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Pharyngitis: Symptoms, Stages, Causes and Treatment

What is Pharyngitis?

Pharyngitis is an inflammation of the pharynx, resulting in a sore throat. It is typically a symptom, rather than a condition. It is usually caused by viral or bacterial infections, such as the common cold and flu. Both viral infections or bacterial infections with the Streptococcus bacterium in your strep throat can also occur.

Signs and Symptoms of Pharyngitis

Symptoms of Pharyngitis can vary depending on the cause. It includes:

  • Pain that worsens with swallowing or talking
  • Pain or a scratchy sensation in the throat
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Sore, swollen glands in your neck or jaw
  • Swollen, red tonsils
  • White patches or pus on your tonsils
  • A hoarse or muffled voice
symptoms of Pet Allergy

Infections causing a sore throat might result in other symptoms, including:

Seek help If you or your child, has severe signs and symptoms such as:

  • Difficulty breathing
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Unusual drooling, which might indicate an inability to swallow

Causes of Pharyngitis

Viruses that cause the common cold and the flu also cause sore throats. Less often, bacterial infections cause this condition. Viral illnesses that cause a sore throat include:

Other causes of pharyngitis include:

  1. Irritants. Outdoor air pollution and indoor pollution such as tobacco smoke or chemicals can cause a chronic condition. Drinking alcohol, chewing tobacco, and eating spicy foods also can irritate your throat.
  2. Muscle strain. You can strain muscles in your throat by yelling, talking loudly or talking for long periods without rest.
  3. Gastroesophageal reflux disease or GERD. GERD is a digestive system disorder in which stomach acids back up in the food pipe or esophagus.
  4. HIV infection. A sore throat and other flu-like symptoms sometimes appear early after someone is infected. HIV-positive patients might have a chronic or frequent sore throat due to a fungal infection called oral thrush or a viral infection, which can be serious in people with compromised immune systems.
  5. Allergies. Allergies to pet dander, pollen, dust and molds can cause a sore throat. The problem may be complicated by postnasal drip, which can irritate and inflame the throat.
  6. Dryness. Dry indoor air can make your throat feel rough and scratchy. Breathing through your mouth often because of chronic nasal congestion can cause a dry throat.
  7. Tumors. Cancerous tumors of the tongue, throat or voice box or larynx can cause pharyngitis. Other signs or symptoms may include hoarseness, noisy breathing, difficulty swallowing a lump in the neck, and blood in saliva or phlegm.

Treatment and Management of Pharyngitis

The treatment of this condition depends on its cause and severity. For bacterial causes, doctors often recommend antibiotics. Ensure to take your medications as per directed by doctors for the utmost benefits. Pain relievers are also given to ease pain caused by swelling in the throat. 

Medication Used for Pharyngitis

Clarithromycin. It is used to treat different bacterial infections like a sore throat. works by preventing the growth of infection-causing bacteria and stops the bacteria from growing by interfering with the protein synthesis in bacterial cells.

Drink plenty of water

Lifestyle and Home Remedies for Pharyngitis

  • Rest and drink fluids. Get plenty of sleep. Rest your voice, too. Fluids keep the throat moist and prevent dehydration. However, avoid caffeine and alcohol, which can dehydrate you.
  • Humidify the air. Use a cool-air humidifier to eliminate dry air that may further irritate the affected area. Ensure to clean the humidifier regularly so it doesn’t grow mold or bacteria or sit for several minutes in a steamy bathroom.
  • Consider lozenges. It can soothe a sore throat, but don’t give them to children age 4 and younger because of choking risk.
  • Try comforting foods and beverages. Warm liquids broth, caffeine-free tea or warm water with honey and cold treats such as ice pops can soothe a sore throat. Don’t give honey to children younger than age 1.
  • Gargle with saltwater. A saltwater gargle can help soothe a sore throat. Children older than 6 and adults can gargle the solution and then spit it out.
  • Avoid irritants. Keep your home free from cigarette smoke and cleaning products that can irritate the throat.
  • Stay at home until you are no longer sick. This can help protect others from catching a cold or other virus.

Alzheimer: Symptoms, Stages, Causes, and Treatment

What is Alzheimer’s Disease?

Alzheimer’s disease is a brain illness that slowly destroys thinking and memory skills. Eventually, this condition leads to difficulty in carrying out the simplest tasks. Most people with the sickness or those with the late-onset type symptoms first appear in their mid-60s. Early onset of this condition between a person’s 30s and mid-60s is very rare. It involves parts of the brain that control thought, memory, and language that can seriously affect your ability to carry out daily activities.

Signs and Symptoms of Alzheimer’s Disease 

old man in black and white with magnifying glass

The symptoms of this condition vary from person to person, and may include problems with:

  • Impaired reasoning or judgment, can impact decisions
  • Vision and spatial issues, like awareness of the space around them
  • Word-finding, or having more trouble coming up with words than other people the same age

Other symptoms may be changes in the person’s behavior including:

  • Trouble managing money and paying bills
  • Taking longer to complete normal daily tasks
  • Losing things or forgetting them in odd places
  • Wandering and getting lost
  • Increased anxiety and or violence
  • Mood and personality changes
  • Repeating questions

Stages of Alzheimer’s Disease

This condition can range from minor to severe. The scale ranges from a state of mild impairment to moderate impairment before eventually reaching severe cognitive decline.

  1. Mild stage. People with mild conditions develop memory problems and cognitive difficulties that may include taking longer than usual to perform daily tasks and difficulty managing money or paying bills. You may also experience personality and performance changes.
  2. Moderate stage. In moderate conditions, the parts of the brain responsible for senses, reasoning, consciousness, and language are damaged. This can lead to greater memory loss and confusion, difficulty knowing friends or family, incapability to learn new things, and difficulty performing tasks. You may also experience a struggle to cope with new situations, imprudent behavior, hallucinations, delusions, or fear.
  3. Severe stage. In this condition plaques and tangles are present throughout the brain, causing the brain tissue to shrink greatly. This can lead to an incapable to communicate and dependency on others for care. Being unable to leave bed all or most of the time.

Treatment and Management of Alzheimer’s Disease

Unfortunately, Alzheimer’s disease has no available treatment but some medications can slow down its progress and help with behavioral changes. Doctors often recommend antidepressant drugs to treat anxiety, aggression, depression, and restlessness. Anti-anxiety drugs are also used to treat agitation along with anticonvulsants to treat aggression.

Medication Used for Alzheimer’s Disease

Memantine HCI. It is used to treat moderate to severe dementia related to this condition. It works by decreasing abnormal activity in the brain. Memantine may improve the ability to think and remember or may slow the loss of these abilities in people who have AD. 

losing weight

Lifestyle and Home Remedies for Alzheimer’s Disease

  • Diet. A diet high in healthy fats, whole grains, lean, proteins, fish, fruits, nuts, and vegetables has been shown to fight obesity and diabetes and to improve mental function.
  • Healthy sleep. Sleep is our body’s way of resetting. Proper peaceful sleep allows our body and brain the time needed to restore balance to our systems. This helps decrease the risk of dementia and AD.
  • Improving heart health. Cardiovascular well-being is a major risk factor for AD. Keeping a healthy heart can reduce the risk of developing AD.
  • Social interaction and an active mind. Can lead to happiness, using a positive effect on patients with AD and their families. Learning a new activity, such as dancing, creates new pathways of communication in the brain.
  • Exercise. Small choices today, such as taking the stairs or parking farther away, can make a big change tomorrow. Avoiding AD through increased exercise is a positive choice we can make to improve mental function for years to come.
  • Lowering stress. Mindfulness practices like yoga, meditation, or breathing exercises help reduce stress. Devote more time outside in green spaces. It’s proven to decrease stress, and it encourages exercise. Furthermore, staying inside seems to contribute to the risk of dementia.

Premature Ejaculation: Symptoms, Types, Causes, and Treatment

Premature ejaculation is a term used for an orgasm before intercourse or less than a minute after you start. There is no set time when a man should ejaculate during sex. However, if you ejaculated and lose your erection this soon, you and your partner may feel less enjoyment which may affect your intimate time.

This condition is not a cause for concern if it does not happen often. However, you may need immediate medical help if:

  • You always ejaculate within 1 to 3 minutes of penetration
  • You are not able to delay ejaculation during sex all the time
  • You are distressed and frustrated
  • You tend to avoid sexual intimacy as a result of the condition

Signs and Symptoms of Premature Ejaculation

The main symptom of PE is not being able to delay ejaculation for more than three minutes after penetration. But it might occur in all sexual situations, even during masturbation. It is classified as a lifelong condition that occurs all or nearly all the time beginning with the first sexual encounter. This condition can also be acquired from previous sexual experiences without problems with ejaculation.

When to See A Doctor?

Talk with your healthcare provider if you ejaculate sooner every sexual encounter. This condition is treatable in most cases but your doctor may need to assess your condition before giving proper treatment.  A conversation with a care provider might help lessen concerns. 

Types of Premature Ejaculation

  1. Lifelong condition. Lifelong PE is when you have not had control of ejaculation from the time of your first sexual experience. If left untreated, premature ejaculation will continue for the rest of your life.
  2. Acquired. It is usually when there has been a period of normal functioning before premature ejaculation begins. It is often linked to psychological issues or problems with erection such as erectile dysfunction.

What Causes Premature Ejaculation?

man on gray shouting and having an anxiety episode

The specific cause of this condition is unknown but psychological triggers are considered a factor. This condition involves a complex interaction of psychological and biological factors such as:

  • Anxiety. It is common for this condition and anxiety to occur together due to sexual performance or related to other issues. Relationship problems can also contribute to premature ejaculation. 
  • Psychological causes. It includes sexual abuse, depression, poor body image, depression, and guilty feelings about sex performance.
  • Erectile dysfunction. Being anxious about achieving and maintaining an erection might form a pattern of rushing to ejaculate. The pattern can be difficult to change.
  • Stress. Emotional or mental tension in any area of life can play a role in PE. Stress can limit the ability to relax and focus during sex.
  • Biological causes. This includes irregular hormone levels, irregular levels of brain chemicals, and infection in the prostate or urethra.

Treatment and Management of Premature Ejaculation

Typical options for PE include a combination approach of behavioral techniques, medication, and counselling. It might take time to find the treatment or combination of treatments that work for you but these are all effective. Your doctor may also recommend avoiding sexual intercourse during the treatment period.

Man in white stretching on a field

Pelvic floor exercises can also delay ejaculation and help strengthen muscles. Focus on tightening only your pelvic floor muscles. Be careful not to flex the muscles in your abdomen, thighs or buttocks. Avoid holding your breath. Instead, breathe freely during the exercises.

Your healthcare provider might instruct you to use the pause-squeeze technique. Begin sexual activity to stimulate the penis, until you feel almost ready to ejaculate. Then squeeze the end of your penis where the head joins the shaft. Keep squeezing for several seconds until the urge to ejaculate passes. Repeat the squeeze process as needed.

Medication Used for Premature Ejaculation

Dapoxetine. It belongs to a class of drugs known as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. It works by inhibiting the neuronal reuptake of serotonin that further potentiates the action of neurotransmitters at both pre and postsynaptic receptors. It also reduces personal distress, and interpersonal difficulty and improves the satisfaction of sexual intercourse.

Physical Disability Leads To Depression

Physical disability indicates any physical limitations or frailties that interfere with a person’s physical function. It affects commonly one or both limbs that can be temporary or permanent. There are several causes of disabilities including accidents, birth defects, heredity, and illness after a certain surgery. The loss of physical capacity results in the person having an inability to move, walk, use their hands, or arms, or inability to sit or stand which mostly leads to depression.

woman depressed in dark room

What is Depression?

Depression is a significant mental health disorder that involves persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and worthlessness. This includes other symptoms such as fatigue, loss of appetite, pain with no specific cause, digestive problems, and suicidal thoughts. Sleep problems are common as well. Many individuals battling this condition struggle with insomnia, while others sleep excessively.

How Physical Disability Leads to Depression?

One day you’re working, and then you’re not. As an adult, developing a physical disability can be challenging whether it’s due to an injury or chronic illness. You find yourself unable to work or enjoy the activities you love. It may be temporary in some cases, but it may also be permanent in others. Either way, physical disability can generate negative feelings and, for many individuals, depression.

Physical disability definitely raises depression risk and can also make the disability worse. It can make it more difficult for you to take proper care of your health. You are more likely to miss important appointments, such as a doctor’s visit or physical therapy. You may neglect to take your medications as directed. The result is a cycle in which the injury or illness triggers despair, making the disabling condition worse.

Recently Incapacitated

For a recently disabled individual, mental health struggle is very common as they have gone from being able-bodied to someone who has to depend on assistance. It causes struggles with their memories of being able-bodied and trying to accept their current physical or mental limitations.

Incapacitated at Birth

Some individuals are disabled at birth which was a result of issues during gestation or childbirth, or a genetic problem as the cause of their disability. Some may develop coping mechanisms from an early age, while others do not share the same view. Those who are disabled at an early age may spend years struggling to find acceptance with their peers and teachers and have struggles in transitioning to adulthood. 

NOTE: It is okay not to feel at your best. Everyone reacts differently to life situations. Ensure that you have a support system during your trying times. It is also essential to seek professional help if you experience persistent symptoms of sadness or hopelessness.

Improving the Mental Health of People With Disabilities

women talking and comforting each other in a support group
  1. Give yourself time to mourn. Before you can accept your physical disability, you first need to grieve. Do not ignore or suppress your feelings because you cannot work through grief without allowing yourself to feel it and actively deal with it. Allow yourself to fully experience your feelings without judgment.
  2. Come to terms with your new reality. It is healthy to grieve the life you have lost, but avoid to continue looking back and wishing for a return to a normal state. Gradually let go of the past and accept your phase as you can be happy with a broken body.
  3. Find ways to minimize its impact on your life. You can be an advocate as you deal with the challenges of life with a physical disability. Educate yourself about your rights and the resources available to you. Let go of any embarrassment or fear of stigma. You are not defined by the aids you use.
  4. Join a support group. It is one of the best steps to deal with loneliness and isolation. Participate in a support group for people dealing with similar challenges. Support groups are a great place to share struggles, solutions, and encouragement to accept your physical disability.
  5. Take your medication. Most doctors often prescribe medication such as Escitalopram to aid during the treatment period. It is an SNRI that inhibits the uptake of both these amines but does not interact with cholinergic, adrenergic, or histaminergic receptors or have sedative properties.

HIV: Symptoms, Stages, Causes, and Treatment

HIV is a virus that attacks cells that help the body fight infection, making a person more vulnerable to other infections and diseases. Over decades, the disease slowly spread across Africa and later into other parts of the world. It is spread by contact with certain bodily fluids of a person with the infection, most commonly during unprotected or through sharing injection drug equipment.

Signs and Symptoms of HIV

The signs and symptoms of this condition depend on its severity and phase.

1. Primary infection

Some patients develop symptoms 2 to 4 weeks after the virus enters the body. Signs and symptoms are:

  • Headache and fever
  • Muscle aches and joint pain
  • Rash and swollen lymph glands especially on the neck
  • Sore throat and painful mouth sores
  • Weight loss and diarrhea
  • Night sweats and cough

2. Clinical latent infection

In this stage, the virus is still present in the body and in white blood cells. However, there are no typical symptoms or infections during this time. This stage can also last for many years if you are receiving regular therapy.

3. Symptomatic infection

At this stage, the virus multiplies and destroys your immune cells and triggers chronic symptoms.

  • Fatigue and fever
  • Swollen lymph nodes and diarrhea
  • Weight loss
  • Pneumonia
  • Oral yeast infection
  • Shingles

4. Progression to AIDS

  • Recurring fever and chronic diarrhea
  • Chills and sweats
  • Chronic diarrhea
  • Swollen lymph glands
  • Persistent white spots or unusual lesions on your tongue or mouth 
  • Persistent and unexplained fatigue
  • Weakness and weight loss
  • Skin rashes or bumps

Stages of HIV

close up of a woman in a hospital bed sick

1. Seroconversion illness. Infection can cause a short illness for some people shortly after contracting it. This is known as seroconversion illness or primary or acute condition. 

2. The asymptomatic stage of HIV. Asymptomatic stages can last several years and are commonly called asymptomatic stages. Though you might feel well at this stage, the virus is active, infecting new cells, replicating, and damaging your immune system.

3. Symptomatic stage. Living with this condition without treatment increases your risk of developing infections that your weakened immune system can’t handle, including certain cancers and HIV-related diseases. 

4. Late-stage. Certain opportunistic infections and cancers may develop if it causes a lot of damage to your immune system. These illnesses are also known as AIDS-defining.

What Causes HIV?

It is caused by a virus that spreads through sexual contact, contact with infected blood, illegal injection drug use or sharing needles, or from mother to child during pregnancy, or breastfeeding. The following factors also increase your risk of getting the virus:

  • If you have an STI. Many STIs produce open sores on your genitals. These sores act as doorways for the virus to enter your body.
  • If you are using illicit injection drugs. The use of illicit injection drugs exposes people to blood droplets because they share needles and syringes.
  • If you have unprotected sex. Use a new latex or polyurethane condom every time you have sex. Anal sex is riskier than vaginal sex especially if you have multiple sex partners.
unused condom on a mans palm

Treatment, Prevention, and Management of HIV

Currently, there is no cure for HIV. Infection cannot be cured once it is present in the body. However, many medications can control and prevent complications. These include antiretroviral therapy or ART. Most often, it consists of two or more medications from different drug classes. 

To prevent getting infected, ensure to maintain healthy sexual practices such as avoiding multiple sex partners and maintaining proper hygiene. Protect yourself from getting the infection by using condoms during sex. Use KamaSutra Pink Dotted Condoms, which is made from premium rubber latex with changes in its texture for maximum benefits.

NOTE: Condoms are not used as a treatment for any sexually transmitted disease. Seek immediate help if you have symptoms or if you are exposed to an infected individual.

Lifestyle and Home Remedies for HIV

  • Eat healthy foods and make sure you get enough nourishment to boost your immune system. 
  • Avoid raw meat, eggs, and more because there are foodborne illnesses that can worsen your condition. 
  • Avoid unpasteurized dairy products, raw eggs, and raw seafood such as oysters, sushi, or sashimi.
  • Get the right vaccinations to increase your defense against typical infections. Your healthcare provider may also recommend other vaccinations, including for HPV, hepatitis A, and hepatitis B. 

Dysmenorrhea: Symptoms, Types, Causes, and Treatment

What is Dysmenorrhea?

