bad
  • Blood or pus in your urine
  • Pain or burning when urinating
  • Feeling like you have to urinate even if you just went
  • Urinating more often than normal
  • Pain in your lower back, one or both sides of your groin

If you notice any of these symptoms, call your doctor right away. If you are currently taking medication for the treatment of urinary tract infection, but you are still having any of these symptoms, call your doctor.  

How to Diagnose Kidney Infection?

To know if you have a kidney infection, doctors may do tests such as:

  • Blood tests
  • Urine tests to look for bacteria or other signs of infection, such as white blood cells, in your urine
  • Imaging tests to look at your kidneys, such as a CT scan, X-ray, or ultrasound.
  • For men, a rectal exam is recommended. It is where the doctor inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into the anus to see if the prostate gland is enlarged and blocks the flow of urine.

How to Treat Kidney Infection?

Doctors treat most kidney infections with antibiotics. Doctors will prescribe an antibiotic medicine based on:

  • What type of bacteria is causing the infection
  • If you are older than 65
  • How severe the infection is
  • If you are you are pregnant
  • If you had problems from certain antibiotics in the past, such as allergic reactions

If you have a very serious infection, you may need to stay in the hospital to get antibiotics through an IV. You may also get pain medicine.

Medications Used For Kidney Infection

What Are The Medications Used For Kidney Infection?

1. Antibiotics

2. Pain Killers 

It is very important to get medical treatment for kidney infections as soon as possible. You should not wait for it to go away on its own. Kidney infections that are not treated soon enough can cause permanent kidney damage or can spread to other parts of your body. 


Emesis is a medical term used to refer to vomiting. Throwing up or vomiting means releasing the contents of the stomach and proximal small intestine from the mouth. A feeling of nausea, in which you feel like vomiting, usually precedes emesis. The most common causes of nausea and vomiting are motion sickness, food poisoning, concussions, and tumors. Despite this, excessive vomiting can cause serious consequences, such as dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and malnutrition.

gastrointestinal tract

What Causes Emesis?

Vomiting is usually triggered by problems with the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the central nervous system (CNS). Vomiting is typically caused by gastroenteritis and/or the consumption of drugs or toxins. Gastroenteritis occurs when the lining of the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine becomes inflamed. CTZ can be triggered by drugs in the bloodstream. Food poisoning can be caused by pathogens in ill-prepared food.

Besides the most common causes, vomiting can be caused by a variety of conditions, including motion sickness, viral or bacterial infections, pregnancy, gallbladder disease, and post-surgical complications. When the inner ear becomes sensitive to certain movements, motion sickness occurs. Rides in moving cars or boats can affect balance and induce vomiting. Emesis is caused by a viral or bacterial infection in the stomach, where the irritants cause contractions in the stomach and induce emesis. An increase in hormones during pregnancy often causes nausea and vomiting during morning sickness. Among the causes of drug-induced vomiting is anesthesia during surgery and chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer. Vomiting can also be caused by a brain tumor or a concussion alone.

Treatment for Emesis

Treatment for emesis includes:

  • Avoid solid food until the vomiting episode has passed.
  • Drinking gradually larger amounts of clear liquids.
  • Pregnant women experiencing morning sickness can eat some crackers before getting out of bed or eat a high-protein snack before going to bed.
  • Vomiting along with cancer treatments can often be treated with another type of drug therapy. There are also prescription and nonprescription drugs that can be used to control vomiting associated with pregnancy, motion sickness, and some forms of dizziness. However, consult with a doctor before using any of these treatments.
Medications for Migraine

Medication for Emesis

This medicine is used to prevent and treat nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. Dimenhydrinate is in a class of medications called antihistamines that works by preventing problems with body balance.

The medicine comes as a tablet for oral use. When taking this medicine, you should consult your doctor first and get the appropriate dosage for you. Dimenhydrinate should not be given to children younger than 2 years of age unless your doctor has told you to do so. Always take this medication as exactly as directed by your health care provider for the best benefit from it.

Bladder Infection

What is Bladder Infection?

Bladder infections have a way of catching your attention. No matter how many times you go to the bathroom, you feel like you have to go again. You feel burning or stinging every time you pee once you’re in there, instead of going about your business mindlessly.

Infections of the bladder can lead to cystitis, which is when your bladder swells and becomes inflamed. That’s what causes the symptoms. A bladder infection is one of the most common types of urinary tract infections.

Women get bladder infections much more than men do. Usually, the infections are more annoying than they are serious. They can travel up the ureters to the kidneys and cause more severe complications, so it’s important to treat them right away.     

What causes Bladder Infection?

Bladder infections often occur when bacteria get into the urethra, the tube that carries urine out of the body, and then move into the bladder. Bacteria in the bladder can stick to the lining and cause it to become inflamed, a condition called cystitis. Bacteria can also travel from the bladder into the kidneys, causing kidney infection. When the bacteria stick to the bladder lining, the bladder becomes inflamed, a condition known as cystitis. Bacteria can also move from the bladder into the kidneys, resulting in kidney infection.

back pain

What are the symptoms of Bladder Infection?

The symptoms of bladder infection vary depending on the severity. You’ll immediately notice changes during urination. Some of the most common symptoms may include:

  • Cramping or pressure in your lower abdomen or lower back
  • A frequent sensation of having to urinate
  • Foul-smelling urine
  • Urinating more often than usual
  • Cloudy or bloody urine
  • Pain or burning when urinating

What Are The Factors That Increases The Risk Of Bladder Infection?

  • Changes in the urinary system
  • Frequent sexual intercourse
  • Frequent sexual intercourse
  • Frequent sexual intercourse
  • Having a bladder or kidney infection within the past 12 months
  • Having diabetes
  • Having sexual intercourse with a new partner

How to Diagnose Bladder Infection?

Your doctor can do some simple tests to find out if you have one, and they are usually easy to treat. If you get bladder infections often, your doctor may want to do more advanced tests to find the cause.