Dysmenorrhea is the term used to describe painful periods. The primary type refers to recurrent pain, while the second condition results from reproductive system disorders. The pain usually begins one or two days before you get your period or when the bleeding actually starts. You may feel pain ranging from mild to severe in the lower abdomen, back, or thighs.

abdominal pain

Signs and Symptoms of Dysmenorrhea

  • Gripping pain and constant aches
  • Cramping in your pelvic area
  • Pain in your stomach
  • Pain in the lower back and legs
  • Headaches and feeling sick
  • Digestive problems such as constipation or diarrhea
  • premenstrual symptoms including sore breasts and a swollen abdomen
  • Pain that lasts for 3 days 

When Should You Seek Help?

Contact your doctor if the symptoms of dysmenorrhea worsen regardless of taking pain relievers. Keep track of your periods and the days on which pain is the worst and if you notice other symptoms, like headaches or heavy flows, you should keep track of those, too. Your doctor will assess you when you started getting your period, how long they last, and what kinds of treatments you might have tried already.

Types of Dysmenorrhea

  1. Primary type. The pain is not caused by any particular health condition. The pain usually begins when your period comes, but might start slightly before. The main symptom is a cramp or achy pain in your abdomen.  You might also feel it in your lower back or the tops of your legs. You may have other symptoms when you get your period including fatigue and bloatedness.
  2. Secondary type. The period pain is caused by a health condition. Some women can start to experience more painful periods after years of normal period pain. f you experience severe period pain that stops you from doing day-to-day things, or that worries you at all, you should speak to your doctor. Symptoms include a feeling of heaviness in your tummy, heavy or irregular periods, and painful sex.

How Does Secondary Dysmenorrhea Cause Menstrual Cramps?

Dysmenorrhea is a result of problems with the reproductive organs such as:

  • Pelvic inflammatory disease.  Bacterial infection of the uterus may spread to other reproductive organs. PID can cause pain in the stomach or pain during sex.
  • Cervical stenosis. Narrowing of the cervix, or the opening to the uterus.
  • Endometriosis. This condition refers to the presence of uterine lining tissue outside of the uterus. This tissue bleeds during your period, causing swelling, scarring, and pain.
  • Adenomyosis. Abnormal growth of uterine lining into the uterine muscle. Symptoms of this condition include abnormal bleeding and pain, as well as an abnormally large uterus.
  • Fibroids. The uterus can develop growths inside, outside, or inside the walls

Causes of Dysmenorrhea

Dysmenorrhea happens when a chemical called prostaglandin makes the uterus contract. The uterus contracts throughout your menstrual cycle and it is stronger during your menstruation. It can press against nearby blood vessels, cutting off the supply of oxygen to muscle tissue. You feel pain when part of the muscle briefly loses its supply of oxygen.

Period pain can sometimes be caused by intrauterine devices, especially after a few months of insertion. After an IUD insertion, your period might change and become more irregular, or last longer than normal.

Treatment and Management of Dysmenorrhea

Speak to your pharmacist for advice on pain relief for more severe pain, there are other types of medications that are only available from your doctor. There are several things you can do to relieve pain and cramps such as:

Woman taking pills on white table
  • Place a heating pad or hot water bottle on your lower back or abdomen. 
  • Rest when needed and avoid drinking that contains caffeine
  • Avoid smoking and drinking alcohol and massage your lower back and abdomen.
  • Women who exercise regularly often have less menstrual pain. To help prevent cramps, make exercise a part of your weekly routine.
  • Taking Ibuprofen as soon as bleeding or cramping starts. Ibuprofen belongs to a class of drugs called non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that reduces the output of prostaglandins.

Actinic Keratosis: Symptoms, Risk Factors, Causes, and Treatment

Actinic keratosis is the most common precancer that forms on skin damaged by chronic exposure to ultraviolet rays from the sun or indoor tanning. It is a rough, scaly patch on the skin that develops from years of sun exposure. It is often found on the face, lips, ears, forearms, scalp, neck, or back of the hands.

The patch on the skin grows slowly and usually first appears in people over 40. You can reduce your risk of this skin condition by minimizing your sun exposure and protecting your skin from ultraviolet rays.

Hypersensitivity Syndrome

Signs and Symptoms of Actinic Keratosis

  • Wartlike surface
  • Color variations, including pink, red or brown
  • Itching, bleeding, burning, or crusting
  • New patches or bumps on sun-exposed areas of the head, neck, hands, and forearms
  • Rough, dry, or scaly patch of skin, usually less than 1 inch in diameter
  • Flat to slightly raised patch or bump on the top layer of skin

Risk Factors of Actinic Keratosis

UV rays from the sun and from tanning beds can increase your risk of developing this condition. Damage to the skin from UV rays builds up over time and even short-term exposure to the sun regularly can build up over a lifetime and increase your risk of the condition. Other risk factors are:

  • People with darker skin, hair, and eyes have been exposed to UV rays without protection.
  • People with pale skin, blonde or red hair, and blue, green, or gray eyes.
  • Older adults or the ones with suppressed immune systems caused by chemotherapy, organ transplant, or AIDS.
  • People with rare conditions such as albinism or xeroderma pigmentosum

Causes of Actinic Keratosis

Actinic keratoses are the result of abnormal skin cell development due to DNA damage by short-wavelength UVB. They are more likely to appear if the immune function is poor, due to aging, recent sun exposure, predisposing disease, or certain drugs. The main concern is that this condition indicates an increased risk of developing cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. It is rare for a solitary AK to evolve into squamous cell carcinoma but the risk occurring at some stage in a patient with more than 10 AKs is thought to be about 10 to 15%.

Treatment and Management of Actinic Keratosis

doctor holding laser to treat skin diseases

An AK sometimes disappears on its own but might return after more sun exposure. Your  doctor may prescribe a medicated cream or gel to remove them. These products might cause redness, scaling, or a burning sensation for a few weeks. Other treatment options are:

  1. Scraping. It destroys the affected tissue with an electric current. This procedure requires local anesthesia. Side effects may include infection, scarring, and changes in the skin color of the affected area.
  2. Cryotherapy. AKs can be removed by freezing them with liquid nitrogen. As your skin heals, the damaged cells slough off, allowing new skin to appear. Side effects may include blisters, scarring, changes to skin texture, infection, and changes in the skin color of the affected area.
  3. Laser therapy. It destroys the patch, allowing new skin to appear. Side effects may include scarring and discoloration of the affected skin.

Medication Used for Actinic Keratosis

Imiquimod Cream is a drug that is topically administered. It is widely used to treat different types of skin infections such as AKs or minor forms of skin cancer known as superficial basal cell carcinoma and external genital warts. It improves the immune response of the cells when applied. The activated immune cells travel to areas of infection and eliminate the infected cells.

How to Prevent Actinic Keratosis?

  • Limit your time in the sun, especially between 10am to 2pm.
  • For extra protection from the sun, wear tightly woven clothing that covers your arms and legs.
  • Avoid tanning beds because they can cause just as much skin damage as a tan acquired from the sun.
  • Use sunscreen before spending time outdoors, even on cloudy days, and apply a broad-spectrum water-resistant sunscreen with a sun protection factor of at least 30.
  • Apply sunscreen at least 15 minutes before going outside and reapply it every two hours or more often if you are swimming or perspiring.
  • Check your skin regularly and report changes to your doctor.

Managing GERD During Thanksgiving

Thanksgiving is probably the most anticipated meal of the year, but it can cause discomfort for people who have GERD. To minimize the attacks or this condition, ensure to plan ahead your menu to celebrate thanksgiving with gladness.

What is GERD?

GERD is a disease that can lead to damage and, eventually, complications to the esophagus over time. It occurs when stomach acid repeatedly flows back into the tube connecting your mouth and stomach. It can interfere with daily living, but most people can get relief from it through lifestyle changes, home remedies, and medical treatment.

Symptoms of GERD

A burning sensation in your chest, usually after eating, which might be worse at night or while lying down:

  • Trouble swallowing 
  • The sensation of a lump in your throat
  • The backwash of food or sour liquid
  • Upper abdominal or chest pain

If you have nighttime acid reflux, you might also experience:

  • An ongoing cough
  • Inflammation of the vocal cords 
  • New or worsening asthma
Alcohol or drug abuse

What Not to Eat or Drink If You Have GERD?

  • Chocolate
  • Mint
  • Carbonated drinks
  • Alcohol
  • Fatty foods
  • Spicy foods
  • Tomatoes
  • Coffee
  • Citrus fruits and juices
  • Fried foods

Navigating GERD To Enjoy Thanksgiving

You can also make some strategic decisions about the Thanksgiving meal to prevent symptoms. Experts suggest eating earlier in the day to allow more time to digest the meal. Alcohol is a trigger for many people, so you may want to avoid alcohol or just have a small glass of wine with your early meal. 

Tips to Avoid GERD Attacks on Thanksgiving

  • Consider pre-medicating. If you have been taking medications with lifestyle modifications, ensure that you have OTC medication prepared to reduce the amount of acid your stomach produces as you digest.
  • Maintain a healthy weight. Excess pounds put pressure on your abdomen, pushing up your stomach and causing acid to reflux into your esophagus.
  • Skip the drinks. Both alcohol and caffeinated beverages relax the lower esophageal sphincter, the barrier between your stomach and esophagus that opens and closes to allow food to enter your stomach or acid to creep upward. It increases production and inflames the stomach lining, increasing the likelihood of symptoms.
  • Practice portion control. Avoid overeating because it triggers attacks. Stop eating before you get extra full or eat way too much. 
  • Be cautious with alcohol. It can lower your inhibitions and makes you more likely to have that second helping of stuffing after all.
  • Do not lie down after a meal. Wait at least three hours after eating before lying down or going to bed. Eat food slowly and chew thoroughly. 
  • Take a walk instead of sleeping. Lying down right after a meal perfectly positions your body for acid to sneak into your esophagus. A better plan is to go for a walk to aid your digestion and wait at least three hours after eating before crawling into bed.
  • Identify the risk factors. Certain foods are more likely to worsen acid reflux and heartburn. These include fatty foods, spicy foods, onions, garlic, caffeine, chocolate, citrus fruits and juices, and mints. Avoid these triggers to enjoy the celebration.

Recipe That Doesn’t Trigger GERD

sweet potato with toppings on paper wrapper

Whipped Sweet Potatoes

Ingredients:

  • 4 large sweet potatoes
  • 1 cup almond milk
  • 1 tablespoon nutritional yeast
  • 1 tablespoon maple syrup
  • ½ teaspoon cinnamon
  • 1 teaspoon garlic powder
  • Salt and pepper to taste
  • ½  cup of toasted pecans

Cooking Instructions:

  • Heat oven to 395 degrees Fahrenheit.
  • Pierce your sweet potatoes multiple times with a fork and wrap them in foil and bake them for about 30 minutes.
  • Allow the potatoes to cool, then peel and transfer them to a blender or food processor.
  • Add in almond milk, yeast, cinnamon,  maple syrup, garlic powder, salt, and pepper.
  • Blend or process until nicely whipped.
  • Scoop into a serving dish and top with toasted pecans

Medication Used for GERD

Esomeprazole. It is a Proton Pump Inhibitor that reduces gastric secretion. It reduces the amount of acid your stomach makes and treats indigestion, heartburn and acid reflux, and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

Class III Obesity: Symptoms, Risk Factors, Causes, and Treatment

What is Class III Obesity?

Class III obesity, previously known as morbid obesity, is a complex chronic condition that can lead to several serious health issues. When you resort to processed foods, it can increase the fat deposition in your body. Excessive weight is due to fat accumulation that links to health problems. When your BMI is over 30, you are obese. It is due to eating loads of calories and having an inactive lifestyle.  Likewise, it is also due to genetic disorders.

sweating

Signs and Symptoms of Class III Obesity

  • Difficulty in sleeping or sleep apnea
  • Daytime drowsiness
  • Woman with knee pain
  • Back and or joint pains
  • Heavy sweating
  • Intolerance to heat
  • Body with skin folds
  • Infections in skin folds
  • Fatigue
  • Depression
  • A feeling of shortness of breath
  • Hyperpigmentation in the skin folds and armpits
  • Stretch due to endocrinological alteration
  • Swelling and varicose veins in the lower limbs.
  • Body Mass Index greater than 30 kg/m2.
  • Waist circumference greater than 94 cm in men and 88 cm in women.
  • High blood pressure

Risk Factors of Class III Obesity

  • Hormone imbalances. Your body makes hundreds of hormones that each have unique and important functions. Many of those hormones can affect how your body signals that you need food and how your body uses energy. Chronic stress can increase cortisol levels, which can lead to weight gain and increase cravings for sweet, fatty, and salty foods. Low thyroid hormone levels can slow down your metabolism and lead to weight gain.
  • Genetic factors. It has been shown that obesity is an inherited trait and that multiple genes are involved in the process.
  • Cultural factors. Increasing portion sizes and marketing of calorie-dense foods can contribute to obesity.
  • Socioeconomic and geographical factors.  Being low in socioeconomic status and having easier access to unhealthy fast foods than healthy whole foods can contribute to obesity. A lack of recreational facilities or parks and few safe or easy walking routes in your neighborhood can also contribute to obesity.

The Many Causes of Class III Obesity

When you eat, your body uses the calories you consume to run your body. The body also needs calories to pump your heart or digest food. If those calories are not used, the body stores them as fat. Your body will build up fat stores if you continue to eat more calories than your body can use during daily activities and exercise. Morbid conditions are due to chronic and uncontrolled weight gain caused by several factors.

losing weight

Treatment and Management of Class III  Obesity

Treatment for excessive weight gain is a combination of therapy and the help of professionals to increase your chances of success. These includes:

  1. Medication. If you are struggling with the desire to eat more than your allotted calories for the day, your doctor may suggest a medication that blocks fat absorption or acts as an appetite suppressant.
  2. Diet and exercise. You may start by eating fewer calories than you burn but do so with the guidance of a medical professional to make sure you’re still getting enough nutrition. You also want to add in physical activity every day but you have to start small to avoid compromising your body.
  3. Behavioral therapy. Sometimes old habits are so deeply set in the mind and are hard to overcome. Behavioral therapy focuses on changing your unhealthy habits and correcting your eating pattern or improving emotional coping mechanisms.
  4. Surgery. If none of these things help sufficiently, you may need surgery to lose enough weight. Bariatric surgery works by sealing off most of your stomach, so you feel fuller faster. However, surgery is expensive and sometimes life-threatening.

Medication Used for Class III  Obesity

Orlistat. It is a drug that is prescribed to people suffering from morbid weight gain conditions. works by inhibiting the lipases that are required to break down the fatty acids, thereby preventing the absorption of fatty acids in the diet. Talk to your doctor about the risk, benefits, and further guidelines when taking orlistat for weight loss.

Peptic Ulcer: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

What is Peptic Ulcer?

Peptic ulcers are open sores that develop on the inside lining of your stomach and the upper portion of your small intestine. It occurs when stomach acid damages the lining of the digestive tract. Common causes include the bacteria H. Pylori and anti-inflammatory pain relievers including aspirin. Two types of the condition are:

  • Gastric. You get this on your stomach lining or also known as the first part of the small intestine
  • Duodenal. This appears at the top end of the small intestine, an organ that digests and absorbs much of the food you eat.

Stomach acid makes the pain worse, as does having an empty stomach. The pain can often be relieved by eating certain foods that control stomach acid or by taking an acid-reducing medication.

abdominal pain

Signs and Symptoms

  • Burning stomach pain
  • Nausea and heartburn
  • Feeling of fullness
  • Bloating or belching
  • Intolerance to fatty foods

Less occurring but severe symptoms include:

  • Vomiting or vomiting blood 
  • Dark blood in stools
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Appetite changes
  • Dark and tarry stools
  • Trouble breathing
  • Fainting 
  • Severe nausea or vomiting

If you have any of the severe symptoms listed above, see your doctor immediately. See your doctor if over-the-counter antacids and acid blockers don’t relieve your pain.

What Causes Peptic Ulcer?

It occurs when acid in the digestive tract eats away at the inner surface of the stomach or small intestine. The acid can create a painful open sore that may bleed. A mucous layer covers the digestive tract and protects it from acid. Ulcers may develop if there is an increase in acid or a decrease in mucus. Other causes include:

  • A bacterium. H. pylori bacteria commonly live in the mucous layer that covers and protects tissues that line the stomach and small intestine. It can cause inflammation of the stomach’s inner layer, producing an ulcer.
  • Use of pain relievers. Taking aspirin, as well as certain over-the-counter and prescription pain medications called NSAIDs can irritate or inflame the lining of your stomach and small intestine.
  • Other medications. Taking NSAIDs along with steroids, SSRIs, and anticoagulants can also cause or trigger your stomach acid to cause the condition.
Blood tests

How to Diagnose Peptic Ulcer?

To determine the diagnosis, your doctor will ask about your medical history and perform physical and diagnostic tests such as:

  1. Endoscopy. Your doctor may use a scope to examine your upper digestive system to look for ulcers. Endoscopies are more likely to be recommended if you are older, have bleeding issues, have lost weight recently, or have trouble swallowing and eating.
  2. Upper gastrointestinal series. The upper digestive system is scanned with X-rays to create images of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine.
  3. Laboratory tests for H. pylori. Your doctor may recommend tests to determine whether the bacterium H. pylori is present in your body. This is determined using a blood, stool, or breath test. The breath test is the most accurate. If you are taking an antacid before the testing for H. pylori, make sure to let your doctor know. 

Treatment and Management of Peptic Ulcer

The treatment for this condition focuses on dealing with the cause such as the H.pylori bacteria and reducing discomfort using pain relievers. Antibiotic medications are used to kill the bacteria along with medications that block the production of stomach acids.

Medication Used for Peptic Ulcer

Cimetidine. It is used to treat ulcers of the stomach and intestines and prevent them from coming back after they have healed. It works by reducing the amount of acid in your stomach. This medication is also available without a prescription.

smoking cigarettes

Lifestyle and Home Remedies for Peptic Ulcer

  • Consider switching pain relievers if you use pain relievers regularly. Opt for Tylenol than NSAIDs. 
  • Control stress because it can worsen the signs and symptoms of your condition. 
  • Don’t smoke because it can interfere with the protective lining of the stomach, making your stomach more susceptible to the development of inflammation.
  • Limit or avoid alcohol because it can irritate and wear down the mucous lining in your stomach and intestines which leads to bleeding. 

Pseudomonas: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

What is Pseudomonas?