  • Physical exam
  • Urine analysis

To find the cause of a bladder infection, your doctor can use:

  • Retrograde urethrography
  • Voiding cystourethrography
  • Intravenous urogram (IVU)
  • Imaging
  • Cystoscopy
Taking HIV Medicine during Pregnancy 

Treatment and Medication for Bladder Infection

Mild bladder infections usually resolve on their own within a few days. Antibiotics are usually taken if they don’t. You will usually feel better in a day or two, but be sure to take all the medicine as directed.

Women with basic infections usually take antibiotics for 3 to 7 days, though some doctors may prescribe a single-dose antibiotic. If you are prone to infections, or if you get them frequently, you may need antibiotics for seven to ten days. Additionally, if you have another health condition, such as diabetes, you may be prescribed a stronger antibiotic to take for a longer period.

Antibiotic medications you can take:

Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD)

Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) is an infection that is commonly acquired by sexual contact. Most are fairly common and effective treatment is available, especially in the early. 

Some STDs are benign, but others may lead to severe complications without treatment. This infection may affect anyone, regardless of the individual’s sexual orientation or hygiene standards. Lots of STDs can spread through non-penetrative sexual activity. 

What Are The Symptoms Of Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD)?


STDs have a range of symptoms, including no symptoms at all. That’s why they may go unnoticed until complications occur or a partner is diagnosed. 

Symptoms that may indicate STD may include:

  • Pain during sex
  • Unusual vaginal bleeding 
  • Unusual or odorous vaginal discharge 
  • Discharge from the penis
  • Painful or burning urination 
  • Core or bumps on the genitals or in the oral or rectal area
  • A rash over the trunk, hands, or feet
  • Fever
  • Lower abdominal pain 
  • Sore, swollen lymph nodes 

These symptoms may appear a few days after being exposed to the infection. However, it might take years before you have any noticeable complications. 

What Causes Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD)?

Infections, including STDs, can take many forms. STDs caused by bacteria include chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. STDs caused by viruses include HIV, genital herpes, genital warts (HPV), and hepatitis B. Trichomoniasis is caused by parasites.

STD-causing germs can be found in semen, blood, vaginal secretions, and sometimes saliva. Vaginal, anal, or oral sex is the most common way for these organisms to spread, but some, such as those that cause genital herpes and genital warts, may spread through skin contact. Hepatitis B can be contracted by sharing personal items, such as toothbrushes or razors, with someone who has it.

Needle sharing 

Who Are At Risk Of Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD)?

Anyone who is sexually active risks some degree of exposure to an STD. factors that may increase the risk may include:

  • Needle sharing 
  • Being forced to engage in sexual activity 
  • Having a history of STD
  • Having sexual contact with multiple partners
  • Having unprotected sex 

How to Diagnose Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD)?

If your sexual history and current symptoms suggest that you have STD, your doctor will do a physical or pelvic exam to look for signs of infection. 

Laboratory tests may identify the cause and detect coinfections you may also have. Tests may include:

  • Blood tests
  • Urine samples
  • Fluid samples

Treatment and Medication for Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD)

STDs caused by bacteria are commonly easier to treat. Viral infections can be managed but are not always cured. Treatment for STD usually consists of the following depending on the infection:

1. Antibiotics

2. Antiviral Drug 

If you’ve had this infection, ask your doctor how long after treatment you need to be retested. Getting retested will make sure that the treatment worked and that you haven’t been reinfected. 

Focal Seizures

What are Focal Seizures?

Focal Seizures occur in just one area of the brain. This can be simple or complex. Based on the seizure description, physicians may be able to identify in which part of the brain the seizures are originating. 

Types of Focal Seizures

1. Simple Focal Seizures

These are also known auras that occur in one area on one side of the brain that may spread but may spread from there. The person does not lose consciousness during a simple focal seizure. Doctors usually break simple focal seizures down in the following areas:

  • Motor
  • Sensory
  • Autonomic
  • Psychic 

2. Complex Focal Seizures  

This is often preceded by a simple focal seizure. People with complex focal seizures may stare blankly into space or experience automatisms such as gulping, lip-smacking, blinking, or shouting. 

What are the symptoms of Focal Seizures?

Symptoms that may occur during a focal seizure include:

  • Atypical head or eye movements
  • Muscle contractions
  • Unexpected sensations
  • Automatisms, such as skin picking or lip-smacking
  • Vision changes or auras

A seizure can sometimes be difficult to detect. Seizures may make a person appear confused or as if they are staring at something that isn’t there. People suffering from other kinds of seizures may fall, shake, and lose awareness of their surroundings.

What causes and triggers Focal Seizures?

A focal aware seizure’s cause is often unknown. Anyone can experience focal aware seizures. Families sometimes experience them together. 

check for blood sugar

Potential causes of focal seizures include:

How to diagnose Focal Seizures?

Doctors can diagnose a seizure and will figure out whether the seizure was focal. Doctors will also take note of any potential triggers for a seizure. If they are unable to identify any, they will assess a person’s likelihood of another seizure. If there are risk factors for another seizure, the doctor might decide if an individual would benefit from medication.

During the physical examination, doctors will look for signs that may indicate a condition that causes seizures. They may also recommend blood tests, imaging scans, and spinal taps. There are also options for neuroimaging and electroencephalography, a procedure that monitors brain activity. 

Medications for Migraine

Treatment and Medication for Focal Seizures

Doctors prescribe medications for the treatment of Focal Seizures and help prevent future occurrences. Doctors use antiepileptic medications to prevent seizures. Several options are available for focal seizures. They come in two categories including broad-spectrum antiepileptic medications and narrow-spectrum antiepileptic medications.

Broad-spectrum antiepileptic medications may include:

Narrow-spectrum antiepileptic medications may include:

Bacterial Meningitis

Bacterial meningitis can be life-threatening. This infection may cause the tissues around the brain to swell. As a result, it interferes with blood flow and can result in paralysis or even stroke. 

Children between the ages of 1 month and 2 years are the most susceptible to bacterial meningitis. Adults with certain risk factors are also susceptible. You are also at higher risk if you have a weakened immune system, have sickle cell disease, or taking corticosteroids because of kidney failure. Additionally, if you have had spinal or brain surgery or have had a widespread blood infection you are also at a higher risk for bacterial meningitis.

What Causes Bacterial Meningitis?

Listeria monocytogenes bacteria

Bacteria that cause bacterial meningitis are common in the environment and can be found in the nose and respiratory system without causing any harm. Several types of bacteria can cause meningitis. Leading causes may include: 

  • Escherichia coli
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • Haemophilus influenza
  • Neisseria meningitides
  • Group B Streptococcus
  • Streptococcus pneumonia

Vaccines are available that target many of these bacteria. For this reason, it’s important to know what’s causing meningitis. Even though all types affect the same area of the body, they can have different outcomes and need different treatments.

What Are The Symptoms Of Bacterial Meningitis?

The most common symptoms of Bacterial Meningitis are:

Skin rash
A rash on the skin
  • Sensitivity to light
  • A rash on the skin
  • Bruising easily all over the body 
  • Feeling confused or sleepy 
  • High fever
  • Headaches
  • Painful, stiff neck with limited range of motion 

These symptoms may occur in children:

  • Lack of appetite
  • Swelling of the head
  • Frequent crying
  • Vomiting from a high fever
  • Irritability
  • Seizures 

The symptoms typically begin to appear quickly, within a few hours or up to a few days. You should go to an emergency room if you think you or your child have meningitis.

How Is Bacterial Meningitis Diagnosed?

You should seek immediate medical attention if you suspect meningitis.

A physical exam will be conducted by your doctor. A doctor will look for a purple or red rash on the skin. Your doctor will examine your hip and knee flexion and check your neck for stiffness. The doctor will have to determine whether the cause is bacterial, viral, or fungal, so a spinal tap will be ordered. The blood and urine from your body, as well as mucous from your nose and throat, may also be tested.

What Are The Treatment And Medication For Bacterial Meningitis?

Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial meningitis. Even before all test results are in, a general intravenous antibiotic with corticosteroids to bring down inflammation may be prescribed. Your doctor may decide to change your antibiotics when the specific bacteria are identified. Along with antibiotics, it will be important to replace fluids lost from vomiting, diarrhea, and sweating.

Medications that can be used for the treatment of bacterial meningitis:

Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most common type of ovarian cancer. The epithelial tissue, a thin lining covering an ovary, becomes infected with this type of cancer. The lining of the fallopian tube can also develop cancer. Alternatively, it can begin in the peritoneum, which covers the abdominal organs. Fallopian tube cancers and primary peritoneal cancers are considered epithelial ovarian cancers. The diseases share many similarities, including treatment approaches.

Ovarian cancer is a group of cancers that begin in your ovaries. These organs are part of the female reproductive system. Most females have two ovaries that produce eggs and hormones. From your ovaries, eggs travel through your fallopian tubes to your uterus.

What causes Epithelial Ovarian Cancer?

Most cancers including Epithelial Ovarian Cancer develop for no known reason. Studies have shown that many ovarian cancers start in cells at the end of the fallopian tubes. As a result, it spreads to the ovaries.

abdominal pain

What are the symptoms of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer?

In the early stages of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer, it rarely causes symptoms. As the disease progresses, symptoms become more noticeable.  As it spreads, into your peritoneum, fluid accumulates in your abdomen. In addition, you may also experience the following symptoms:

Call your doctor right away if you experience:

  • Unexplained abdominal or pelvic pain
  • Changes in frequency or urgency of urination
  • Loss of appetite or feeling of fullness

How to diagnose Epithelial Ovarian Cancer?

Lung Cancer Diagnosis

There are no screening tests available to detect ovarian cancer early. Tests may only be performed if you have symptoms or are at high risk. During your pelvic exam, your healthcare provider may check for unusual growths or enlarged organs. You might have a CA-125 blood test to check for elevated levels of a protein called cancer antigen 125 (CA-125). High levels may mean you need more testing.

These imaging tests help detect ovarian cancer:

  • CT scan
  • MRI
  • Transvaginal ultrasound
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) scan
  • Chest X-rays (to look for metastatic cancer to the lungs)

A laparoscopy is also an option. This less invasive procedure lets your surgeon view your reproductive organs. Your doctor may take tissue samples of a tumor to biopsy for cancer cells. A biopsy is the only way to definitively diagnose ovarian cancer.

What is the treatment and medications used for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer?

Depending on the cancer type, you may get one or more of these treatments after surgery:

  • Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells
  • Intraperitoneal chemotherapy to treat stage 3 ovarian cancer by injecting cisplatin and paclitaxel directly into your abdominal cavity through a surgically placed catheter.
  • Targeted therapies to stop cancer cells from growing and multiplying
  • Radiation therapy to destroy cancer cells with high-energy X-ray beams.

Medications used to help with certain symptoms of Ovarian Cancer:

Balanced Diet for Children

A balanced diet nourishes the child well. It also means that foods on a balanced, healthy diet shouldn’t have labels assigned to them such as good and bad foods. Overall, good nutrition could include any food and look completely different between households. Furthermore, this diet emphasizes foods that are backed by evidence that support optimal health, meet nutritional needs, reduce the risk for chronic disease, and improve longevity and quality of life. 


Improving a Balanced Diet in Children

Help your kids get the nutrients their bodies are craving with this nutritional breakdown:

  • Protein: Choose lean meat and poultry, seafood, eggs, peas, beans, soy products, and unsalted nuts and seeds.
  • Fruits: Encourage your child to eat a variety of fresh, canned, frozen, or dried fruits rather than fruit juice. Look for canned fruit that says it’s light or packed in its juice which means it’s low in added sugar. When consumed in excess, dried fruits can contribute extra calories.
  • Vegetables: Serve a variety of fresh, canned, frozen, or dried vegetables. Aim to provide a variety of vegetables, including dark green, red and orange, beans and peas, or starchy each week. When selecting canned or frozen vegetables, look for options lower in sodium. 
  • Grains: Choose whole grains, such as whole-wheat bread, popcorn, oatmeal, quinoa, or brown or wild rice. Limit refined grains such as pasta, white bread, and rice.
  • Dairy: Encourage your child to eat and drink fat-free or low-fat dairy products, such as cheese, yogurt, milk, or fortified soy beverages. 