A pseudomonas infection is caused by a bacterium of the Genus Pseudomonas. The bacteria are found widely in the environment, such as in soil, water, and plants. They usually do not cause infections in healthy people. It is more likely that people will contract a severe infection if they are already hospitalized with another illness or condition, or if they have a weak immune system. These are fairly common microorganisms involved in infections acquired in a hospital setting. 

gardening Man hands covered in soil

How Does Pseudomonas Infection Spread?

It lives in the environment and can be spread to people in healthcare settings when they are exposed to water or soil that is contaminated with these microorganisms. Resistant strains of the bacteria can also spread in healthcare settings from one person to another through contaminated hands, equipment, or surfaces.

Signs and Symptoms?

Specific symptoms depend on where the infection occurs. Watch out for the following:

Blood

A blood infection is one of the most severe infections caused by this condition. Symptoms may include:

Lungs

Infection of the lungs is called pneumonia. Symptoms include:

  • Fever and chills
  • Cough with or without sputum production
  • Difficulty breathing

Skin

When this bacterium infects the skin, it most often affects the hair follicles. Symptoms may include:

  • Abscess formation in the skin
  • Redness of the skin
  • Draining wounds

Ear

An external ear canal infection may sometimes be caused by this condition. Symptoms may include:

  • Ear pain
  • Itching inside the air
  • Difficulty hearing
  • Discharge from the ear
  • Swelling

Eye

Symptoms of an eye infection may include:

  • Inflammation
  • Pus and pain
  • Swelling and redness
  • Impaired vision

What Causes Pseudomonas? 

These infections are caused by a free-living bacterium from the Genus Pseudomonas. They are commonly found in moist areas such as soil and water. The bacteria can be spread in hospitals via the hands of healthcare workers, or by clinic equipment that is not properly cleaned. These infections are considered opportunistic infections as it affects a person’s immune system that is already impaired. Your risks of getting the condition increase if you:

  • Have burn wounds
  • Are receiving chemotherapy for cancer
  • Have cystic fibrosis
  • Have HIV or AIDS
  • You are using a mechanical ventilator or catheter
  • Are undergoing an invasive procedure, like a surgery

Treatment and Management of Pseudomonas

These infections are treated with antibiotics. Unfortunately, many infections are becoming more difficult to treat. Antibiotics are no match for these bacteria, as they have developed the ability to adapt to their environment and overcome them. This is called antibiotic resistance.

The increase in antibiotic resistance has made treating infections much more challenging. Oftentimes, it develops resistance to multiple types of antibiotics and can even develop resistance during treatment. Your medical provider must select the right antibiotic and other medications for you. To do this, your doctor may recommend further laboratory testing to determine which medications work best.

Diagnosis for Hypersexuality

How to Diagnose Pseudomonas?

A doctor might ask about recent activities that might help diagnose the infection, like swimming or using a hot tub. They will also carry out a physical examination or take samples of blood or fluid from the affected area to confirm a diagnosis. It may also be necessary to conduct laboratory tests to determine the best course of treatment since there are different types of bacteria.

Medications Used for Pseudomonas Infection

Ciprofloxacin Dexamethasone Otic. It has high potency and rapid bactericidal activity and a long post-antibiotic effect on certain bacterial infections. It exhibits a low frequency of mutational resistance. Ciprofloxacin is in a class of medications called quinolone antibiotics. Dexamethasone is in a class of medications called corticosteroids.

The combination of ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone works by killing the bacteria that cause infection and reducing swelling. Before using this medication ensure to tell your doctor about your allergies and other conditions. Inform your doctor about the prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take.

Use Desloratadine to Fight Allergies

What is Desloratadine?

Desloratadine is an antihistamine used to relieve allergy symptoms. It is also used to treat skin hives and itching in people with chronic skin reactions. Ingestion of this medication does not cause drowsiness like other drugs in the same category. You can easily buy desloratadine online or through your local pharmacy. It belongs to a group of medications called antihistamines that stops the effects of histamine, a chemical that causes allergy symptoms. Talk to your doctor about the benefits and other recommendations of this drug. 

How Does Desloratidine Works?

It works by preventing the effects of a substance called histamine, which is produced by the body. Histamine can cause itching, sneezing, runny nose, and watery eyes. Also, in some cases, histamine can close up the air passages of the lungs and make breathing difficult. Histamine can also cause some persons to have hives, with severe itching of the skin.

Usage, Dosage, and Storage

It is an antihistamine used to relieve symptoms of hives in the skin and hay fever. Take this medication by mouth with a glass of water. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully. Take it as exactly as directed avoid having more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.

If you are using the rapidly-dissolving tablet, allow the tablet to dissolve on the tongue and then swallow, with or without water. If you are using the liquid form of this medication, carefully measure the dose using a special measuring device or spoon.

If you miss a dose, take the medicine as soon as you can, but skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next dose. Do not take two doses at one time. Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed.

Storage Instructions of Desloratadine

  • Keep out of reach and sight of children.
  • Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.
  • Avoid direct exposure to sunlight.
  • Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.
  • ​Keep this medicine in its original container until use. ​
  • To protect young children from poisoning, always lock safety caps and immediately place the medication in a safe location.
abdominal pain

What are the Side Effects of Desloratadine?

  • Sore throat
  • Nausea and tiredness
  • Stomach upset
  • Muscle pain may also occur
  • Fever and loss of appetite
  • Diarrhea or trouble 

Get medical help if you experience symptoms of drug allergies such as:

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

When to Seek Immediate Medical Attention?

In case of allergic reactions or serious side effects such as fast or irregular heartbeat, inability to sleep, muscle pain, hallucinations, seizures, or restlessness with increased body movements. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if any of the side effects become serious, or if you notice any that are not listed in this leaflet. Consult a doctor if the condition worsens or does not improve after 14 days of use.

Doctor-prescribing-Alfuzosin-HCL

Warnings Before Taking Desloratadine

Before taking desloratadine:

  • Inform your doctor if you are allergic to its ingredients. 
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take.
  • Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects if you are taking other prescriptions.
  • Tell your doctor if you have or have ever had kidney or liver disease.
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding. 
  • Be sure to inform your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking, have recently taken, or plan to take other medications, nutritional supplements, or herbal products.

Use Cyproheptadine to Fight Allergies

What is Cyproheptadine?

Cyproheptadine is an antihistamine that reduces the effects of the natural chemical histamine in the body. It is used to treat a variety of allergic conditions. This medication comes in both tablet and syrup forms and can be used in people ages 2 and older. However, this is not commonly used because it causes more drowsiness and other side effects compared to other allergy medications. 

symptoms of Pet Allergy

Common Types of Allergies

  1. Pollen allergy. It is an airborne allergy caused by changes in season. It is one of the most common types of aversion.
  2. Pet allergy. It is an allergic reaction to proteins found in an animal’s skin cells, saliva, or urine.
  3. Food allergy. It is an immune system reaction that occurs soon after eating a certain food.
  4. Drug allergy. It is the reaction of the immune system to a medicine regardless if it is a prescription or non-prescription drug.

Usage, Dosage, and Storage

Cyproheptadine is used to treat sneezing, runny nose, itching, red or watery eyes, and other symptoms of seasonal allergies. This is also prescribed to treat other conditions such as eczema or skin reactions to insect bites and is sometimes used to treat certain types of headaches, including migraines.

The dosage of this medication depends on your condition or age. Your doctor may change your dosage to get the best results. Avoid taking this medication in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. To get the proper amount for a liquid prescription, use the syringe provided, or a special dose-measuring spoon or medicine cup. 

If you miss a dose, take the missed dose as soon as you remember but skip it if is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up for the missed dose. Avoid drinking alcohol with this medicine because it can interfere with recovery and may cause other health risks.

Storage  of Cyproheptadine

Store Cyproheptadine in a cool dry place or away from direct sunlight and moisture. Avoid putting this in the freezer or hot temperature to prevent the solution from spoiling. Keep away from the reach of children and pets.

Dosage Instructions for Children and Adults

  • Age 7 to 14 years. The usual dose is 4 mg two or three times a day, adjusted as necessary to the size and response of the patient. The dose is not to exceed 16 mg a day.
  • Age 2 to 6 years. The usual dose is 2 mg two or three times a day, adjusted as necessary to the size and response of the patient. The dose is not to exceed 12 mg a day.
  • Adults. The total daily dose for adults should not exceed 0.5 mg. The therapeutic range is 4 to 20 mg a day, with the majority of patients requiring 12 to 16 mg a day.

Side Effects of Cyproheptadine

  • Drowsiness or dizziness
  • Dry mouth, throat, nose, or mouth
  • Blurry vision or constipation
  • Restlessness in children
Epilepsy
Epilepsy

Rare side effects  of Cyproheptadine that may need medical attention include:

  • A light-headed feeling
  • Seizure and convulsions
  • Little or no urination
  • Fast or pounding heartbeats
  • A feeling of passing out
  • Easy bruising or bleeding
  • Ringing in your ears
  • Pale or yellowed skin
  • Dark colored urine
  • Fever and weakness

Warnings and Precautions When Taking Cyproheptadine

  • You should inform your doctor if you have narrow-angle glaucoma, a stomach ulcer or obstruction, an enlarged prostate, urination problems, or if you are having an asthma attack as this medication is not advisable for these conditions.
  • This medication is not permissible if you are breastfeeding a baby, if you are elderly, or if you have a debilitating disease unless given by a doctor for emergency reasons.
  • This medicine can cause you to have a false positive drug screening test. If you provide a urine sample for drug screening, tell the laboratory staff that you are taking this medicine.
  • You should not use antihistamine medication to make a child sleepy.
  • Tell your doctor if you have changes in weight caused by the prescription.
  • Ensure to complete the treatment period noted by your doctor. Avoid stopping abruptly.

Bacterial Infection Gone With Amoxicillin

What is Amoxicillin?

Amoxicillin is a penicillin antibiotic that fights bacteria. It is used to treat many different types of infections caused by bacteria. It is also sometimes used together with another medication called clarithromycin to treat stomach ulcers caused by H.pylori infection

Examples of Bacterial Infections

strep throat
  • Tonsillitis. It is an inflammation of the tonsils caused by a viral infection and or bacterial infection. Tonsillitis is a common condition in children, teenagers, and young adults. 
  • Urinary tract infection. UTI is an infection in any part of the urinary system such as the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Most infections involve the bladder and the urethra.
  • Bronchitis. It is an infection of the main airways of the lungs causing them to become irritated and inflamed. Symptoms include cough, which may bring up yellow-grey mucus. 
  • Pneumonia. It is an infection that inflames the air sacs in the lungs. The air sacs may fill with fluid or pus that causes cough with phlegm, fever, and chills. A variety of organisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi, can cause pneumonia.

Other bacterial infections that occur in the ear, nose, throat, and skin are also treated with this medication along with other prescriptions given by doctors.

Usage, Dosage, and Storage

You can take it by mouth with a glass of water. It is permissible either before or after a meal. Avoid chewing or breaking the tablet. If you forget to take a dose, take it as soon as you remember unless it’s nearly time for your next dose. In this case, just leave out the missed dose and take your next dose at the usual time. Avoid taking two tablets at the same time as it leads to overdoing and other risks.

The dose of this medicine varies from person to person depending on your condition. Follow your doctor’s orders or the directions on the label that includes information on the average doses of this medicine. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.

For the treatment of gonorrhea, the quantity is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 50 milligrams per kilogram of body weight per day, combined with other single-dose medication.

Storage of Amoxicillin

  • Ask your healthcare professional how you should dispose of any medicine you do not use.
  • Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light, and keep from freezing.
  • Keep out of the reach of children.
  • You may store the oral liquid in the refrigerator. Throw away any unused medicine after 14 days. Do not freeze.
  • Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.
  • To protect young children from poisoning, always lock safety caps and immediately place the medication in a safe location
itchy skin

Side Effects of Amoxicillin?

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea and changes in taste
  • Headache and rashes
  • Itching and skin blisters
  • Peeling and hives
  • Wheezing and difficulty swallowing or breathing
  • Swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, and eyes

Seek immediate help if you or your child experience any severe symptoms such as:

  • Cloudy or bloody urine
  • Decreased urination
  • Swelling of any part of the body
  • Confusion
  • Severe nausea and vomiting
  • Severe diarrhea that may occur with or without fever and stomach cramps 

How to Cope With the Side Effects of Amoxicillin?

Stick to simple meals if you feel nauseous and do not eat rich or spicy food. It might help to take your medicine after a meal or snack. For diarrhea, drink plenty of fluids, such as water to avoid dehydration. Signs of dehydration include peeing less than usual or having dark, strong-smelling pee.

Precautions When Taking Amoxicillin

  • If your or your child’s symptoms do not improve within a few days check with your doctor.
  • This medicine may cause a serious allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. Call your doctor right away if you have a skin rash, shortness of breath, and trouble breathing.
  • It may cause diarrhea, and in some cases, it can be severe. Do not take any medicine or give medicine to your child to treat diarrhea without first checking with your doctor. 
  • In some young patients, tooth discoloration may occur while using this medicine. 
  • Birth control pills may not work while you are using this medicine. 
  • Do not take other medicines unless they have been discussed with your doctor. 

Hives: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Hives are a skin reaction that causes itchy welts. It often starts as itchy patches that turn into swollen welts that vary in size. These swellings appear and fade at random as the reaction runs its course. Chronic hives can be very uncomfortable and interfere with sleep and daily activities. 

symptoms of food allergy

Signs and Symptoms?

  • Batches of swellings can arise anywhere on the body
  • Ridges that might be red, purple or skin-coloured
  • Swellings that vary in size
  • Welts that appear and fade repeatedly
  • Itchiness which can be intense
  • Painful swelling around the lips, cheeks, and eyes
  • Flares triggered by heat, exercise or stress
  • Symptoms that persist for more than six weeks and recur often 

See your healthcare provider if you have severe conditions  that last for more than a few days. Seek emergency medical care if:

  • Chronic rashes do not put you at sudden risk of a serious allergic reaction
  • If you get this condition as part of a severe allergic reaction
  • You experience dizziness, trouble breathing
  • You experience severe swelling of the tongue, lips, mouth or throat

What Causes Hives?

The swellings that come with this reaction are caused by the release of immune system chemicals, such as histamine, into your bloodstream. The specific cause of this condition depends on their type such as:

  1. Physical urticaria. These are caused by something that stimulates the skin such as cold, heat, vibration, pressure, sun exposure, sweating, or exercise. It usually occurs right where the skin was stimulated and rarely appears elsewhere. 
  2. Dermatographism. This is a common form of physical urticaria where swelling or rashes form after firmly stroking or scratching the skin. It can also occur along with other forms of urticaria.
  3. Acute urticaria. These are rashes that last less than 6 weeks. The most common causes are foods, medications, and infections. The most common foods that cause rash are nuts, chocolate, fish, tomatoes, eggs, fresh berries, and milk. 
  4. Chronic urticaria. These are conditions that last more than 6 weeks. The cause is usually harder to identify than those causing acute urticaria. In some cases, the cause may be thyroid disease, hepatitis, infection, or cancer.

Are Hives contagious?

Unlike some other skin conditions, these are not contagious. But if you develop rashes because your skin is exposed to secretions from a plant like poison ivy, you can spread the allergenic product to others until you wash it off.

Blood tests

How to Diagnose Hives?

  • Skin tests. Your doctor will run tests for different allergens on your skin. If your skin turns red or swells, it means you’re allergic to that substance. 
  • Blood tests. It checks for specific antibodies in your blood. Your body makes antibodies to fight off allergens. If your body makes too many antibodies, you can develop rashes and swelling.

Your healthcare provider will likely talk with you about your symptoms and look at your skin. One of the effective features of this condition is that the welts come and go at random. You might be asked to keep a diary to keep track of:

  • What you eat and drink
  • Where hives appear and how long it takes a welt to fade
  • Your activities
  • Any medications including herbal remedies or supplements 
  • Whether your hives come with painful swelling

Treatment and Management of Hives

Treatment for chronic conditions often starts with nonprescription antihistamines. If these do not help, your doctor might suggest that you try one or more medications.

Medication Used for Hives

Loratadine. It is a medication used to treat various skin allergies. works by selectively antagonizing peripheral H1 histamine receptors. It works effectively, with the results showing immediately after taking the pill.

Lifestyle and Home Remedies for Hives

  • Soothe the skin by covering the itchy area with a cold washcloth or rubbing an ice cube over it for a few minutes.
  • Apply an anti-itch cream or lotion with menthol for a soothing effect.
  • Avoid wearing clothing that’s rough, tight, scratchy or made from wool.
  • If you think a medication caused your welts, stop using it and contact your primary care provider. 
  • Use a nonprescription anti-itch drug to avoid drowsiness and may help ease itching. 
  • Protect your skin from the sun and apply sunscreen about a half hour before going outdoors. 
  • Avoid triggers that include foods, medications, pollen, pet dander, latex and insect stings.

Tonsillitis: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

What is Tonsillitis?

Tonsillitis is inflammation of the tonsils or the two oval-shaped pads of tissue at the back of the throat. Most cases of tonsillitis are caused by infection with a common virus. Bacterial infections may also cause inflammation of the tonsils.

Signs and Symptoms?

migraine with aura

This condition is common in children between preschool ages and the mid-teenage years. Symptoms include:

  • Red, swollen tonsils
  • Fever and bad breath
  • Enlarged, tender glands in the neck
  • White or yellow coating or patches on the tonsils
  • Sore throat
  • Difficult or painful swallowing
  • Neck pain or stiff neck
  • A scratchy, muffled, or throaty voice
  • Stomachache and headache

In young children signs may include:

  • Drooling due to difficult or painful swallowing
  • Refusal to eat
  • Unusual fussiness
  • Fever 

Call your doctor if your child is experiencing:

  • A sore throat with a fever
  • Extreme difficulty swallowing
  • Painful or difficult swallowing
  • Excessive drooling
  • Extreme fussiness, weakness, and fatigue
  • Difficulty breathing

What Causes Tonsillitis?

It is caused by common viruses, but bacterial infections also can be the cause. The most common bacterium causing tonsillitis is Streptococcus Pyogenes which also causes strep throat. Other strains of strep and other bacteria also may cause this condition.

The tonsils are the immune system’s first line of defense against bacteria and viruses that enter your mouth. This function may make the tonsils particularly susceptible to infection and inflammation. However, the tonsil’s immune system function declines after puberty which becomes a factor that may cause such a condition in adults. 

Risk Factors of Tonsilitis

  • Age. It is most common at a young age or in children, and tonsillitis caused by bacteria is most common in children ages 5 to 15.
  • Frequent contact with germs. School-age children who are in close contact with their peers are more likely to get this condition.
Blood tests

How to Diagnose Tonsilitis?

A throat swab is a common method to diagnose the condition. Your doctor will rub a sterile swab over the back of your throat to get a sample of secretions. The sample will be checked in the clinic or a lab for streptococcal bacteria. 

A Complete blood cell count also helps with the diagnosis. Doctors will recommend this to determine what’s elevated, what’s normal, or what’s below normal can indicate whether an infection is more likely caused by a bacterial or viral agent. 

Treatment and Management of Tonsillitis

Treatment of this condition depends on the causes and severity. If it is caused by a bacterial infection, your doctor will prescribe a course of antibiotics. Failure to take all of the medication as directed may result in the infection worsening or spreading to other parts of the body. Not completing the full course of antibiotics can, in particular, increase your child’s risk of rheumatic fever.

Medication Used for Tonsilitis

Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium. It is an antibiotic in the class of drugs called penicillins that fights bacteria in your body to treat many different types of infections. It acts as a beta-lactase inhibitor that prevents the bacteria from developing resistance to Amoxicillin. The combination of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium is very powerful and protects against a wide range of bacterial infections.

Home Remedies for Tonsilitis

At-home care remedies to use during the recovery time include the following:

  • Keep your home free from cigarette smoke and cleaning products that can irritate the throat.
  • Encourage your child to get plenty of sleep.
  • Provide adequate fluids to keep the throat moist and prevent dehydration.
  • Use a cool-air humidifier to eliminate dry air that may further irritate a sore throat.
  • Sit with your child for several minutes in a steamy bathroom.
  • Providing comforting foods and liquids such as broth, caffeine-free tea or warm water can help.  Cold treats like ice pops can soothe a sore throat and other symptoms.
  • If your child can gargle, a saltwater gargle can help soothe a sore throat. Have your child gargle the solution and then spit it out.
  • Talk to your doctor about using ibuprofen to minimize throat pain and control fever. Low fevers without pain do not require treatment.

Hay Fever: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

What is Hay Fever?

Hay fever is an allergic reaction to pollen when it comes into contact with your mouth, throat, or nose, and throat. Pollen is a fine powder from plants. The proper name for this condition is allergic rhinitis, which means inflammation inside your nose.

stuffy nose

Signs and Symptoms?

  • Runny nose and nasal stuffiness 
  • Allergic conjunctivitis
  • Watery, itchy, red eyes 
  • Sneezing and coughing
  • Itchy nose including the roof of mouth or throat
  • Mucus that runs down the back of your throat
  • Allergic shiners or swollen and bruised-appearing under the eyes
  • Extreme tiredness due to poor sleep

What Causes Hay Fever?

When you have hay fever, your immune system mistakenly identifies a harmless airborne substance as being harmful. It causes your immune system to protect protects itself, so it produces immunoglobulin E antibodies to protect against this allergen. The next time you come in contact with the allergen, these antibodies signal your immune system to release chemicals such as histamine into your bloodstream. This causes a reaction that leads to the symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Other causes and risk factors include:

  • Having other allergies or asthma
  • Living or working in a setting that constantly exposes you to allergens
  • Exposure to animal dander or dust mites
  • Being exposed to smoke and strong odors 
  • Having a condition called atopic dermatitis or eczema, which makes your skin irritated and itchy
  • Having a blood relative, such as a parent or sibling, with allergies or asthma
  • Other triggers that irritate the lining of the nose
Blood tests 

Diagnosing Hay Fever

  • Skin prick test. Small amounts of material that can trigger allergies are pricked into patches of skin on your arm or upper back. If you are allergic, you develop a hive at the site of that allergen. This typically takes about 15 to 20 minutes. 
  • Allergy blood test. A blood sample will help measure your immune system’s response to a specific allergen. This test measures the amount of allergy-causing antibodies in your bloodstream, known as immunoglobulin E antibodies.

Treatment and Management of Hay Fever

The best treatment is to limit your exposure to substances that cause your condition. If your hay fever is not severe, your doctor may recommend medications. You can also buy without a prescription may be enough to relieve symptoms. For worse symptoms, you may need prescription medications.

Recommended Medications for Hay Fever

  1. Budesonide Nasal Spray. It is used to treat allergies and other nasal symptoms. In hay fever, inflammation is a notable symptom. The nasal passages are affected and cause trouble breathing. Budesonide Nasal Spray acts on multiple sites of the inflammatory cascade and helps in reducing the irritation.
  2. Cetirizine HCL. It treats symptoms such as sneezing, itching, and rashes produced during an allergic reaction due to the histamine released by the body. Due to the efficacy of the drug, it has become very popular the world over and is one of the most widely used drugs for the treatment of allergies.

Immunotherapy for Hay Fever

Immunotherapy might be especially effective if you’re allergic to animal dander, dust mites, or pollen. In children, immunotherapy may help prevent asthma.  Doctors will recommend allergy shots to change the way the immune system reacts to allergens. Aside from allergy shots, some physician also recommends taking tiny amounts of allergen in pill form that dissolves in your mouth. Pills are usually taken daily. 

Lifestyle and Home Remedies

Reduce your symptoms by limiting your exposure to the typical triggers by knowing what you are allergic to. For pollen or mold, aversion ensure avoiding outdoor activity in the early morning, when pollen counts are highest, and also on high pollen-count days.

Consider removing carpeting, especially where you sleep, if you are highly sensitive to dust mites. Keep pets out of your home or bathe them regularly to avoid attacks caused by pet danders. Talk to your doctor if you are considering taking alternative or herbal medications.

Asthma: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

What is Asthma?

Asthma is a disease that affects your lungs and is one of the most common long-term conditions in children. It causes wheezing, coughing, and chest tightness. If you have asthma, you have it all the time, but you will have attacks only when something troubles your lungs.

Chest pain

Signs and Symptoms?

  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest tightness or pain
  • Wheezing when exhaling especially in children
  • Trouble sleeping 
  • Coughing or wheezing attacks that are worsened by a respiratory virus

Signs of worsening condition:

  • More frequent and bothersome symptoms
  • Increasing difficulty breathing
  • The need to use an inhaler more often

What Causes Asthma?

There is no specific cause of this condition but there are typical triggers that can kickstart its attack. Some causes are due to a combination of environmental and inherited factors. Other trigger includes:

  • Exposure to several irritants and substances that trigger allergies 
  • Airborne allergens, such as pet dander, pollen, dust mites, mold spores, and waste particles.
  • Respiratory infections, such as the common cold
  • Cold air and physical activity
  • Smoke and other air pollutants
  • Strong emotions and stress
  • Sulfites and preservatives added to some types of foods and beverages, including shrimp
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease 

Watch out for these factors that increase your risk of developing or triggering an attack. They include:

  • Genetic factors
  • Obesity or overweight
  • Smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke
  • Exposure to exhaust fumes or other types of pollution
  • Exposure to occupational triggers, such as chemicals used in farming, hairdressing, and manufacturing

Treatment and Management of Asthma

Attacks can be prevented and controlled long-term. Symptoms are usually controlled by learning your triggers, avoiding triggers, and tracking your breathing to ensure your medications are working. In case of an asthma flare-up, you may need to use a quick-relief inhaler.

The right medications for you depend on your age, symptoms, triggers, and what works best to keep your condition under control. Inflammation of your airways leads to symptoms when you take preventative, long-term control medications. Quick-relief inhalers quickly open swollen airways that are limiting breathing. In some cases, allergy medications are necessary.

Medication Used for Asthma

Albuterol relieves bronchospasm associated with asthma and chronic pulmonary diseases. It works by dilating the bronchial muscles and acts upon the airways by opening the breathing passages. It also relaxes the muscles of the breathing passages, thereby allowing a smooth flow of air and relieving the difficulties in breathing.

losing weight

Lifestyle and Home Remedies for Asthma

Taking steps to reduce your exposure to its triggers is a key part of the control. You can prevent its attack through lifestyle and home remedies, especially for patients who have a chronic condition.

  • Maintain optimal humidity. If you live in a damp climate, talk to your doctor about using a dehumidifier.
  • Prevent mold spores. Clean damp areas in the bathroom, kitchen, and around the house to keep mold spores from developing. Get rid of moldy leaves or damp firewood in the yard.
  • Use air filters or filtered air conditioner. To reduce your exposure, you should use your air conditioner to reduce the amount of airborne pollen from trees, grasses, and weeds that find their way indoors. 
  • Decontaminate your decor. By replacing certain items in your bedroom, you can minimize the dust that may worsen nighttime symptoms. 
  • Get regular exercise. You can relieve symptoms by exercising regularly, which strengthens your heart and lungs. If you exercise in cold temperatures, wear a face mask to warm the air you breathe.
  • Maintain a healthy weight. Being overweight can worsen its symptoms, and it puts you at a higher risk of other health problems.
  • Reduce pet dander. Avoid pets with fur or feathers if you are allergic to dander. Having pets regularly bathed or groomed may also reduce the amount of dander in your surroundings.
  • Cover your nose and mouth if it’s cold out. If your condition is worsened by cold or dry air, wearing a face mask can help.
  • Control heartburn and GERD. If you have frequent or constant heartburn, talk to your doctor about treatment options. You may need treatment for GERD before your symptoms improve.

Depression: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

What is Depression?

Clinical depression is a serious condition that negatively affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. It is persistent and often with a person’s ability to experience or anticipate pleasure. If inadequately treated, depression can lead to significant impairment, other health-related issues, and in rare cases, suicide. 

Anxiety and stress

Signs and Symptoms?

  • Feelings of sadness, tearfulness, emptiness, or hopelessness
  • Angry upsurges, irritability, or frustration, even over small matters
  • Loss of attentiveness or pleasure in most or all usual activities and sports
  • Trouble thinking, concentrating, making decisions, and remembering things
  • Reduced appetite and weight loss or increased cravings for food and weight gain
  • Anxiety, agitation, and restlessness
  • Sleep disturbances, including insomnia or sleeping too much
  • Tiredness and lack of energy
  • Slowed thinking, body movements, and speaking
  • Feelings of worthlessness or guilt, fixating on past failures or self-blame
  • Frequent or recurring thoughts of death, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, or  worst suicide
  • Unexplained physical problems, such as back pain or headaches

Depression symptoms in children and teens

  • It can cause sadness, irritability, clinginess, worry, aches, pains, refusal to go to school, or being underweight in children.
  • Teenagers may experience sadness, irritability, feelings of negative and worthlessness, anger, poor school performance or poor attendance, feeling misunderstood and extremely sensitive, using recreational drugs or alcohol, eating or sleeping too much, self-harm, loss of interest in normal activities, and avoidance of social interactions.

Depression symptoms in older adults

man with ear rings sad by the glass

Despair is not a normal part of growing older, and it should never be taken lightly. Unfortunately, this condition often goes undiagnosed and untreated in older adults. Symptoms of this condition may be different or less obvious in older adults, such as:

  • Physical aches or pain
  • Suicidal thinking or feelings, especially in older men
  • Fatigue, loss of appetite, sleep problems, or loss of interest in sex 
  • Memory difficulties or personality changes
  • Often wanting to stay at home, rather than go out to socialize or do new things

What Causes Depression?

  • Life events. It can be caused by stress, the death of a loved one, upsetting events, isolation, and a lack of support.
  • Medication. Recreational drugs and alcohol can also cause depression or make it worse.
  • Brain chemistry. It may be caused by abnormal brain chemical levels.
  • Genetics. If you have a relative with depression, you may be more likely to become depressed.
  • Personality. An individual who has trouble coping or is easily overwhelmed may be prone to depression.
  • Medical conditions. Depression and diabetes are common, as are cancer and Parkinson’s disease.

Treatment and Management of Depression

Medications and psychotherapy are effective for most people with depression. However, many people with this condition also benefit from seeing a psychiatrist, psychologist, or other mental health professional. Other treatments are Electroconvulsive therapy and transcranial magnetic stimulation. In ECT, electrical currents are passed through the brain to impact the function and effect of neurotransmitters in your brain to relieve the condition. TMS, on the other hand, can be an option for those who haven’t responded to antidepressants. 

Medication Used for Depression

Citalopram is an effective drug to treat major depression associated with mood disorders. This is also used as a medication for panic disorders and anxiety. This prescription belongs to Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors which work by restoring the balance of those neurotransmitters that are responsible for producing anxiety and mood changes.

Lifestyle and Home Remedies for Depression

  • Pay attention to warning signs. Work with your doctor or therapist to learn what might trigger your depression symptoms. Make a plan so that you know what to do if your symptoms get worse. 
  • Avoid alcohol and recreational drugs. Even though alcohol and drugs seem to lessen the symptoms, in the long run, they worsen them. 
  • Stick to your treatment plan. Don’t skip psychotherapy sessions or appointments.
  • Learn about your condition. Education about your condition can empower you and motivate you to stick to your treatment plan.
  • Take care of yourself. Eat healthily, be physically active and get plenty of sleep. Walk, jog, swim, garden or do something else you enjoy.

Dementia: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Dementia is a term used to describe a group of symptoms that affects memory, thinking, and social abilities severely enough to interfere with your daily life. Though dementia generally involves memory loss, memory loss has different causes. Having memory loss alone doesn’t mean you have dementia, although it’s often one of the early signs of the condition.

What is Dementia?

Dementia is currently the seventh leading cause of death among all diseases and one of the major causes of disability and dependency among older people worldwide. The condition has physical, psychological, social, and economic impacts, not only for people living with dementia but also for their carers, families, and society at large. 

Dementia is a syndrome, usually of a chronic or progressive nature that leads to deterioration in cognitive function beyond what might be expected from the usual consequences of biological aging. It affects thinking, memory, comprehension, orientation, calculation, language, learning capacity, and judgment. 

Signs and Symptoms

Old woman in a wheelchair sitting by a Christmas tree

Dementia affects each person differently, depending upon the underlying causes, other health conditions, and the person’s cognitive functioning before becoming ill. The signs and symptoms can be understood in three stages.

Early stage: Dementia is often overlooked because the onset is gradual. Common symptoms may include:

  • Forgetfulness
  • Losing track of the time
  • Becoming lost in familiar places.

Middle stage: The signs and symptoms become clearer and may include:

  • Having increasing difficulty with communication
  • Needing help with personal care
  • Becoming forgetful of recent events and people’s names
  • Becoming confused while at home
  • Experiencing behavior changes, including wandering and repeated questioning

Late stage: The late stage of dementia is one of near total dependence and inactivity. Memory disturbances are serious and the physical signs and symptoms become more obvious and may include:

  • Experiencing behavior changes that may escalate and include aggression.
  • Becoming unaware of the time and place
  • Having difficulty recognizing relatives and friends
  • Having difficulty walking
  • Having an increasing need for assisted self-care

Stages and Causes of Dementia

Dementia is caused by damage to brain cells. This damage interferes with the ability of brain cells to communicate with each other. When brain cells cannot communicate normally, thinking, behavior, and feelings can be affected. The brain has many distinct regions, each of which is responsible for different functions. When cells in a particular region are damaged, that region cannot carry out its functions normally.

Usually, dementia goes through these stages. But it may vary depending on the area of the brain that’s affected.

1. No impairment. Someone at this stage will show no symptoms, but tests may reveal a problem.

2. Very mild decline. You may notice slight changes in behavior, but still independent.

3. Mild decline. You’ll notice more changes in their thinking and reasoning. They may have trouble making plans and may repeat themselves a lot. They may also have a hard time remembering recent events.

4. Moderate decline. They’ll have more problems with making plans and remembering recent events. 

5. Moderately severe decline. They may not remember their phone number or their grandchildren’s names. They may be confused about the time of day or day of the week. At this point, they’ll need assistance with some basic day-to-day functions. 

6. Severe decline. They’ll begin to forget the name of their spouse. They’ll need help going to the restroom and eating. You may also see changes in their personality and emotions. 

7. Very severe decline. They can no longer speak their thoughts. They can’t walk and will spend most of their time in bed.

Treatment and Management of Dementia

To treat dementia, doctors will treat whatever is causing it. If the cause of a person’s dementia is not reversible, treatment will focus on managing symptoms, particularly agitation and other emotional concerns.

If your loved one is in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease, the most common form of dementia, their doctor may prescribe this monthly infusion. It’s a monoclonal antibody that lessens the build-up of things called amyloid plaques in your brain. These plaques are part of what leads to the memory loss associated with Alzheimer’s disease.

Medicines such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can sometimes help to slow the progression of cognitive changes, but quite often the effects of medicines are only modest and cannot prevent the eventual worsening of the underlying condition.

Recommended medicine:

  • Memantine HCI – this drug works by blocking the action of a certain natural substance in the brain that is believed to be linked to symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. 

Parkinson’s Disease: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Parkinson’s disease is a progressive disorder that affects the nervous system and the parts of the body controlled by the nerves. Symptoms start slowly. In the early stages of Parkinson’s disease, your face may show little or no expression. Your arms may not swing when you walk. The disease may be improved with medications. 

What is Parkinson’s disease?

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a type of movement disorder that can affect the ability to perform daily activities. It is characterized by its most common motor symptoms, tremors, stiffness or rigidity of the muscles, and slowness of movement. Also, it manifests in non-motor symptoms including sleep problems, constipation, anxiety, depression, and fatigue.

mans hand showing his palms

Signs and Symptoms

The known symptoms of Parkinson’s disease involve loss of muscle control. However, experts now know that muscle control-related issues aren’t the only possible symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.

Motor-related symptoms:

  • Slowed movements (bradykinesia)
  • A tremor
  • Rigidity or stiffness
  • Unstable posture or walking gait

Additional motor symptoms can include:

  • Blinking less often than usual
  • Cramped or small handwriting
  • Drooling
  • Mask-like facial expression
  • Trouble swallowing (dysphagia)
  • Unusually soft speaking voice (hypophonia)

Non-motor symptoms:

  • Autonomic nervous system symptoms
  • Depression
  • Loss of sense of smell 
  • Sleep problems such as periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), rapid eye movement (REM) behavior disorder, and restless legs syndrome.
  • Trouble thinking and focusing 

What causes Parkinson’s disease?

Parkinson’s disease is caused by a loss of nerve cells in a part of the brain called the substantia nigra. This leads to a reduction in a chemical called dopamine in the brain. Dopamine plays a vital role in regulating the movement of the body. A reduction in dopamine is responsible for many of the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.