Limit the Following to Maintain a Balanced Diet


Aim to limit your child’s calories from:

  • Added sugar: Sugar should be limited. Added sugars are not naturally occurring sugars, such as those in fruit and milk. Brown sugar, corn syrup, honey, corn sweetener, and corn syrup are all examples of added sugars. Check the nutrition label. Choose cereals with a minimal amount of added sugar. Steer sugary beverages such as sports drinks and energy drinks.
  • Saturated and trans fats: Avoid saturated fats – fats derived primarily from animal sources, such as red meat, poultry, and full-fat dairy products. You can replace saturated fats with vegetable and nut oils, which contain essential fatty acids and vitamin E. Healthy fats are also naturally found in olives, nuts, avocados, and seafood. Eliminate partially hydrogenated oils from your diet to limit trans fats.
  • Sodium: In the United States, most children consume too much sodium every day. Instead of snacking on chips and cookies, encourage children to eat fruits and vegetables. Read the nutrition labels and choose low-sodium products.

You don’t have to overhaul the entire meal plan for your child. You just need to find a few alternatives to unhealthy items in your fridge or pantry. You may need to slowly start adding in more until you’ve adopted healthier food choices and give it to your children. 

Severe and Recurrent Headaches

At some point in our lives, we’ve all felt the symptoms of a headache. Usually, they are a minor annoyance that can be relieved using over-the-counter pain medication. Headaches can be more complicated than most people realize. Different kinds can have their own set of symptoms, happen for unique reasons, and need different treatments.

Once you know the type of headache you have, you and your doctor can find the treatment that’s most likely to help and even try to prevent them.

Symptoms of Headaches

  • Dizziness
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Throbbing pain or pressure-like pain
  • Sensitivity to light, sound, and smells
  • Pain on one or both sides of the head 
  • Head pain that is moderate to severe in intensity, worsened by physical activity/movement 
migraine with aura

Causes of Headaches

The pain you feel if you have a headache comes from a mix of signals between your brain, blood vessels, and nearby nerves. Certain nerves in your blood vessels and head muscles switch on and send pain signals to your brain. 

Common causes of headaches:

  • Your environment includes strong smells from household chemicals or perfumes, secondhand tobacco smoke, allergens, and certain foods. 
  • Illness may include colds, infections, and fevers. Headaches are also common with conditions like sinusitis, a throat infection, or an ear infection. In some cases, headaches can result from a blow to the head or a sign of a more serious medical problem.
  • Emotional stress and depression as well as alcohol use, skipping meals, changes in sleep patterns, and taking too much medication can also cause headaches. 
  • Genetics. Headaches, especially migraine headaches, tend to run in families. 

Diagnosis of Headaches

You can start an appropriate treatment plan for your symptoms if your headache were diagnosed correctly. The first step is to talk to your doctor about your headaches. They’ll give you a physical exam and ask you about the symptoms you have and how often they happen. It’s important to be as complete as possible with these descriptions. Give your doctor a list of things that cause your headaches, things that make them worse, and what helps you feel better. 

Most people don’t need special diagnostic tests. But sometimes, doctors suggest a CT scan or MRI look for problems inside your brain that might cause your headaches. An EEG (electroencephalogram) is also unnecessary unless you’ve passed out when you had a headache. If your headache symptoms get worse or happen more often despite treatment, ask your doctor to refer you to a headache specialist.

Treatment and Medications for Headaches

Medications for Migraine

Your doctor may recommend different types of treatment to try. They also might suggest more testing or refer you to a headache specialist.

The type of headache treatment you need depends on a lot of things, such as:

  • The type of headache you get
  • How often do you get a headache
  • The cause of your headache

Some people don’t need medical help at all. But those who do might get medications, counseling, electronic medical devices, stress management, and biofeedback. Your doctor will make a treatment plan to meet your specific needs.

Medications can be used for headaches:

Diagnosing Strep Throat

Strep Throat is an infection of the throat and tonsils. It can make your throat feel sore and scratchy. This infection accounts for only a small portion of sore throats. If left untreated. Strep throat can cause complications such as rheumatic fever or kidney inflammation.

Strep throat is most common in children, but it affects people of all ages. If you have signs and symptoms of strep throat, see your doctor for promo testing and treatment.

Strep Throat Symptoms

strep throat
  • Pain when you swallow
  • Red, swollen tonsils
  • Fever
  • Tiny red spots in the roof of the mouth
  • White patches in the throat
  • Swollen and tender lymph nodes at the front of your neck
  • Headache
  • Stomach ache
  • Appetite loss
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Rash
  • Loss of appetite

Causes of Strep Throat

Strep Throat is caused by infection with a bacterium known as Streptococcus pyogenes or known as group A streptococcus. These types of bacteria are contagious. The spread through droplets when someone with the infection sneezes or coughs, or through shared drinks or foods.

Strep throat can also be contracted by coming into contact with an object contaminated with group A strep bacteria, such as a doorknob or faucet, and then touching your eyes, nose, or mouth. This is also a way that kids can catch strep throat by putting things in their mouths.

Strep Throat Risk Factors

Several factors can increase your risk of strep throat:

  • Being between the ages of 5 and 15
  • Close contact with someone who has strep throat
  • Spending time in crowded settings, like schools, daycare centers, or military facilities
  • Being an adult who has frequent contact with children, like a teacher or healthcare professional
  • Having a school-aged child
Strep Throat Diagnosis

Strep Throat Diagnosis

Your doctor will conduct a physical exam, check for symptoms, and might have more tests such as:

  • Throat culture: To obtain a sample of the secretions, a sterile swab is rubbed over the back of the throat and tonsils. Gagging may occur, but it is not painful. After the sample is collected in a laboratory, it is cultured for bacteria, and the results can take as long as two days. 
  • Molecular test: This test is also done using a swab sample from your throat.
  • Rapid antigen test: An antigen test may be performed on a swab sample of your throat by your doctor. By detecting the presence of substances in the throat (antigens), this test detects strep bacteria in minutes. A throat culture might be done if your doctor is still suspicious of strep despite a negative test result.