Exactly what causes the loss of nerve cells is unclear. Most experts think that a combination of genetic and environmental factors is responsible.

Treatment and Management of Parkinson’s disease

There are currently no blood or laboratory tests to diagnose non-genetic cases of Parkinson’s. Doctors usually diagnose the disease by taking a person’s medical history and performing a neurological examination. If symptoms improve after starting to take medication, it’s another indicator that the person has Parkinson’s.

Several disorders can cause symptoms similar to those of Parkinson’s disease. People with Parkinson’s-like symptoms that result from other causes, such as multiple system atrophy and dementia with Lewy bodies are sometimes said to have Parkinsonism. While these disorders initially may be misdiagnosed as Parkinson’s, certain medical tests, as well as responses to drug treatment, may help to better evaluate the cause. Many other diseases have similar features but require different treatments, so it is important to get an accurate diagnosis as soon as possible.

While there is no cure for Parkinson’s at this time, there are several treatments that can ease symptoms. The medications are the mainstay of treatment, but modalities are often used in combination. Physical, occupational, and speech therapy can be critical to the treatment plan. Surgical options also have an important role for a subset of patients with the disease. Lastly, complementary therapies can be used to treat some Parkinson’s disease symptoms. Your physician and other healthcare professionals can help you determine the best treatment plan for your symptoms.

Medications Used For Kidney Infection

Recommended medication that can be used to manage Parkinson’s disease:

  • Ropinirole Hydrochloride – this medication can be used alone or in combination with other medications to treat the disease. The drug helps improve symptoms of the disease such as the ability to move and decrease shakiness, stiffness, slowed movement, and unsteadiness. It may also decrease the number of episodes of not being able to move. 

The doctor may prescribe other medicines to treat Parkinson’s symptoms, including:

  • Dopamine agonists stimulate the production of dopamine in the brain
  • Enzyme inhibitors increase the amount of dopamine by slowing down the enzymes that break down dopamine in the brain
  • Amantadine to help reduce involuntary movements
  • Anticholinergic drugs to reduce tremors and muscle rigidity

Obesity: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Obesity is a complex disease involving an excessive amount of body fat. It isn’t just a cosmetic concern. It’s a medical problem that increases the risk of other diseases and health problems such as heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure. There are many reasons why some people have difficulty losing weight. Usually, obesity results from inherited, physiological and environmental factors, combined with diet, physical activity, and exercise choices. 

What is Obesity?

Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a health risk. A body mass index (BMI) over 25 is considered overweight, and over 30 is obese. The issue has grown to epidemic proportions, with over 4 million people dying each year as a result of being obese in 2017 according to the global burden of disease. 

Obesity is one side of the double burden of malnutrition and today more people are obese than underweight. Once considered a problem only in high-income countries, overweight and obesity are now dramatically on the rise in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings. The vast majority of overweight or obese children live in developing countries, where the rate of increase has been more than 30% higher than that of developed countries. 

woman depressed in dark room

Signs and Symptoms

The most obvious symptom is the increase in weight therefore the symptoms that may be presented arise from this increase in weight that, among others, other symptoms may include:

  • Difficulty in sleeping
  • Back and joint pains
  • Excessive sweating
  • Intolerance to heat
  • Infections in skin folds
  • Fatigue
  • Depression 
  • The feeling of shortness of breath

The main signs also derive from the magnitude of the excess weight, the most common:

  • Acanthosis nigricans is a skin disorder characterized by the presence of hyperkeratosis and hyperpigmentation in the skin folds and armpits.
  • Stretch marks due to distension and rupture of the elastic fibers of the skin or vinous in the case of obesity due to endocrinological alteration.
  • Swelling and varicose veins in the lower limbs.
  • Waist circumference greater than 94 cm in men and 88 cm in women.
  • High blood pressure level > 140/90 mmHg.
  • Body Mass Index (BMI) greater than 30 kg/m2.

What Causes Obesity?

Several factors can play a role in gaining and retaining excess weight. These include diet, lack of exercise, environmental factors, and genetics.

  • Food and Activity. People gain weight when they eat more calories than they burn through activity. This imbalance is the greatest contributor to weight gain.
  • Genetics. Research shows that genetics plays a role in obesity. Genes can directly cause obesity in such disorders as Prader-Willi syndrome.
  • Health Conditions and Medications. Some hormone problems may cause overweight and obesity, such as underactive thyroid, Cushing syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome. Certain medicines also may cause weight gain, including some corticosteroids, antidepressants, and seizure medicines.
  • Stress, Emotional Factors, and Poor Sleep. Some people eat more than usual when they are bored, angry, upset, or stressed.
losing weight

Treatment and Management of Obesity

The best way to treat obesity is to eat a healthy, reduced-calorie diet, and exercise regularly. To do this you should:

  • Eat slowly and avoid situations where you know you could be tempted to overeat
  • Eat a balanced, calorie-controlled diet as recommended by your GP or weight loss management health professional 
  • Take up activities such as fast walking, jogging, swimming, or tennis for 150 to 300 minutes a week
  • Join a local weight loss group

You may also benefit from receiving psychological support from a trained healthcare professional to help change the way you think about food and eating. If lifestyle changes alone don’t help you lose weight, a medication called orlistat may be recommended. If taken correctly, this medication works by reducing the amount of fat you absorb during digestion. Your GP will know whether Orlistat is suitable for you. 

The drug is used with an individualized low-calorie, low-fat diet, and exercise program to help people lose weight. Orlistat is in a class of medications called lipase inhibitors. It works by preventing some of the fat in foods eaten from being absorbed in the intestines.

In rare cases, weight loss surgery may be recommended.

Genital Warts: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Genital warts are one of the most common types of sexually transmitted infections. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), HPV is the most common of all STIs. Everyone who is sexually active is vulnerable to complications of HPV, including genital warts.

What are Genital Warts?

Genital warts are similar to common warts but are usually found around or in the vagina, cervix, penis, scrotum, rectum, or the area between the vagina and rectum. They are soft, fleshy, small growths on the skin.

This condition is more contagious, or more easily spread, than other warts. They are spread by skin-to-skin contact. They may spread to other nearby parts of the body and they may be passed from person to person by sexual activity. The warts are usually first seen 1 to 6 months after you have been infected with HPV. However, you can be infected with HPV without having any visible warts.

Signs and Symptoms

Genital warts around the penis of a man

Genital warts are transmitted through sexual activity including oral, vaginal, and anal sex. You may not start to develop warts for several weeks or months after infection. It isn’t always visible to the human eye. They may be very small and the color of the skin or slightly darker. The top of the growths may resemble a cauliflower and may feel smooth or slightly bumpy to the touch. They may occur as a cluster of warts, or just one wart.

For people assigned male at birth, genital warts may appear in the following areas:

  • Groin
  • Thighs
  • Penis
  • Scrotum
  • Inside or around the anus

For people assigned female at birth, these warts may appear:

  • Outside of the vagina or anus
  • On the cervix
  • Inside of the vagina or anus

Genital warts may also appear on the lips, mouth, tongue, or throat of a person who has had oral sexual contact with a person who has HPV.

Even if you can’t see genital warts, they may still cause symptoms, such as:

  • Vaginal discharge
  • Itching
  • Bleeding
  • Burning

If genital warts spread or become enlarged, the condition can be uncomfortable or even painful.

What causes Genital Warts?

A genital wart appears on the skin around your genitals and anus. Certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause them. Some types of HPV can cause cancer, but those aren’t the same ones that result in genital warts.

HPV can be a challenging STD to understand. Most of the time, it will fade away on its own, but it is one of the most common STDs. Untreated high-risk HPV can sometimes develop into cancer. It is also possible to get warts on your vulva, vagina, cervix, rectum, anus, penis, or scrotum from other low-risk types of HPV. Genital warts are common. About 360,000 people get them each year.

Treatment and Management of Genital Warts

doctor holding laser to treat skin diseases

Depending on the severity, genital warts may disappear on their own, grow larger, or multiply. Genital warts can be removed in different ways. Getting rid of warts may require several treatments. Generally, an anesthetic will be administered first to numb the area being treated. Sexual contact should be avoided during treatment. Your healthcare provider may use one of these methods to treat genital warts:

  • Freezing: During cryotherapy, your provider applies the liquid nitrogen to freeze and destroy warts.
  • Electrocautery: An electric current burns away warts.
  • Laser treatment: A laser light destroys tiny blood vessels inside warts, cutting off their blood supply.
  • Topical medicine: Once a week for several weeks, you apply a prescription chemical solution to warts. The chemical causes blisters to form under warts, stopping blood flow. In some cases, your provider may apply the solution.
  • Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP): Your provider uses an electrically charged wire loop to remove warts. A provider may use this method to remove warts on a woman’s cervix.
  • Topical TCA solution: Your provider may also provide a prescription for a topical medical when appropriate that patient self-administers at home for some weeks as directed.
  • Surgery: Your provider may surgically cut out warts that are large or don’t respond to other treatments.

The recommended medicine for genital warts:

  • Imiquimod Cream – this is a drug that is topically administered. Imiquimod is in a class of medications called immune response modifiers. It treats genital and anal warts by increasing the activity of the body’s immune system.

Estradiol Valerate: Uses and Side Effects

What is Estradiol Valerate?

Estradiol valerate is a hormone replacement therapy used to treat the symptoms of osteoporosis, menopause, hypoestrogenism, and advanced androgen-dependent prostate carcinoma. Buy Estradiol Valerate online at a reasonable price.

How Does Estradiol Valerate Works?

Estradiol valerate works by enhancing the lowered levels of sex hormones in women who undergo peri and post-menopausal periods. Menopause is stopping a woman’s period after an entire span of 12 months without menstruation. This medication is rapidly oxidized in the liver to estrone, which is hydroxylated to form estriol.

All these three forms are found in the blood. It is the most potent of the three. Secreted in menstruating women under the influence of FSH and concentration of Estradiol Valeratein blood increases during the follicular phase. After ovulation corpus luteum continues to secrete estrogens till about 2 days before menstruation.

 It helps in combating several symptoms of menopause such as:

  • Weak bones
  • Hot flashes
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Hot sensation in the face, neck, and chest

Uses Estradiol Valerate

Doctors often prescribe this medication for:

  • Patients who have hot flashes caused by menopause 
  • Night sweats, vaginal dryness, and burning caused by menopause
  • Low estrogen caused by female hypogonadism
  • Pain caused by advanced prostate cancer
  • Low estrogen caused by primary ovarian failure
  • Low estrogen caused by castration
doctor injecting a person in hospital with syringe

Administering Estradiol Valerate?

  • Read the information or ask your pharmacist before you start using this medication or each time you get a refill. To administer successfully, follow these guides:
  • This medication is injected through the muscle or as directed by your doctor. The dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment.
  • Obtain one dose of injectable, needle, and syringe. For each injection use a disposable auto-disable syringe and needle from a new sealed package. 
  • Wash hands with soap and water, if possible. You also have to clean the injection site. 
  • Pierce the top of the vial with a sterile needle and fill the syringe with the proper dose.
  • Administer the needle through your muscle in the desired area of your body. 
  • Dispose of disposable syringes and needles in a puncture-proof container.

Typical Dosing Guide for Estradiol Valerate

  1. For Menopausal symptoms. Administer 10 mg to 20 mg into the muscle every 4 weeks. 
  2. Prostate cancer: Inject at least 30 mg into the gluteal muscle every 1 to 2 weeks depending on the prescription of your doctor. 
  3. Low estrogen conditions. Administer 10 mg to 20 mg into the buttocks every four weeks.
migraine with aura

What are the Side Effects of Estradiol Valerate?

If any of these side effects persist, ensure to seek immediate help. Some serious side effects may also occur however, most patients have zero to minimal effects. These includes:

  • Mental and mood changes 
  • Depression and memory loss
  • Breast lumps and unusual vaginal bleeding
  • Increase instances of vaginal infection or irritation
  • Increased thirst and urination

Serious but less likely to occur symptoms includes:

Warnings and precautions When Using Estradiol Valerate

  • If you are using this medication at home, ensure that you are knowledgeable in self-administering the injections.
  • Read the instructions and proper dosing in the product leaflet or ask your health care professional.
  • Before using, check this product visually for particles or discoloration. If either is present, do not use the liquid. 
  • Avoid storing in hot temperatures to avoid spoiling the solution.
  • If crystals are forming, dissolve them by warming the product to room temperature before administering.
  • To monitor your progress and check for side effects, keep all regular medical and laboratory appointments.
  • Follow your doctor’s instructions for examining your own breasts, and report any lumps right away. Consult your doctor for more details.
  • Preventing or controlling high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes can help to reduce your chances of heart disease and stroke. 
  • Stress reduction, eating low-fat and salt diets, exercising regularly, and quitting smoking can all help control or prevent these diseases.        
  • Use this medication regularly to get the most benefit from it. 

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

What is Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease?

Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a condition caused when stomach acid repeatedly flows back into the tube connecting your mouth and esophagus. Repeated backwash can irritate the lining of your esophagus. Most people can manage the discomfort of GERD with lifestyle changes and medications.

Chest pain

Signs and Symptoms?

  • Burning sensation in our chest
  • Heartburn after eating and may worsen when lying down
  • A backwash of food or sour liquid
  • Chest pain
  • Upper abdominal pain
  • Trouble swallowing
  • A sensation of a lump in your throat
  • A sensation of a lump in your throat

If you have nighttime acid reflux, you might also experience:

  • Ongoing cough
  • New worsening asthma
  • Larngytis of inflammation of the vocal cords

Seek immediate help if you experience these symptoms:

  • Frequent chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Pain in the jaw or arm (warning signs of a heart attack)
  • Experience severe or frequent GERD symptoms

What Causes Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease?

Though there is no single and specific cause of GERD, there is a mechanism in your body that can increase the possibility of it. Acid reflux happens when your lower esophageal sphincter does not tighten or close properly. This allows digestive juices and other contents from your stomach to rise up into your esophagus. Other possible causes include:

  1. Hiatal hernia. It occurs when a part of the stomach moves above the diaphragm towards the chest. If the diaphragm is compromised, it can increase the likelihood that your LES can’t do its job correctly.
  2. Lying down too soon after large meals. As a result, the LES may not receive the required amount of pressure to function as it should.
  3. Frequently eating large meals. This can cause the distension of the upper part of the stomach. A distended LES may indicate that there isn’t enough pressure on it, and it doesn’t close properly.

GERD is also common or more likely to occur in people:

  • Obesity or people who are overweight because of increased pressure on the abdomen
  • Who are pregnant, affecting around 40–85% of people during pregnancy
  • People who take certain medications, such as asthma medications, calcium channel blockers, antihistamines, sedatives, and antidepressants
  • Who smoke and those with exposure to secondhand smoke

Ways to Diagnose Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

  • Upper endoscopy. It helps your doctor see inside your esophagus and stomach. Test results may not show problems when reflux is present, but an endoscopy may detect inflammation of the esophagus or other complications.
  • Esophageal manometry. In addition to measuring your esophageal muscles’ coordination and force, esophageal manometry measures your esophagus’s muscles’ coordination and force. This is typically done in people who have trouble swallowing.
  • Ambulatory acid probe test. When stomach acid regurgitates into your esophagus, a monitor is placed there to determine how long it lasts.
  • X-ray of the upper digestive system. A silhouette of your esophagus and stomach can be seen by your doctor because of the coating. This is particularly useful for people who are having trouble swallowing.
  • Transnasal esophagoscopy. Through your nose, an esophageal tube is passed with a video camera attached.

Treatment and Management of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

Your doctor is likely to recommend that you first try lifestyle changes and nonprescription medications. During the first few weeks of treatment, your doctor may prescribe prescription medication and recommend additional testing if you do not experience relief.

Medication Used for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

Omeprazole is inactive in neutral pH. Prilosec is a Proton Pump Inhibitor that reduces gastric secretion. It works by decreasing the amount of acid produced by the stomach. This medicine is available both over-the-counter and with your doctor’s prescription.

Depressed girl smoking
Depressed girl smoking

Prevention Tips for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

  • Eat small meals frequently.
  • Finish eating 2 to 3 hours before going to bed.
  • Avoid eating very large meals.
  • Quit or avoid smoking.
  • Avoid strenuous activities after eating.
  • Lose weight if overweight.
  • Stay upright after eating.
  • Minimize wearing tight clothing around the abdomen.
  • Sleep at a slight angle with the head slightly elevated.

Osteoarthritis: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

What is Osteoarthritis?

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis which affects millions of people worldwide. It occurs when the protective cartilage that wears down.  Although it can damage any joint, the disorder most commonly affects joints in your hips, hands, and spine.  Staying active, maintaining a healthy weight and regular treatments helps slow down the progression of the disease and help improve pain and joint function.

Signs and Symptoms of Osteoarthritis

  • Pain. Affected joints might hurt during or after movement.
  • Swelling. An inflammatory condition around the joint could be responsible for this.
  • Tenderness. Your joint might feel tender when you apply light pressure to or near it.
  • Loss of flexibility. You might not be able to move your joint through its full range of motion.
  • Stiffness. After waking up or being inactive, joint stiffness may be most evident.
  • Bone spurs. These extra bits of bone, which feel like hard lumps, can form around the affected joint.
  • Grating sensation. Use of the joint may cause a grating sensation and a popping or crackling sound.
  • Limited range of motion that may go away after movement.
  • Swelling and muscle weakness around the joint.
  • Joint instability or buckling
overweight
overweight

What Causes Osteoarthritis?

Osteoarthritis is caused by damage or breakdown of joint cartilage between bones. Eventually, if the cartilage wears down completely, the bone will rub on the bone. Besides the breakdown of cartilage, OA affects the entire joint. It causes changes in the bone and deterioration of the connective tissues that hold the joint together and attach muscle to bone. Several risk factors may cause the disease such as:

  • Joint injury or overuse. Knee bending and repetitive stress on a joint, can damage a joint and increase the risk of OA in that joint.
  • Age and gender. The risk of developing this condition increases as you age. Women are more likely to develop this condition than men, especially after age 50.
  • Obesity. Extra weight puts more stress on joints, mostly weight-bearing joints like the hips and knees. This stress increases the risk of affecting the joint. Weight gain also causes metabolic effects that increase your risk. 
  • Genetics. People who have family members with this condition are more likely to develop especially on the knee. 

How to Diagnose Osteoarthritis?