Strep Throat Treatment and Medications


Your doctor will likely prescribe an oral antibiotic if strep throat is developed. As long as antibiotics are taken within 48 hours of the onset of the illness, they reduce the duration and severity of symptoms, as well as the chances of complications and the likelihood of infection spreading. The patient should start feeling better in a day or two after treatment. After 48 hours, call your doctor if they don’t feel better.

Lists of antibiotics you may use:

Brain Tumor

A brain tumor is the growth of abnormal cells in the brain. Any growth inside such a restricted space can cause problems. Brain tumors can be cancerous or noncancerous. When benign or malignant tumors grow, they can cause the pressure inside your skull to increase. This can cause brain damage which may be life-threatening.

Brain tumors can begin in your brain (primary brain tumors) or they can begin elsewhere in your body and spread to your brain as secondary (metastatic) brain tumors. The growth rate of a brain tumor can vary greatly. Your nervous system’s function is affected by a brain tumor’s growth rate and location. Treatment options for brain tumors depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor.

Signs and Symptoms of Brain Tumor

Common signs and symptoms caused by brain tumors may include:

migraine with aura
  • Speech difficulties
  • Feeling very tired
  • Confusion in everyday matters
  • Gradual loss of sensation or movement in an arm or a leg
  • Difficulty with balance
  • New onset or change in the pattern of headaches
  • Headaches that gradually become more frequent and more severe
  • Unexplained nausea or vomiting
  • Vision problems
  • Difficulty making decisions
  • Inability to follow simple commands
  • Feeling very tired
  • Confusion in everyday matters
  • Personality or behavior changes
  • Seizures

Causes of Brain Tumor

Changes in genes may cause cells in the brain to grow uncontrollably which causes a tumor. The only known cause of brain tumors is having exposure to large amounts of radiation from X-rays or previous cancer treatment. Some types of brain tumors occur when hereditary conditions are passed down among family members. 

Risk of Developing a Brain Tumor 

People who have a higher risk of brain tumors include those who have:

  • Exposure to certain chemicals
  • Long-term exposure to radiation from X-rays or treatment for other cancers
  • A genetic mutation that causes abnormal cell growth 
  • Family history 

Diagnosis of Brain Tumor

Doctors use various types of tests to confirm the presence of brain tumors. These tests may include:

  • Biopsy 
  • Physical exam and medical history 
  • Neurological exam 
  • Imaging tests
  • Spinal tap 

When the brain tumor is cancerous, the doctors will classify the tumors into four grades as part of the diagnosis. The grade assigned indicates how fast it’s growing and its likelihood of spreading. By grading the tumor, your doctor can determine the most effective treatment options. 

Treatment and Medications for Brain Tumor

thyroid surgery

Brain tumor treatment depends on the location and type of the tumor. Your doctor often uses a combination of therapies to treat a tumor. Your treatment options may include:

  • Chemotherapy 
  • Radiation therapy 
  • Surgery 
  • Targeted therapy 
  • Immunotherapy 
  • Laser thermal ablation 

Approved medications for brain tumor:

  • Belzutifan
  • Bevacizumab
  • Everolimus
  • Lomustine
  • Temozolomide

In addition to these medications, you may also use Zofran (Ondansetron). This is an antiemetic used to prevent nausea and vomiting following chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery. It blocks the action of serotonin, a natural substance that may cause nausea and vomiting.

Symptoms of Encephalitis in Infants

What Is Encephalitis In Infants?

Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain. The swelling occurs as a result of the inflammation. Changes in the nervous system of the infant cause confusion, altered behavior, and seizures. Encephalitis often occurs at the same time as meningitis. The membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord become inflamed during meningitis. Both conditions are serious and life-threatening and should be treated as soon as possible. 

Skin rash

Symptoms of Encephalitis in Infants

These symptoms can be like other health conditions. Take your child to their healthcare provider right away for a diagnosis.

What Causes Encephalitis in Infants?

The main cause, according to researchers, is viruses. Infant receives vaccinations against a variety of viruses, including measles, mumps, rubella, and chickenpox. The rate of encephalitis associated with these diseases has greatly decreased as a result. However, it can still be caused by other viruses. Some of the diseases include the West Nile virus, rabies, and herpes simplex.

Viral illnesses can also cause encephalitis. It can be an upper respiratory infection or an illness that causes diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. Encephalitis can also occur when someone has Lyme disease, tuberculosis, or syphilis. It can also happen after an infection caused by parasites, such as toxoplasmosis.

Autoimmune reactions are another cause. This is when the immune system of the body attacks the brain tissues. For example, an antibody made against a protein called an NMDA receptor or others may cause encephalitis. This may be triggered by an infection or tumor.

Risk Factors In Infants For Encephalitis

An infant is more at risk if they have one of these:

Encephalitis Diagnosis 

Blood tests 

The doctor will ask about your child’s symptoms and health history. This includes questions about the vaccine history of your child. Tell the doctor if your child has recently had a cold, a digestive illness, or other respiratory illness. Also, tell the doctor if your child has recently has traveled or had a tick bite, been around pets or other animals. 

Your child may also have tests such as:

  • Blood tests 
  • CT scan 
  • MRI 
  • Sputum culture 
  • Urine and stool tests 
  • Electroencephalogram (EEG) 

How Is Encephalitis Treated In Infants?

Treatment for encephalitis is needed right away. A child needs to stay in the hospital where they can be closely watched. Treatment will depend on the symptoms, age, and general health and severity of the condition.

The goal of treatment is to lessen the swelling in the head and to prevent complications. Your child may need to take medicines to stop the infection and control seizures or fever. In severe cases, your child may need to use a breathing machine. It is important to talk with your child’s healthcare providers about the risks, benefits, and possible side effects of all treatments. 