During the physical exam, your doctor will check your affected joint for tenderness, swelling, redness, and flexibility through imaging tests, MRI, x-ray, blood test, joint fluid analysis, and other laboratory examinations to determine the diagnosis.

Treatment and Management of Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis has no cure but you can treat and slows down the production through prescribed medications and therapy. Medications and therapy for this condition include:

  • Acetaminophen. Acetaminophen has been shown to help some people with osteoarthritis who have mild to moderate pain. 
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Over-the-counter NSAIDs can be taken at the recommended doses, and typically relieve osteoarthritis pain. Stronger NSAIDs are available by prescription.
  • Physical therapy. A professional therapist may recommend some exercise to strengthen the muscles around your joint and increase your flexibility and reduce pain. Regular gentle exercise that you do on your own, such as swimming or walking, can be equally effective.
  • Occupational therapy. An occupational therapist can help you discover ways to do everyday tasks without putting extra stress on your already painful joint

Medication Used for Osteoarthritis

Sodium Hyaluronate is indicated for the treatment of pain in patients who have failed to respond to conservative nonpharmacologic therapy and to simple analgesics like acetaminophen. It works by improving the joint fluid that helps the knee to move smoothly and thereby reduces the pain in joints.

Guidelines Before Using Sodium Hyaluronate

  • A strict aseptic administration technique must be followed when using this medication.
  • Follow the dosing instruction on the label or as per your doctor’s advice.
  • Store it in a room condition and avoid direct exposure to sunlight. 
  • Avoid strenuous activities or prolonged weight-bearing activities within 48 hours following the treatment.
  • Ensure to finish the recommended treatment period to get the utmost benefit from the prescription drug.

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a condition that causes enlargement of the prostate gland but it is not cancerous. It is also called benign prostatic hypertrophy or benign prostatic obstruction. As men age, their prostates go through two main growth periods. The first occurs early in puberty when the prostate doubles in size. The second phase of growth begins around age 25 and lasts until the end of a man’s life.

It often occurs with the second growth phase. As the prostate enlarges, the gland presses against and pinches the urethra. The bladder wall becomes thicker. Eventually, the bladder may weaken and lose the ability to empty completely, leaving some urine in the bladder.

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Symptoms
urinate

Signs and Symptoms?

  • Frequent or urgent need to urinate
  • Increased frequency of urination at night
  • Dribbling at the end of urination
  • A weak urine stream that stops and starts
  • Difficulty starting urination
  • Inability to completely empty the bladder

Less common signs and symptoms include:

Some men with only slightly enlarged prostates can have significant symptoms, while other men with very enlarged prostates can have only minor urinary symptoms. Other possible causes of urinary symptoms: 

  • Inflammation of the prostate
  • Kidney or bladder stones
  • Scarring in the bladder neck as a result of previous surgery
  • Cancer of the prostate or bladder
  • Narrowing of the urethra 
  • Problems with the nerve

What causes Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia?

It is not entirely clear what causes the prostate to enlarge. However, it might be due to changes in the balance of sex hormones as men grow older. The prostate gland is located beneath your bladder. The tube that transports urine from your bladder out of your penis passes through the prostate. Most men have continued prostate growth throughout life. As it grows, it often becomes enlarged enough to cause urinary symptoms or significantly block urine flow in some men.

overweight
overweight

Here are some risk factors of BPH:

  • Diabetes and heart disease. Studies show that diabetes, as well as heart disease and the use of beta blockers, might increase the risk of BPH.
  • Aging. Prostate gland enlargement rarely causes signs and symptoms in men younger than age 40. About one-third of men experience moderate to severe symptoms by age 60, and about half do so by age 80.
  • Lifestyle. Obesity increases the risk of BPH, while exercise can lower your risk.
  • Family history. Having a blood relative, such as a father or a brother, with prostate problems means you are more likely to have problems.

Treatment and Management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

The best treatment choice for you depends on several factors, including the size of your prostate, age, and overall health. If your symptoms are tolerable, you might decide to postpone treatment and simply monitor your symptoms. For some men, symptoms can ease without treatment. Doctors may also recommend a combination approach of medications and therapy. Typical medications for BPH are alpha-blockers, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, combination drug therapy, and tadalafil

Recommended Medication

Dutasteride is used to treat BPH found in men. It belongs to a class of drugs known as a 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor. This drug is used to treat the enlargement of the prostate gland. It inhibits and lowers the amount of the hormone dihydrotestosterone, which is responsible for prostate growth. 

How is Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Diagnosed?

  • Urinary flow test. It measures the strength and amount of your urine flow. Test results help determine over time if your condition is getting better or worse.
  • Digital rectal exam. The doctor inserts a finger into the rectum to check your prostate for enlargement.
  • Urine test and blood test. Analyzing a sample of your urine can help rule out an infection or other conditions that can cause similar symptoms. The results of the blood test also indicate kidney problems.
  • Prostate-specific antigen blood test. PSA is a substance produced in your prostate. PSA levels increase when you have an enlarged prostate

Strongyloidiasis: Symptoms and Treatment

What is Strongyloidiasis?

Strongyloidiasis is a disease caused by a nematode, or a roundworm, in the genus Strongyloides. Strongyloides stercoralis is one of over 40 species within this genus that may cause disease in birds, reptiles, amphibians, livestock, and other primates. The virus sometimes infects primates, dogs, and cats, and some strains infecting dogs and primates can infect humans as well.

abdominal pain

Signs and Symptoms?

  • Upper abdominal burning or pain
  • Alternating diarrhea and constipation
  • Rash
  • Diarrhea and vomiting
  • Weight loss
  • Cough
  • Intermittent episodes of constipation
  • Red hives near the anus

Severe symptoms may include:

  • Hoarseness
  • Inflammation of the lungs
  • Respiratory failure
  • Coughing up blood

It can be severe and life-threatening in persons who:

  • Are taking corticosteroids for asthma
  • Have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 
  • Exacerbations, lupus, and gout
  • Have conditions requiring steroids for immunosuppression or symptomatic relief
  • Are infected with the virus HTLV-1
  • Have leukemia or lymphoma or are transplant recipients.

In case of severe side effects, ensure to seek immediate medical help from the nearest medical facility.

Causes of Strongyloidiasis

It is caused by a nematode, or a roundworm, in the genus Strongyloides. Once they are in your small intestine, they lay their eggs. Adult females can lay up to 40 eggs per day. Either these eggs are passed out in the stool and continue to contaminate the soil, or they remain inside of you and cause autoinfection. When the worms burrow back into your intestines or the skin around your anus, they re-infect you. 

The Risk Factors of Strongyloidiasis

Risk Factors of Strongyloidiasis
Strongyloidiasis

This is often found in wet, moist areas, including South America, Africa, and the Southeastern United States. Your risks increase if you travel in those areas for a longer period. This condition  is found more often in the following people:‌

  • Living in institutions
  • Who are socioeconomically disadvantaged
  • Those living in rural areas
  • Those working in agriculture 
  • Contact with contaminated soil
  • Walking barefoot 
  • Contact with sewage or human waste

Diagnosis and Treatment of Strongyloidiasis

Strongyloidiasis can be challenging to diagnose because examining the stool under a microscope does not always show the infection. Doctors may recommend stool tests for five sessions to ensure the diagnosis. It can also sometimes be diagnosed with a blood test and some cases may diagnose by testing fluid from your lungs or small intestine.

Treatment is recommended for all persons found to be infected, whether symptomatic or not, due to the risk of developing hyperinfection syndrome. Additionally, it is suggested that patients be considered for testing before being initiated on any immunosuppressive therapy, particularly corticosteroids.

A sputum or stool culture should be negative for 2 weeks for people with a weakened immune system or hyperinfection syndrome. In some cases, antibiotics are required to treat bacterial infections as well.

How Fast Do Symptoms After Exposure?

Most people do not know when their exposure happened. For those who do, a local rash can occur immediately. Coughing usually occurs several days later and the abdominal symptoms typically occur approximately 2 weeks later, and larvae can be found in the stool about 3 to 4 weeks later.

How to Prevent Strongyloidiasis?

In countries where sanitation and human waste disposal have improved, strongyloidiasis has been mostly eliminated. Additional strategies to prevent strongyloidiasis include the following: ‌

  • Wearing shoes when you walk on the soil
  • Cleaning up after dogs
  • Managing sewage and feces properly 
  • Avoiding contact with sewage and feces

Medication Used for Strongyloidiasis

Ivermectin is a recommended treatment for this condition. It is a disease caused by a roundworm. This drug is effective in treating this kind of condition. It works by paralyzing and inactivating the gut of parasites in humans. It stops the adult one from producing larvae. It kills the newly developed parasite and works to treat the infection.

What are the Side Effects of Ivermectin?

Inform your doctor right away if you experience this symptom. If you develop other side effects it’s better to visit your doctor. Seek medical attention.

Rheumatoid Arthritis: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

What is Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune and inflammatory disease that causes your immune system to attack the healthy cells in your body by mistake. It leads to inflammation in the affected parts of the body.  RA mainly attacks the joints, usually many joints commonly in the hands, wrists, and knees. This damage can cause long-lasting or chronic pain, unsteadiness, and deformity.

Symptoms of polio

Signs and Symptoms?

  • Pain, stiffness, swelling, and tenderness in more than one joint.
  • Stiffness especially in the morning 
  • Pain and stiffness after sitting for long periods.
  • Pain and stiffness in the same joints on both sides of your body.
  • Fatigue 
  • Fever
  • Weakness

As the disease progresses the symptoms spread and affect the wrists, shoulders, elbows, hips, and ankles. About 40% of people who have this condition also experience signs and symptoms that don’t involve the joints. Areas that may be affected include:

  • Eyes
  • Skin
  • Lungs
  • Heart
  • Kidneys
  • Blood vessels
  • Salivary glands
  • Nerve tissue
  • Bone marrow
smoking cigarettes

What Causes Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease caused by your immune system that attacks healthy tissue in your joints. It can also cause medical problems with your heart, lungs, eyes, skin, and nerves. There is no specific cause of the condition but in some cases reacts to environmental factors. Here are several risk factors of RA that you should watch out for:

  • Gender and age. Women are more likely than men to develop this condition. It can occur at any age, but it most commonly begins in middle age.
  • Family history. You may be at greater risk of developing this condition and some of its symptoms if a member of your family has it.
  • Smoking. A genetic predisposition for developing RA increases your risk of developing the disease if you smoke cigarettes. Smoking also appears to be associated with greater disease severity.
  • Excess weight. This condition appears to be somewhat more likely to develop in overweight people.

Diagnosing Rheumatoid Arthritis

  • People with RA often have an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein level, which may indicate the presence of an inflammatory process in the body.
  • Other common blood tests look for some risk factors and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies.
  • Your doctor may recommend X-rays to help track the progression of RA in your joints over time.
  • MRI and ultrasound tests can help your doctor judge the severity of the disease in your body.

Treatment and Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis has no cure however, clinical studies indicate that remission of symptoms is more likely when treatment begins early with medications. Typical medications are NSAIDs, biological agents, steroids, targeted, and conventional DMARDS. Your doctor may also recommend a physical or occupational therapist to teach you to exercise and keep your joints flexible. Surgery is also permitted for patients if medication and therapy don’t work. 

Medication Used for Rheumatoid Arthritis

Nabumetone is effective in the treatment of RA and soft tissue injuries. works well to relieve symptoms such as joint pain, swelling, and stiffness. Compared to similar medications, it has lower risks for stomach-related side effects. It usually starts working within a week, but in severe cases, it may take up to two weeks or longer before you start feeling better. Furthermore, it may take several weeks before you feel the full effects of nabumetone.

Lifestyle and Home Remedies for Rheumatoid Arthritis

  • Gentle exercise can help strengthen the muscles around your joints, and it can help reduce the fatigue you might feel.
  • Apply heat or cold to ease your pain and relax tense, painful muscles. Cold may dull the sensation of pain and has a numbing effect and can reduce swelling.
  • Regular check also helps manage the symptoms especially before you plan to incorporate exercise activities. 
  • Avoid exercising tender, injured, or severely inflamed joints.
  • Find ways to cope with pain by reducing stress in your life. Techniques such as guided imagery, deep breathing, and muscle relaxation can all be used to control pain.

Do Probiotics Reduce Cholesterol Levels?

What Are Probiotics?

Probiotics are live microbes that provide specific health benefits. It contains beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria. Though they can have different effects on your body, they still play an important role in your overall being. Healthy gut bacteria can also affect your blood sugar, brain health, and heart health by reducing cholesterol levels, blood pressure, and inflammation. It can help restore healthy gut bacteria, which may improve your heart condition.

Probiotics
Probiotics

Probiotics Reduce Cholesterol Levels

Several studies specified certain probiotics are potent in reducing blood cholesterol. There are two main types of cholesterol: high-density lipoprotein (HDL) or good cholesterol and LDL or low-density lipoprotein, which is harmful. Lactobacillus , L. Plantarum and L. Reuteri were particularly effective in reducing cholesterol levels.

This increases their efficacy in people with high cholesterol when taken for a longer period. They can bind with cholesterol in the intestines to stop it from being absorbed. They also help produce certain bile acids, which help metabolize fat and cholesterol in your body.

Probiotics Improve Heart Health?

Heart disease is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Thus, it is important to look after your heart, especially as you get older. Many foods benefit heart health and recent studies have shown that taking probiotics improves heart health. 

Probiotics Manage Blood Pressure

High blood pressure is another leading risk factor for heart disease but it can be lowered through supplementation. Several studies have shown that certain strains can significantly reduce blood pressure. One of these large studies found a decrease in blood pressure, especially under the following conditions:

  • When blood pressure was chronically high 
  • When your dosage is high
  • When multiple types of probiotics were taken at the same time
  • When the probiotics were taken for more than 8 weeks

Probiotics Reduce Triglycerides

It may help reduce blood triglycerides that contribute to heart disease when their levels are too high. Lactobacillus curvatus and Lactobacillus Plantarum strains knowingly reduced blood triglycerides.

Probiotics Reduce Inflammation

Inflammation occurs when your body’s immune system fights infection or heals a wound. These conditions can also happen as a result of a bad diet, smoking, or an unhealthy lifestyle. If left untreated, these will lead to heart disease. Taking Lactobacillus reuteri strains for nine weeks significantly reduced the inflammatory chemicals. 

Can Adults Take Probiotics Daily?

It is essential to understand that probiotics are not a replacement for all your medications. Probiotics for adults are permissible for daily intake rather than a quick-fix option. Talk to your doctor to determine the risk and benefits of taking supplements along with your daily medications.

Food Sources that Contains Probiotics

Yogurt
Yogurt
  1. Yogurt. Yogurt is made from milk that has been fermented by probiotics, mainly lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. It is beneficial for people with hypertension.
  2. Tempeh.  It is a fermented soybean product that contains a decent amount of vitamin B12, a nutrient found mainly in animal products.
  3. Kimchi. It is a well-known Korean dish containing lactic acid bacteria that may benefit digestive health.
  4. Miso. It is a popular Japanese seasoning rich in several vital nutrients and may reduce the risk of cancer and stroke.
  5. Kefir. It is a fermented milk drink made by adding kefir grains to cow’s milk. It may improve bone health, help with some digestive problems, and protect against infections.
  6. Sauerkraut. It is a traditional food made from finely shredded cabbage that has been fermented by lactic acid bacteria.
  7. Kombucha. It is a tea drink that contains a wide range of health benefits. 
  8. Pickles. This is a preserved cucumber that is left to ferment for some time, using its own naturally present lactic acid bacteria.

In Conclusion

Probiotics for adults are live microbes that have certain health benefits. Several studies show that healthy strains reduce cholesterol, blood pressure, and inflammation. Nevertheless, most of the study participants already had high blood pressure or cholesterol.

Moreover, not all strains are the same and only some may benefit heart health. Overall, if you have high cholesterol or blood pressure, it may be useful to have supplementation along with medicines, diet, and lifestyle changes.

Epilepsy: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

What is Epilepsy?

Epilepsy is a chronic disease of the brain that affects around 50 million people worldwide. It is characterized by recurrent seizures, which are brief episodes of involuntary movement that may involve a part of the part or the entire body. It is sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness and control of bowel or bladder function.

Types of Epilepsy

1. Generalized 

It usually starts during childhood. However, it can also affect adults. This affects both the left and right sides of the brain. Additionally, these may be either motor, which involves physical movement, or non-motor, which does not. Symptoms involve:

Epilepsy
Epilepsy
  • Jerking movements
  • Weakness or limp limbs
  • Muscle twitching
  • A rigid and tense muscle
  • Full-body epileptic spasms

These may include these symptoms:

  • A sudden stop in movement
  • Staring into space
  • Fluttering eyelids
  • Brief twitches

2. Focal epilepsy

This can feel like an uneasy feeling in the stomach, similar to the feeling of riding a rollercoaster. They can start in one area and move to others. As the seizure progresses, a person can experience motor and non-motor symptoms such as:

  • Spasms
  • Jerking
  • Muscle twitching
  • Repeated movements, like clapping or chewing

Some non-motor symptoms of focal seizures include:

  • Waves of hot or cold
  • Lack of movement
  • Changes in emotions and thoughts
  • Goosebumps

3. Combined generalized and focal 

Someone with combination epilepsy has both generalized and focal seizures. The symptoms described above can therefore be mixed together.

4. Unknown epilepsy

Symptoms of non-motor and motor epilepsy can be present in people with this type. Motor seizures often present as tonic-clonic. These can have the following symptoms:

  • Rapid, convulsing, and rhythmic jerking
  • Loss of consciousness and stiffening
  • Bluish face from lack of oxygen
  • Loss of bowel and bladder control

Non-motor symptoms include:

  • Vacant starring
  • Stillness
  • Sudden and stopped movement

Signs and Symptoms? 

Patients tend to have the same type of seizure each time, so the symptoms will be similar.