Encephalitis in Children

Encephalitis is an inflammation of the membranes that surround the spinal cord and brain. This type of infection causes problems with the function of the spinal cord and brain. The inflammation causes the brain to swell which may lead to changes in the neurological condition of the child including seizures and mental confusion. 

Common Symptoms of Encephalitis in Children

The symptoms of Encephalitis may depend on the age of your child, the part of the brain that is inflamed which causes the inflammation, and the degree of inflammation. Every child in the same situation may show symptoms differently. Some of the most common symptoms of Encephalitis may include:

Skin rashes

Encephalitis Causes

Encephalitis means that the brain tissue has become inflamed, and this can be caused by different things:

  • It can be the immune system over-reacting to an infection that might not even be still present in the body.
  • It can be the normal reaction of the body to a viral or bacterial infection.
  • It can have an autoimmune cause and occur without an infection of any kind.

Viruses and Other Infectious Agents 

There are some viruses that we know may cause Encephalitis:

  • Enteroviruses: These viruses enter the body through the gastrointestinal tract and can also cause hand-foot-mouth disease.
  • Herpes simplex virus: This is a common cause of encephalitis. Most children have been exposed to this virus, and your child may be infected with it even if they do not have a cold sore or blister around their mouth or other sign of the virus.
  • Measles and chickenpox viruses: Keeping your child up-to-date with their vaccinations greatly lowers the rate of encephalitis from these viruses. 
Diagnosing Encephalitis

Diagnosing Encephalitis in Children

Your child’s treatment begins with an accurate diagnosis. Your child’s doctor will ask about your child’s medical history, including their immunization history, and whether they have been exposed to viruses that cause encephalitis through activities or anywhere else.

Some of the procedures used to diagnose encephalitis include:

  • Blood, urine, and stool tests to check for indications of infection
  • Electroencephalogram to see if your child is having subtle underlying seizures
  • Magnetic resonance imaging to look at detailed images that can show inflammation in the brain
  • Lumbar puncture to take a small sample of spinal fluid to look for infections, like viruses and bacteria
  • CT scan of the brain, to make sure that the symptoms aren’t caused by another cause

Treatment for Encephalitis in Children

Specific treatment for Encephalitis will determine by the doctor of your child based on:

  • The extent of the condition
  • The age of your child, medical history, and overall health 
  • The tolerance of your child for certain medications, therapies, and procedures 

Your child will be treated for 2-3 days with IV medications to fight certain bacteria and the herpes simplex virus. Doctors may recommend medications depending on your child’s condition, such as:

Otitis Media

Otitis media is an infection of the middle ear, the air-filled space behind the eardrum in which the tiny vibrating bones are located. This infection is more common in children than in adults.

Ear infections often clear up on their own, so treatment begins with pain management and monitoring. Sometimes, antibiotics are needed to clear the infection.

Otitis Media Symptoms

Ear pain

The following are the most common symptoms of otitis media. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include: 

  • Ear pain
  • Difficulty sleeping or staying asleep
  • Fluid draining from the ear
  • Loss of balance
  • Tugging or pulling at one or both ears
  • Unusual irritability
  • Difficulty sleeping or staying asleep
  • Fever, especially in infants and younger children 
  • Hearing difficulties

Causes and Risk Factors of Otitis Media

Infections of the middle ear are usually caused by a malfunction of the Eustachian tube, a canal that connects the middle ear with the throat. By equalizing the pressure between the outer and middle ear, the Eustachian tube helps prevent hearing loss. When this tube does not function properly, it prevents normal drainage of fluids from the middle ear, leading to a buildup of fluid behind the eardrum. When this fluid cannot drain, bacteria and viruses can grow in the ear, causing acute otitis media. The following are some of the reasons that the Eustachian tube may not work properly:

  • A cold or allergy can lead to swelling and congestion of the lining of the nose, throat, and Eustachian tube
  • A malformation of the Eustachian tube

Several factors may increase your child’s risk of developing an ear infection, although any child can develop it:

  • Family history of ear infections
  • Being around someone who smokes
  • A weak immune system
  • Having a cold

Otitis Media Diagnosis

The health care provider of your child will inspect the outer ear and eardrum using an otoscope. This diagnosis is usually done along with a complete medical history and physical examination. A pneumatic otoscope blows a puff of air into the ear to test eardrum movement.

Another test is tympanometry which can be performed in most health care providers’ offices to help determine how the middle ear is functioning. It does not tell if the child is hearing or not, but helps to detect any changes in pressure in the middle ear. This is a difficult test to perform in younger children because the child needs to remain still and not cry, talk, or move. A hearing test may be performed for children who have frequent ear infections.

Otitis Media Treatment 

In some cases, ear infections resolve without antibiotic treatment. Depending on your child’s age and the severity of symptoms, you should consider what’s best for him or her.

In addition, your doctor will advise you on treatments to lessen pain from an ear infection. These may include the following:

Pain medication

  • Acetaminophen (Tylenol)
  • Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB)

Anesthetic drops

These may be used to relieve pain if the eardrum doesn’t have a hole or tear in it.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is the third most common cancer. This type of cancer occurs when cells divide in the lungs uncontrollably which causes tumors to grow. These can decrease a person’s ability to breathe and spread to other parts of the body. Cancer causes changes in the cells that are otherwise healthy. The cells grow too fast, without dying off.  

There are two main types of lung cancer are small-cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. It depends on how they appear under a microscope. Anyone can develop lung cancer, but cigarette smoking and having exposure to smoke, inhaled chemicals, or other toxins can increase the risk. 

Lung Cancer Symptoms

People with lung cancer may not have symptoms until a later stage. If symptoms do appear, they can resemble those of a respiratory. Some possible symptoms include:

Chest pain
  • Shortness of breath and wheezing 
  • Chest pain
  • A lingering cough that may start to get worse
  • Swelling in the lymph nodes in the middle of the chest 
  • Frequent chest infections such as pneumonia or bronchitis 
  • Changes to a person’s voice 

In time, a person may also experience more severe symptoms such as:

Risks and Causes of Lung Cancer 

A risk factor is anything that increases a person’s chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, like smoking, can be changed. Others, like a person’s age or family history, can’t be changed. 