  • Temporary confusion
  • Stiff muscles
  • Uncontrollable jerking movements of the legs and arms
  • Loss of consciousness or awareness
  • Psychological symptoms such as fear, anxiety, or déjà vu

Causes of Epilepsy

The causes may vary for each person, and some people have no identifiable cause. Some cases are linked directly to genetics, trauma, autoimmune disorders, metabolic abnormalities, or infectious diseases. Causes include:

  • Genetic causes. Some types run in families passed down from one generation to the next. Occasionally, it can occur due to genetic changes that were inherited and are occurring for the first time.
  • Metabolic causes. Your body processes the food you eat with enzymes. A problem with one of these enzymes can make your body unable to break down food or produce energy.
  • Infections. Infection is probably the most common cause worldwide. Attacks that occur as a result of an infection in the brain are considered infectious epilepsy.
  • Autoimmune epilepsy. Your body’s immune system protects you from foreign substances and other things that could harm it. It is caused by a change in your body’s immune function.
  • Structural causes. Certain abnormal structures in the brain can increase the risk of seizures. This might be something you are born with or develop later in life. Most structural causes can be seen in imaging of the brain with an MRI.
Blood tests

Diagnosis and Treatment of Epilepsy

To diagnose your condition, your doctor will review your symptoms and medical history. Your evaluation may include:

  • A neurological exam. To diagnose your condition and determine its type, your doctor may assess your behavior, motor abilities, mental function, and other attributes.
  • Computerized tomography (CT) scan. An MRI can reveal abnormalities in the structure of your brain, such as tumors, bleeding, or cysts, that may be causing your seizures.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Your doctor may detect lesions or abnormalities in your brain that could be causing your seizures.
  • Blood tests. An infection, genetic condition, or other condition that triggers the condition may be detected through a blood sample taken by your doctor.
  • Electroencephalogram (EEG). This is the most common test used to diagnose epilepsy. The electrodes record the electrical activity of your brain.

Treatment or Medication for Epilepsy

Doctors may recommend you take one anti-seizure medication to decrease the frequency and intensity of their attacks by taking a combination of medications. Gabapentin is very effective in treating and managing the condition. It reduces abnormal excitement in the brain and relieves pain by changing the way the body senses discomfort.

Hypothyroidism: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

What is Hypothyroidism?

Hypothyroidism is a common disorder that is also known as an underactive thyroid. This condition causes your thyroid gland to produce less hormone. The role of the thyroid is to control how your body’s cells use energy from food or also known as metabolism. With an underproduction of thyroid hormone, your body’s processes slow down. 

Signs and Symptoms?

Hypersensitivity Syndrome
Dry skin
  • Constipation
  • Heavier than normal or irregular menstrual periods
  • Depression
  • Impaired memory
  • Thinning hair
  • Slowed heart rate
  • Dry skin
  • Weight gain
  • Puffy face
  • Hoarseness of voice
  • Muscle weakness
  • Elevated blood cholesterol level
  • Muscle aches, tenderness, and stiffness
  • Enlarged thyroid gland 
  • Fatigue
  • Increased sensitivity to cold

Symptoms of hypothyroidism in infants

Although it most often affects middle-aged and older women, anyone can develop the condition, including infants. When newborns do have problems with this condition, the signs and symptoms may include:

  • Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes
  • A large or protruding tongue.
  • Difficulty breathing.
  • Poor muscle tone
  • Excessive sleepiness
  • Hoarse crying.
  • An umbilical hernia.
  • Constipation

Symptoms of Hypothyroidism in children and teens

Hypothyroidism
Hypothyroidism in children

Children and teens who develop this condition generally experience the same symptoms as adults, but they may also experience:

  • Delayed development of permanent teeth
  • Delayed puberty
  • Poor growth, resulting in short stature
  • Poor mental development

What Causes Hypothyroidism?

It is caused by insufficient production of thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism may be due to several factors, including:

  1. Autoimmune disease. The most common cause of this condition is an autoimmune disorder known as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. An autoimmune disorder occurs when your immune system produces antibodies that attack your own tissues. Sometimes this process involves your thyroid gland.
  2. Over-response to hyperthyroidism treatment. Radioactive iodine or anti-thyroid medications are often prescribed for people who produce too much thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism). The goal of these treatments is to get thyroid function back to normal. The treatment of hyperthyroidism can, however, result in permanent hypothyroidism if it lowers thyroid hormone production too much.
  3. Thyroid surgery. The removal of all or part of your thyroid gland can diminish or halt hormone production. In that case, you’ll need to take thyroid hormone for life.
  4. Radiation therapy. Radiation used to treat cancers of the head and neck can affect your thyroid gland and may lead to an underactive thyroid.
  5. Medications. Several medications can contribute to the low production of thyroid hormones. Among these medications is lithium, which is used to treat psychiatric disorders. If you are taking medication, ask your doctor about its effect on your thyroid gland.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Hypothyroidism

An underactive thyroid can be diagnosed if you feel increasingly tired, have dry skin, constipation, and weight gain, or if you have previously experienced thyroid problems or goiter. It is diagnosed based on your symptoms and the results of blood tests that measure the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and sometimes thyroxine. 

A low level of thyroxine and a high level indicates an underactive thyroid. The TSH test can also be used to diagnose a condition called subclinical hypothyroidism, which usually causes no outward symptoms. In this condition, you have normal blood levels of triiodothyronine and thyroxine, but higher than normal levels of TSH.

Treatment involves the daily use of synthetic thyroid hormone to restore adequate hormone levels, reversing the signs and symptoms of underactive thyroid. The medication gradually lowers cholesterol levels elevated by the disease and may reverse any weight gain.

Subclinical Hypothyroidism

If you have subclinical hypothyroidism, discuss treatment with your doctor. If your TSH is relatively mild, thyroid hormone therapy is unlikely to be helpful, and treatment may even be harmful. Conversely, thyroid hormones may improve your cholesterol levels, heart pumping ability, and energy level if you have a higher TSH level.

Medication for Hypothyroidism

Thyroxine Sodium is a synthetic thyroid hormone that is prescribed for the treatment of this condition. Thyroxine is an important hormone released by the thyroid gland into the bloodstream. It plays an important role in the functioning of the heart, digestion, muscles, and brain development.

Hypertension: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

What is Hypertension?

Hypertension is blood pressure that is higher than normal. Note that the blood pressure changes throughout the day based on your activities. Having blood pressure measures consistently above normal may result in a diagnosis of hypertension.

Blood pressure is written as two numbers. The systolic or the first number that represents the pressure in blood vessels when the heart contracts or beats. The diastolic or second number represents the pressure in the vessels when the heart rests between beats.

migraine with aura

Signs and Symptoms

Severe high blood pressure causes these symptoms:

  • Severe headaches
  • Fatigue or confusion
  • Vision problems
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Nosebleed
  • Chest pain
  • Blood spots in the eye
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Blood in the urine
  • Pounding n your neck, ears, and chest

Typical signs and symptoms of hypertension include:

  • Dizziness
  • Sweating
  • Nervousness
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Facial flushing

For severe conditions, seek immediate help or call your doctor. Health screening is essential, especially for people with a higher risk of strokes and heart disease.

What Causes Hypertension?

For most adults, there is no specific cause of hypertension. However, it has two categories that may help you determine the typical triggers of the condition. The first one is known as primary hypertension. It develop gradually over many years. It is caused by the buildup of plaques in the arteries. 

Secondary hypertension, on the other hand, is caused by an underlying condition. It tends to appear suddenly and cause higher blood pressure than primary hypertension. Conditions and medicines that can lead this category are:

  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • Adrenal gland tumors
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Kidney disease
  • Thyroid problems 
  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • Cough and cold medications
  • Birth control pills
  • Pain relievers
  • Illegal drugs
Obesity

For some patients, ensure to be watchful of the triggers and risk factors such as:

  • Age. Until about age 64, men are more likely to have high blood pressure. Women are more likely to develop after age 65.
  • Family history. You are more likely to develop high blood pressure if you have a parent or sibling with the condition.
  • Drinking too much alcohol. Alcohol use has been linked with increased blood pressure, particularly in men.
  • Stress. High levels of stress can lead to a temporary increase in blood pressure. 
  • Obesity or being overweight. Excess weight causes changes in the blood vessels, the kidneys, and other parts of the body. 
  • Too much salt. A lot of salt in the body can cause the body to retain fluid and increases blood pressure.
  • Low potassium levels. A proper balance of potassium is important for good heart health. 
  • Lack of exercise. Blood pressure is higher when you are overweight. Inactive people also tend to have higher heart rates.
  • Tobacco use or vaping. Smoking, chewing tobacco, or vaping immediately raises blood pressure for a short while because they injure blood vessel walls and speed up the process of hardening the arteries. 
  • Certain chronic conditions. High blood pressure can be caused by kidney disease, diabetes, and sleep apnea.

Treatment and Management of Hypertension

Along with medications, doctors may also recommend changing your lifestyle to control and manage hypertension. These include eating a healthy diet with less salt and proper exercise. Avoiding smoking and limiting alcohol also helps maintains healthy BP levels. 

Dealing with cholesterol also reduces your risk of hypertension caused by fats. Using Ezetimibe lowers the level of total cholesterol in your blood and alleviates related signs and symptoms of hypertension. You can take this along with other prescription medications.

Sometimes lifestyle changes are not enough to treat high blood pressure. If they don’t help, your provider may recommend medicine to lower your blood pressure such as water pills, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, and Angiotensin II receptor blockers. 

Recommended Medication for Hypertension

Enalapril Maleate is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used in the treatment of hypertension and some types of chronic heart failure. It works by blocking a substance in the body that causes the blood vessels to tighten. This lowers blood pressure and increases the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart.

What are The Types of Stroke?

A stroke occurs when something blocks the blood supply to part of the brain or when a blood vessel in the brain bursts. It can cause lasting brain damage, long-term disability, or even death. There are several types of stroke that you should be aware of to respond immediately to medical emergencies.

animated old man holding chest due to stroke

The warning signs of stroke are recognized through the FAST method. Call 911 if you spot these:

  • Face loose.  One side of the face sags or is numb which is determined by an uneven smile.
  • Arm weakness. One arm is weak or numb and the other arm drifts downward when you try to raise both arms.
  • Speech difficulty.  Speech is slurred or the patient is unable to speak or hard to understand.
  • Time to call 911. If you or a patient have any of these signs, even if they subside, call 911 and get to a hospital immediately.

What are the Types of Stroke?

1. Ischemic stroke

This typically happens when a blood vessel supplying blood to your brain gets blocked by a blood clot. One of the causes of this condition is the buildup of unhealthy cholesterol that collects and narrows the arteries. Symptoms include:

  • Sudden numbness or weakness of your face, arm, or leg, or on one side of the body
  • Double vision or vision loss
  • Confusion and slurred speech
  • Dizziness, loss of balance or coordination, or trouble walking

Typical causes include:

  • Atrial fibrillation
  • Heart attack
  • Problem with your heart valves caused by high cholesterol
  • Injury to blood vessels in your neck
  • Blood clotting problem
migraine with aura

2. Hemorrhagic stroke

This happens when an artery in the brain leaks blood or ruptures. The leaked blood puts too much pressure on brain cells, which damages them. The common causes and risk factors are:

  • You are over 65 years old
  • Have high cholesterol or uncontrolled diabetes
  • Obesity or a history of stroke in the past
  • Eating unhealthy foods

Symptoms of this condition are:

  • Intense headache 
  • Vision problems
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Confusion
  • Nausea or throwing up
  • Passing out

3. Transient ischemic attack.

This is known as a mini-stroke. TIA is caused by a temporary blockage in blood flow to your brain. The symptoms usually last for just a few minutes or may go away in 24 hours.  Symptoms include:

The causes and risk factors of TIA are the same as in an ischemic stroke. A TIA can sometimes be a warning sign that you have an attack soon. Seek immediate help or go to the nearest medical facility for emergency response.

smoking cigarettes

4. Brain stem stroke

This can affect both sides of the body. This may occur without the hallmark sign of weakness on one side of the body. Causes and risk factors include:

Symptoms are as follows:

  • Locked in syndrome
  • Vertigo, loss of balance, and dizziness
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Double vision
  • Passing out
  • Slurred speech
  • The trouble with blood pressure and breathing

5. Cryptogenic stroke

This is also known as a stroke of unknown cause. The possible causes or risk factors are:

  • Irregular heartbeat caused by high cholesterol
  • Heart structure problem
  • Hardening of the arteries
  • Blood clotting disorder

Symptoms are:

  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Thumping or pounding heartbeat
  • Racing or pounding heart rhythm
  • Chest discomfort
  • Fatigue
  • Lightheadedness
  • Fainting

Most of the causes and risk factors of this condition are high cholesterol levels. If your doctor recommends maintenance medications, ensure that you take your prescriptions every day to reduce your risk of an attack. A typical prescription drug to maintain your cholesterol level is Lovastatin. It works by lowering the cholesterol and triglyceride levels in your blood and treating other conditions as determined by your doctor. 

What Age Does Prostate Enlargement Start?

The prostate is a small gland in men that produces semen. It is located below the bladder in front of the rectum, and it wraps around the tube that carries urine and semen out of the body. The prostate tends to grow larger as you get older. But, if your prostate gets too large, it can cause several health issues including prostate enlargement.

Urinal for men on a mall

Symptoms of Prostate Problems

  • Frequent urge to urinate
  • Blood in urine or semen
  • Pain or burning sensation during urination
  • Painful ejaculation request urge to urinate at night
  • Frequent pain or stiffness in the lower back
  • Pain or stiffness in the hips, rectal, or pelvic area
  • Dribbling of urine

Less common signs and symptoms include:

  • Urinary tract infection
  • Inability to urinate
  • Blood in the urine

Age When Prostate Enlargement Start

Prostate growth is a normal part of aging. At the age of 25, the adult prostate begins to enlarge slowly. The condition is called benign prostatic hyperplasia, but it has nothing to do with cancer. Around the age of 50, many men begin to have uncomfortable symptoms as a result of prostate enlargement.

The signs and symptoms of prostate enlargelemt are accompanied by frequent urination at night or often difficulty getting a strong stream started or emptying the bladder. This happened because the prostate gland surrounds the tube that carries urine from the bladder and out through the penis. As the prostate grows, it compresses that tube, and that makes urination tough.

Can Men in Their 20’s Develop an Enlarged Prostate?

Studies show that men can develop microscopic signs of benign prostatic hyperplasia as early as in their 20s and 30s.  In contrast, BPH or enlarged prostate is very rare in men in their 20s.  Typically, urinary symptoms in men during their 20s are caused by other problems.   Prostate enlargement may cause symptoms but it’s usually from infection rather than from growth.

The prevalence of symptomatic BPH is low in men aged 30-39, but there are a significant number of men starting to exhibit symptoms of an enlarged prostate at this age.  In most cases, symptoms are mild, but they can also be moderate or severe enough to require treatment.

old guy in blue head swirling confusion

Risk Factors

Most men have continued prostate growth throughout life. Prostate enlargement can cause urinary symptoms or substantially block urine flow in many men as a result of this continued growth. Risk factors for prostate gland enlargement include:

  • Aging. In men younger than 40, prostate gland enlargement rarely causes symptoms. About one-third of men experience moderate to severe symptoms by age 60, and about half do so by age 80.
  • Family history. Prostate problems are more likely to affect you if you have a blood relative with prostate issues, such as your father or brother.
  • Diabetes and heart disease. BPH is associated with diabetes, heart disease, and beta blockers.

Medications for Enlarged Prostate

Dutasteride is a recommended medication for prostate enlargement. This is used to treat a disorder known as benign prostatic hyperplasia found in men. It inhibits and lowers the amount of the hormone that causes prostate growth. Discuss with your doctor the benefits and risks of taking this medication to ensure a successful treatment. 

Other Recommended Prescriptions for Enlarged Prostate

  • Alpha-blockers. These medications relax the bladder neck muscles and muscle fibers in the prostate, making urination easier. 
  • 5-alpha reductase inhibitors. These medications shrink your prostate by preventing hormonal changes that cause prostate growth
  • Combination drug therapy. Alpha-blockers and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors may be prescribed together if either medication alone is ineffective.
  • Tadalafil. Prostate enlargement may also be treated with this medication, which is commonly used to treat erectile dysfunction.
losing weight

Lifestyle and Home Remedies to Manage Enlarged Prostate

  • Limit beverages to avoid middle-of-the-night trips to the toilet.
  • Pee when you first feel the urge. Waiting too long might overstretch the bladder muscle and cause damage.
  • Limit caffeine and alcohol as they can increase urine production, irritate the bladder and worsen symptoms.
  • Stay active. Inactivity contributes to urine retention. Even a small amount of exercise can help reduce urinary problems caused by an enlarged prostate.
  • Keep warm because colder temperatures can cause urine retention. 

Medication for ADHD

Medications play a vital role in managing and treating ADHD. Doctors will work together to figure out which medication works for you along with the proper schedule and dosage. ADHD treatment requires a combination of medication, therapy, behavior changes, and skills training. 

The Most Popular ADHD Medications

Choosing the best ADHD medication for you or your child, or deciding whether to medicate at all, is an incredibly personal decision. The ADHD medications prescribed to both children and adults are broadly categorized as follows:

  • Stimulants. These are the first-line treatment for ADHD which includes amphetamine and methylphenidate, the most widely used treatment for ADHD, and their derivatives.
  • Non stimulants. These are given to patients who don’t respond to stimulants. Non-stimulant medications include atomoxetine, guanfacine, and clonidine. Non-stimulants may also be prescribed for use alongside stimulants to treat symptoms that the latter does not alleviate.

Antidepressants are also used but the FDA has not specifically approved antidepressants for the treatment of hyperactivity disorder. However, healthcare providers sometimes prescribe them alone or in combination with a stimulant. The antidepressants providers typically prescribe for ADHD work on the dopamine and norepinephrine levels in your brain. 

Medications Used For Kidney Infection

Other popular prescriptions are:

  • Adderall XR (amphetamine)
  • Concerta (methylphenidate)
  • Dexedrine (amphetamine)
  • Evekeo (amphetamine)
  • Focalin XR (dexmethylphenidate)
  • Quillivant XR (methylphenidate)
  • Ritalin (methylphenidate)
  • Strattera (atomoxetine hydrochloride)
  • Vyvanse (lisdexamfetamine dimesylate)

How Do Medications Work for ADHD?

Prescriptions work in various ways depending on the type and severity of your condition. However, all medications regardless of the category increase the levels of important chemicals in your brain and improve the symptoms of ADHD, including increasing attention span and reducing hyperactivity. Both stimulants and non-stimulant drug also controls impulsive behavior and manage other executive dysfunction.

abdominal pain

What are the Typical Side Effects of ADHD Prescriptions?

  • Reduced appetite
  • Stomach pain
  • Headaches
  • Sleep disturbances

Some side effects associated with non-stimulants include:

How Do Stimulant Medications Treat ADHD?

ADHD is a neurological disorder, resulting from the deficiency of neurotransmitters in specific areas of the brain. Stimulant medications used to treat ADHD stimulate specific cells within the brain to produce more of this deficient neurotransmitter. 