But having a risk factor, or even several does not mean that you will get the disease. Also, some people who get the disease may have few or no known risk factors.

Several risk factors can make you more likely to develop lung cancer. These factors are related to the risk of lung cancer in general:

  • Exposure to secondhand smoke
  • Exposure to asbestos and other carcinogens
  • Exposure to radon gas
  • Family history of lung cancer
  • Previous radiation therapy
  • Smoking 
Lung Cancer Diagnosis

Lung Cancer Diagnosis

An annual lung cancer screening using low-dose CT scanning may be beneficial for people at increased risk of lung cancer. An elderly person who has smoked heavily for a long time or has given up smoking in the past 15 years is generally offered a lung cancer screening. Consult your doctor about your lung cancer risk. Depending on your risk, lung cancer screening might be of great help. 

Lung Cancer Treatment 

Your doctor will recommend a treatment plan based on your overall health, the type and stage of your cancer, and your preferences. In several cases, you may choose not to undergo treatment. For instance, you may feel that the side effects of treatment will outweigh the potential benefits. When that’s the case, your doctor may suggest comfort care to treat only the symptoms the cancer is causing, such as pain or shortness of breath.

Medication used for lung cancer treatment:

  • Ondansetron – used to prevent nausea and vomiting following chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery. The medicine works by blocking one of the body’s natural substances (serotonin) that causes vomiting. 

Migraine without Aura

Migraine without Aura is the most common type of migraine. Aura is a warning sign of a migraine. It is most commonly a symptom that affects your sight. If you have a migraine without aura, you won’t get a warning sign that a migraine attack is about to start. 

Migraine without Aura attack usually lasts between four hours and three days especially if the treatment is not effective. The frequency of these attacks varies. They could happen every few years or several times a week. 

Causes of Migraine without Aura

There is no clear reason why some people are prone to migraines while others are not, but there is a genetic component to the illness. Some factors can trigger migraines such as stress, lack of sleep, changes in routine, caffeine, certain foods, the environment, computer screens, and others. There are many patients, however, for whom a clear trigger is unknown.

Symptoms of migraine withourtaura

Symptoms of Migraine without Aura

  • Being sensitive to light, sound, or smells
  • Feeling sick or being sick (vomiting)
  • A headache that is usually on one side of your head. This is often a throbbing pain. It will worsen when you move, such as if you walk or climb the stairs. It is so severe that it means you can’t do your normal daily activities.

Diagnosis for Migraine without Aura

Migraine without aura is a clinical diagnosis. While there is no surefire test for detecting the presence of migraine, there are several symptoms and factors that doctors can point to so they can make a diagnosis. 

The diagnosis is reached by reviewing the patient’s and family’s medical history, studying symptoms, and conducting an assessment. Usually, the doctors do not diagnose migraine or any other type of headache based on imaging. If there are any atypical features or red flags in a patient’s history or examination, further testing may be warranted. 

Treatment and Medications for Migraine without Aura

Medications for Migraine

There are currently a variety of treatments that people with migraine without aura can try, but fortunately, it is a debilitating neurological disorder. Treatment plans for migraine without aura include:

  • Acute medications for use at the onset of a headache attack to try to break it
  • Non-medication preventive treatments such as biofeedback and cognitive behavioral therapy
  • Preventive medication to help reduce the frequency and severity of headache attacks
  • Addressing risk factors such as anxiety, depression, obesity, and snoring.

Medication classes shown to help prevent migraine include:

A migraine without aura can be disabling, preventing you from working or attending social events, and making it difficult to care for your loved ones. There are numerous online and in-person support groups available for migraine sufferers, their families, and caregivers. Your healthcare provider can assist you in finding support groups.

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is a condition in which the ovaries produce an abnormal amount of androgens, a male sex hormone that is usually present in women in small amounts. 

Treatment for PCOS is often done with medication. This can’t cure PCOS, but it helps reduce symptoms and prevent some health problems.

What causes Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)?


Factors that might play a role include:

  • Excess insulin: During the metabolism of sugar, your body’s primary energy source, insulin is produced in the pancreas. Your body can produce more insulin if your cells become resistant to insulin. Ovulation may be hindered by excess insulin, which increases androgen production.
  • Low-grade inflammation: These substances are produced by white blood cells to fight infection. PCOS can lead to heart and blood vessel problems because of a type of low-grade inflammation that stimulates polycystic ovaries to produce androgens.
  • Heredity: Research suggests that certain genes might be linked to PCOS.
  • Excess androgen: The ovaries produce abnormally high levels of androgen, resulting in hirsutism and acne.

What are the symptoms of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)?

Signs and symptoms of PCOS vary. A diagnosis is made when you experience at least two of these signs:

  • Polycystic ovaries: The ovaries may be enlarged and contain follicles that surround the eggs. This might lead to irregular functioning of the ovaries. 
  • Excess androgen: A high concentration of male hormones may cause physical signs, such as excessive facial and body hair, severe acne, and male-pattern baldness.
  • Irregular periods: PCOS is characterized by infrequent, irregular, or prolonged menstrual cycles. There may be fewer than nine menstrual cycles per year, periods that are longer than 35 days, and a heavy flow. 

Complications of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)

  • Infertility
  • Type 2 diabetes or prediabetes
  • Sleep apnea
  • Abnormal uterine bleeding
  • Cancer of the uterine lining (endometrial cancer)
  • Depression, anxiety, and eating disorders
  • Gestational diabetes or pregnancy-induced high blood pressure
  • Miscarriage or premature birth
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

Diagnosis of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)

PCOS cannot be definitively diagnosed with a test. During the first appointment, your doctor will likely ask about your medical history, including your menstrual cycle and weight changes. Check for signs of excess hair growth, insulin resistance, and acne during a physical exam.

Your doctor might then recommend:

  • A pelvic exam
  • Blood tests
  • An ultrasound 

If you have a diagnosis of PCOS, your doctor might recommend additional tests for complications. Those tests can include:

  • Screening for obstructive sleep apnea
  • Screening for depression and anxiety
  • Periodic checks of glucose tolerance, blood pressure, and cholesterol and triglyceride levels
Medications and treatment for PCOS
Treatment and Medications for Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Treatment and Medications for Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)

Your doctor may recommend weight loss through a low-calorie diet combined with moderate exercise activities. Losing weight may also increase the effectiveness of medications your doctor recommends for PCOS. It also helps with infertility. 

To regulate your menstrual cycle, your doctor may recommend:

To help you ovulate, your doctor may recommend:

  • Gonadotropin
  • Metformin
  • Letrozole (Femara)
  • Clomiphene

To lessen excessive hair growth, your doctor might recommend:

Migraine with Aura

Migraine with Aura is also called classic migraine which is a recurring headache that occurs after or at the same time as sensory disturbances called an aura. The disturbances include blond spots, flashes of light, and other vision changes or tingling in your face or hand. 

What causes Migraine with Aura?

Researchers have found that it may be caused by a slow wave of altered brain activity called cortical spreading depression. Temporary changes in the brain’s chemicals, nerves, and blood flow result from this, affecting how the brain works and possibly causing pain.

The discovery of new drugs that could prevent migraine attacks will be made easier by better understanding how these changes in the brain contribute to headaches.

migraine with aura

What are the symptoms of Migraine with Aura?

The symptoms of migraine with aura include temporary visual disturbances that usually strike before other migraine symptoms such as nausea, intense head pain, and sensitivity to sound and light. 

This condition usually occurs within an hour before head pain begins and usually lasts less than 60 minutes. Sometimes migraine with aura occurs without headache. 

Visual signs and symptoms:

  • Changes in vision or vision loss
  • Flashes of light
  • Zigzag lines that gradually float across your field of vision
  • Shimmering spots or stars
  • Blind spots which are sometimes outlined by simple geometric designs

Other temporary disturbances sometimes associated with migraine aura include:

  • Speech or language difficulty
  • Muscle weakness
  • Numbness, typically felt as tingling in one hand or on one side of your face that may spread slowly along a limb

Triggers for Migraine with Aura

Triggers for migraine with aura include:

  • Strong smells such as perfume, smoke, or gasoline
  • Weather changes or barometric pressure changes
  • Medications, such as the use of oral contraceptives or vasodilators for high blood pressure
  • Stress
  • Intense physical activity or overexertion
  • Lack of sleep or too much sleep
  • Food and food additives 
  • Hormonal fluctuations in females 
  • Caffeine consumption
  • Exposure to bright lights or strong sun
  • Alcohol consumption

Diagnosis of Migraine with Aura

Diagnosis of Migraine with Aura

A migraine with aura may be diagnosed based on your signs, symptoms, medical and family history, and a physical exam. Depending on whether your aura is accompanied by head pain, your doctor may recommend tests to rule out more serious conditions, such as a transient ischemic attack (TIA).

Assessments might include:

  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Head computerized tomography (CT) scan
  • An eye examination

Treatment and Medications for Migraine with Aura

For migraine with aura, just as with migraine alone, treatment is aimed at relieving migraine pain.

Medications for relief:

Ask your doctor if these medications are appropriate for you. Some of these medications are not safe to take during pregnancy. If you’re pregnant or trying to get pregnant, don’t use any of these medications without first talking with your doctor.  

HIV Guidelines during Pregnancy

HIV can affect the health of a woman in unique ways. You may get more infections or changes in your menstrual cycle. You may also get menopause symptoms earlier than other women. Knowing what to expect and taking care of yourself can help you live a healthy, full life.

HIV Treatment during Pregnancy 

HIV and Pregnancy

  • A pregnant woman living with HIV can pass on the virus to her baby during pregnancy, childbirth, and through breastfeeding.
  • If you are a woman living with HIV, taking antiretroviral treatment correctly during pregnancy and breastfeeding can virtually eliminate the risk of passing on the virus to your baby.
  • Attending antenatal appointments means you can get tested for HIV and if needed receive treatment and medical advice to help keep you and your baby healthy.  

What Can You Do If You Are Pregnant and Have HIV?

  • Visit your health care provider regularly. 
  • Take HIV medications as prescribed to stay healthy, protect your partner, and protect your baby. Taking HIV medications lessens the amount of HIV in the body to a very low level. Getting and keeping an undetectable viral load is the best thing you can do to stay healthy and help prevent transmission to your baby. 
  • The risk of transmitting HIV to your baby can be less than 1% if you take HIV medicine as prescribed. Also, give your baby HIV medicine for 4 to 6 weeks after giving birth. 
  • If your HIV viral load is not adequately reduced, a Cesarean delivery can also help prevent HIV transmission.  
  • Do not breastfeed or pre-chew your baby’s food. 

Protect Your Baby during Childbirth 

If you take your treatment correctly, it will lower the amount of HIV in your body. In some people, the amount of HIV in their bodies can be reduced to such low levels that it is said to be undetectable. This means that you can plan to have a vaginal delivery because the risk of passing on HIV to your baby during childbirth will be extremely small.

If you don’t have an undetectable viral load, you may be offered a cesarean section, as this carries a smaller risk of passing HIV to your baby than a vaginal delivery. If your HIV test result comes back positive, there are several things you can do to reduce the risk of passing HIV to your baby.

Taking HIV Medicine during Pregnancy 

Taking HIV Medicine during Pregnancy 

  1. Pregnant women infected with HIV should take HIV medicines. It helps lower the risk of passing HIV to a baby and improves the mother’s health.
  2. If you haven’t used any HIV medications before pregnancy and are in your first trimester, your doctor will help you decide if you should start treatment.

Here are some things to consider: 

  • The medicine may affect your baby. Your doctor will prescribe medicine that is safe to use during pregnancy.
  • Nausea and vomiting may make it hard to take the HIV medicine early during pregnancy.
  • Studies show treatment works best at preventing HIV in a baby if it is started before pregnancy or as early as possible during pregnancy.