Anxiety and stress

Who Should Not Take a Stimulant Drug?

Younger patients under the age of 12 and pregnant patients should avoid using stimulants. Patients who are susceptible to stimulants should either avoid using or minimize their dose depending on doctors’ recommendations. Stimulants are also not permissible to patients who have:

  • Underlying heart problems
  • Glaucoma
  • Severe anxiety, nervousness, and agitation
  • Tourette’s syndrome
  • A history of psychosis or are psychotic

How Do Nonstimulants Work to Treat ADHD?

Non stimulant is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor that works by increasing concentrations of norepinephrine and dopamine in the prefrontal cortex. It regulates behavior and thus helps with ADHD symptoms.

An example drug for this condition is Atomoxetine. It is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). It works by causing a selective inhibition of the pre-synaptic norepinephrine transporter. The dose of this prescription should be reduced in patients with hepatic or renal dysfunction.

The recommended starting dosage of Atomoxetine should be initiated at a total daily dose of 0.5 mg/kg and increased after a minimum of 3 days.  It should be administered either as a single daily dose in the morning or as evenly divided doses in the morning and late afternoon or early evening. Seek immediate help in cases of unexpected side effects.

How is ADHD Medication Dosed?

  • Dosage form or route of administration. Each unit of liquid medication is stated on the patient information sheet inside the medication’s box or packaging.
  • Dose quantity and Strength. Over a given period, a specific amount of medication is released into the blood. This includes the number value for each product represents the total amount of the medication in the tablet, liquid, or patch.  
  • The release mechanism or duration of Administration.  An indication of how long a medication will remain active and available. The release of medication from stimulants can occur over a time frame as short as an hour, as long as four hours, or as long as eight or twelve hours.

Tips to Reduce the Cravings for Nicotine

Nicotine causes a chemical dependency so that the body develops a need for a certain level of nicotine at all times. Nicotine is highly addictive and people who quit may experience nicotine withdrawal symptoms. Withdrawal symptoms are high for heavy smokers for longer years. 

How Long Does Nicotine Craving last?

Cravings for nicotine can start 30 minutes after your last cigarette. This varies depending on how much you smoked and how long. Cravings peak in 2 to 3 days and usually pass after 3 to 5 minutes. You should stop getting them altogether after 4 to 6 weeks.

How to Deal With Cravings for Nicotine

Deal With Cravings for Nicotine
Cravings for Nicotine

When all the nicotine has left your system, the physical cravings will be gone. But then come the mental cravings, which can last for a few weeks. Take it one step at a time and avoid worrying about how you will get through the coming days. Keep a goal and list of things that you can do such as:

  • Try to keep your mouth busy by chewing gum, candy, or chewing on crunchy foods. 
  • Use nicotine replacement therapy such as lozenges, gums, and patches. 
  • Go for a walk or do some quick exercises when a craving hits
  • Head to a public place where you cannot smoke and take deep breathes
  • Eating can also help you deal with nicotine cravings. Be mindful of this and keep healthy snacks on hand.
  • Contact a friend or start a new routine for times when you usually smoke.
  • Try yoga, meditation, and deep breathing when withdrawal starts to get to you.
  • Avoid triggers that make you want to smoke, like alcohol, caffeine, or people you know who still smoke.

The 5 D’s That Help You Quit Smoking

  1. Distract. Focus on something else to distract yourself.
  2. Delay. Wait until the craving passes before doing anything about it.
  3. Deep breaths. Take 20 deep breaths.
  4. Drink water. Get a cold glass of water or fruit juice.
  5. Don’t dwell on it. Food cravings can also be confused with cravings for nicotine. It’s important to eat 3 regular meals each day.
nutritious fruits

Food and Drinks that Could Help Smokers Quit

  • Fruits and vegetables. Once you begin to stop smoking, food starts to taste better and flavors are more noticeable, so you may also enjoy these foods more. Cigarettes block the absorption of nutrients, such as calcium and vitamins C and D. Fruits and vegetables restores the nutrients and reduce your cravings to smoke
  • Milk and dairy. When facing a craving, consuming milk and other dairy products that make cigarettes taste bad might help deter smokers from cigarettes. Talk to your doctor about other options to reduce nicotine cravings.
  • Ginseng tea. This herb is therapeutic for nicotine addiction. It weakens the effect of the neurotransmitter in the brain that is associated with pleasure and is released when smoking tobacco. Ginseng tea could reduce the appeal of smoking and make it less enjoyable.
  • Sugar-free gum and mints. These are typical choices for people dealing with nicotine dependency. Chewing some gums keeps your mouth busy during an urge to smoke. 

Medication That Reduces the Cravings for Nicotine

Nicotine Replacement Therapy is effective in reducing cravings by replacing some of the nicotine you used to get from cigarettes. There are two FDA-approved quit-smoking medicines. Bupropion is a medication that works in the brain and helps people quit smoking. It reduces cravings and alleviates other symptoms of withdrawal. Buy bupropion online for a reasonable price. 

Varenicline is another quit-smoking medication that reduces your urge to smoke and some withdrawal symptoms. It reduces the pleasure you get from the nicotine in cigarettes. This can make it easier to quit by attaching strongly to the same parts of your brain that nicotine attaches to. This means that nicotine from a cigarette has fewer places to attach because the varenicline is already there.

What Food Should Be Avoided and Eaten If you Have Thyroid Issues?

The thyroid gland is a small organ that’s located in the front of the neck, wrapped around the trachea. It creates and produces hormones that play a role in many different systems throughout the body. When there is too much or less production of essential hormones, it is known as thyroid disease or thyroid issues.

Foods to Avoid If You Have Thyroid Issues

Aside from gluten, soy, and caffeine, people with hyperthyroidism should avoid eating excessive amounts of iodine-rich foods, such as:

Shellfish meal on plate

·       Fish and shellfish

·       Seaweed or kelp

·       Iodized salt

·       Dairy products

·       Food products containing red dye

·       Egg yolks

·       Blackstrap molasses

·       Baked goods with iodate dough conditioners

Foods that are Good for the Thyroid Gland

These foods show evidence that aids in thyroid function. If you have hypothyroidism, you can eat:

·       Roasted seaweed such as nori and wakame

·       Salted nuts such as macadamia, hazelnuts, and brazil nuts

·       Baked fish such as sea bass, cod, salmon, and perch

·       Dairy products such as milk and yogurt

·       Fresh eggs

Early Warning Signs of Thyroid Issues

Thyroid issues can be difficult to diagnose since they can be mistaken for other health issues. Nonetheless, there are early warning signs of thyroid issues that you should be aware of.

overweight
overweight

1.    Fatigue. It can be easy to use fatigued interchangeably, but the fatigue experienced by those with thyroid disorders is significantly different, and complete sleep cannot fix it.

2.    Weight gain. The thyroid helps in regulating your metabolism. Having thyroid issues may reduce your metabolic rate and may lead to weight gain.

3.    Weight loss. For some people, thyroid problems may lead to excessive weight loss. In these cases, your BMR results would be much higher than usual.

4.    Slower heart rate. Hypothyroidism results in insufficient thyroid hormone, leading to a slower heart rate. Over time, insufficient thyroid hormone can also cause your arteries to lose elasticity, which can result in high blood pressure due to it taking more work for blood to circulate.

5.    Rapid heart rate. Hyperthyroidism causes the overproduction of hormones that causes faster heartbeats, and harder, and occur at irregular rhythms. Rapid heart rate may cause irregular beats to occur in the upper chambers of the heart and palpitations.

6.    Sensitivity to heat. Sensitivity to heat is a common symptom of an overactive thyroid. This can cause people with hyperthyroidism to experience abnormal sweating and even anxiety due to feeling hot.

7.    Sensitivity to cold. People with hypothyroidism often experience cold hands and feet. This can even occur in rooms where everyone else feels hot. This happens due to your body not producing enough hormones causing your metabolism to slow down.

How to Diagnose Hypothyroidism?

Your doctor may test for an underactive thyroid if you feel increasingly tired, have dry skin, constipation, and weight gain, or have had previous thyroid problems. Blood tests measure TSH and sometimes the thyroid hormone thyroxine is used to diagnose hypothyroidism based on your symptoms and the results of blood tests. Underactive thyroid is indicated by low thyroxine levels and high TSH levels.

Maintaining a Healthy Thyroid

  • Go for a Mediterranean diet. One of the most important things you can do to maintain a healthy thyroid is to eat a well-balanced diet.
  • Be cautious of certain foods. Avoid processed foods packed with sugar and preservatives, dyes, or fat- and sugar-free substitutes.
  • Consider supplements. Speak to your doctor about taking selenium or vitamin D, both of which can improve thyroid health.  Taking probiotics also offers a whole host of health benefits.
  • Avoid environmental toxins. Long-term exposure to chemicals may trigger endocrine problems.

Treatment for Thyroid

Standard treatment for hypothyroidism involves daily use of the synthetic thyroid hormone Thyroxine Sodium.  It restores adequate hormone levels, reversing the signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism. Treatment with levothyroxine will likely be lifelong, but because the dosage you need may change, your doctor is likely to check your TSH level every year. For subclinical hypothyroidism discuss treatment with your doctor. 

Does Ocular Hypertension Always Cause Glaucoma?

A feeling of pressure behind your eyes doesn’t always stem from a problem inside your eyes. It usually starts in another part of your head. Although eye conditions can cause pain and vision problems, they rarely cause pressure. Pressure does not accompany glaucoma, caused by a buildup of pressure in the eye.

symptoms of a Lazy Eye

What is the Difference  Between Ocular Hypertension and Glaucoma?

This condition usually refers to any situation in which the pressure inside the eye, called intraocular pressure, is higher than average. Glaucoma, on the other hand, is a severe disease that causes vision loss and can lead to blindness if left untreated.

Does Occular Hypertension Always Lead to Glaucoma?

Not all people with ocular hypertension will develop glaucoma. However, people with this condition have an increased risk of glaucoma. Therefore, regular examination of your eyes is imperative if you have ocular hypertension.

How Fast Can Ocular Hypertension Develop Into Glaucoma?

9.5 percent of condition have patients develop glaucoma in 5 years, and 22% build glaucoma at 13 years. However, proper treatment reduces 50% of your risk of glaucoma.

Diagnosis of Lazy Eye

How is Ocular Hypertension Diagnosed?

An eye examination is a primary method to diagnose ocular hypertension. Since condition have significantly increases the risk of glaucoma, your doctor will also check the optic nerves for damage. The optic nerve is monitored using various imaging techniques, such as a nerve fiber analyzer or optical coherence tomography.  

Glaucoma may affect peripheral vision, which may go unnoticed in its early stages, so it is essential to have your doctor check your peripheral vision. A gonioscopy can also be performed as part of an eye examination to examine the eye’s internal drainage system.

Treatment for Ocular Hypertension

Ocular hypertension is treated with prescription eye drops that can help aqueous humor drain from your eye or lower the amount of aqueous humor your eye produces. Latanoprost is an eye drop used as a long-term aid for open-angle glaucoma and condition have. Eye surgery is also recommended for eye conditions that do not respond to medications.

How Can I Reduce High Cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a fatty substance known as a lipid. It is vital for the normal functioning of the body. However, having an excessively high level of lipids in your blood can affect your health. High cholesterol increases your risk of heart disease, hypertension, and stroke.

animated man brain that will get stroke

Why Should I Lower My Cholesterol?

Evidence strongly indicates that high cholesterol can increase the risk of life-threatening diseases. Reducing your cholesterol level may also prevent you from health risks such as stroke and heart attack. Healthy cholesterol levels lower your risk of atherosclerosis, mini-stroke, and peripheral arterial disease.

High-fat levels can build up in the artery wall, restricting the blood flow to your heart, brain, and the rest of your body. It also increases the risk of a blood clot developing somewhere in your body. Lowering HDL reduces pain in your chest or arm during stress or physical activity.

Ways to Lower Your Cholesterol

  • Eat less fatty foods, incredibly saturated fats. Increase your intake of healthy fats such as nuts, seeds, salmon, and mackerel. Opt for brown rice than white rice, bread, and pasta.
  • Exercise more and aim to do at least 150  minutes of exercise a week. Try to incorporate walking and cycling. Light exercise burns excess calories.
  • Stop smoking because cigarette makes you more likely to have severe problems like heart attacks, strokes, and cancer.
  • Cut down on alcohol to reduce the rapid deposition of unhealthy fats in the body.
losing weight

Best Exercises for Lowering Cholesterol

  1. Running or jogging helps manage weight. An easy jog for a few miles may be better for lowering cholesterol than a fast sprint around the block.
  2. Take a brisk walk every morning as part of your cardio exercise. Walking can often be a much better exercise to protect joint health.
  3. Try cycling. Bike to work or just for fun to expend the same energy as jogging. It also helps you to be less likely to develop high cholesterol than those who don’t.
  4. Lift a few weights. It is the type of exercise most commonly recommended to reduce heart disease risk.

Medication to Reduce High Cholesterol

Atorvastatin is a recommended medication to reduce high cholesterol in the blood. It works by blocking an enzyme needed by the body to make cholesterol, thereby reducing the amount of cholesterol in the blood. 

Things To Know If You Have Exercise-induced Bronchoconstriction

Airflow obstruction that occurs because of exercise is exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Movement can cause shortness of breath in anyone, but people with asthma should be careful because it may trigger an attack. 

Chest pain

Symptoms of Exercise-induced Bronchoconstriction

Signs and symptoms of this condition begin during exercise or after. Symptoms may also last for 60 minutes or more. These include:

Get emergency medical treatment if you have:

  • Shortness of breath or wheezing that is quickly increasing causes breathing trouble. 
  • No improvement even after using a prescription inhaler for asthma attacks

Causes of Exercise-induced Bronchoconstriction

There is no specific cause of EIB, but common risk factors of its onset are rigorous physical activity and cold or dry air. When you exercise, you breathe in through your mouth more often, and the air remains cold and dry. The condition worsens when:

  • Pollen counts are high
  • The air condition is dry
  • Poor air ventilation or pollution
  • You are recovering from a cold or respiratory illness
  • You inhaled smoke, chemicals, or fumes from paint or cleaning supplies
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Can You Exercise With Exercise-induced Asthma?

Exercise-induced asthma is treatable and does not have to interfere with your workouts. In fact, experts say exercise can actually help you manage asthma as long as you follow your doctor’s instructions for doing it safely. Warm-up and cool down for at least fifteen minutes before and after you exercise. You also have to avoid exercising when your allergies are bad. For instance, when pollen levels are high. This can help lessen EIB symptoms.

How to  Get Rid of Exercise-induced Bronchoconstriction?

Your doctor might prescribe drugs to take before exercise or daily for long-term control. If your doctor prescribes a medication you take before a workout to minimize or prevent the onset of the condition, ask how much time you need between taking the drug and exercising. Short-acting beta-agonists are often given to help open airways. These are typical pre-exercise aid for people with EIB. 

Your doctor might also prescribe a long-term control drug to manage underlying chronic asthma or to control symptoms when pre-exercise treatment alone is not working. Salbutamol is a typical medication given to asthmatic patients. People with EIB can also use this to manage symptoms.

How Serious Is Obstructive Sleep Apnea?

Obstructive sleep apnea is the most common sleep-related breathing disorder. It causes you to repeatedly stop and start breathing while you sleep. It occurs when your throat muscles irregularly relax and block your airway during sleep. 

Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Symptoms

  • Excessive daytime sleepiness
  • Loud snoring
  • Some episodes of stopped breathing during sleep
  • Mood changes
  • Depression or irritability
  • High blood pressure
  • Abrupt awakenings accompanied 
  • Difficulty concentrating during the day
  • Decreased libido
  • Gasping or choking
  • Awakening with a dry mouth or sore throat
  • Morning headache

What Causes Obstructive Sleep Apnea?

These conditions are associated with this condition:

  • Obesity hypoventilation syndrome
  • Hypothyroidism, PCOS, and other endocrine conditions
  • Chronic lung diseases
  • COPD, asthma, and pulmonary fibrosis
  • Neuromuscular disorders such as a stroke
  • Heart or kidney failure 
  • Fluid build-up in your neck
  • Pregnancy
woman depressed in dark room

Health Problems You Might Face If You Have Obstructive Sleep Apnea

  1. Hypertension. Sleeping problems worsen your high blood pressure if you already have it. It is due to the stress that your body gets if you are often fully awake at night time. It causes your hormone systems to go into overdrive, which boosts your blood pressure levels. 
  2. Heart disease. People with OSA are more likely to have heart attacks due to low oxygen and fast fluttering heartbeat linked with the condition. OSA disrupts how your body takes in oxygen, which makes it hard for your brain to control how blood flows in your arteries and the brain itself.
  3. Type 2 diabetes. Sleep apnea is common among people with this condition. Obesity raises your risk for both disorders. Not getting enough rest can prevent your body from using insulin, leading to diabetes.
  4. Weight gain or obesity. Extra pounds raise your chances of getting sleep apnea, and the condition also makes it harder to slim down. The fatty deposits in your neck cause blockage of breathing when sleeping. Conversely, sleep apnea can cause your body to release more hormones that trigger your cravings for sweets and carbs. 
  5. Daytime sleepiness. Constant fatigue during the daytime can take a toll on your health and daily productivity. Getting proper treatment helps you maintain an appropriate sleep schedule and reduces fatigue during the day.
  6. Memory problems. Some older people have more memory slips or thinking problems than other folks their age. The symptoms are not as severe as dementia. Getting treatment for OSA might delay memory troubles from getting worse. 
  7. Depression. Poor sleep might make you more likely to get depressed. And depression may raise your chances of getting worse shut-eye. Talk to your doctor to get treatments that lift your mood and improve your sleep.
  8. Metabolic syndrome. This is a group of health conditions that have been linked with OSA. It is when you have at least three of these conditions:
  • High blood sugar
  • Low levels of HDL cholesterol
  • High levels of triglycerides
  • Too much fat around your waist
  • High blood pressure

Treatment for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

For milder cases of obstructive sleep apnea, your doctor might recommend lifestyle changes which includes losing weight, exercising, and quitting smoking. Other treatment method includes therapy and surgery. Modafinil is also a medication used for obstructive sleep apnea.

Nociceptive Pain Caused By Injury

Nociceptive pain is discomfort due to your body’s response to damage to your tissues. Most pain you experience is nociceptive, commonly affecting your muscles, joints, and bones. Although it is sharp in nature, it goes away as soon as its underlying cause is healed. 

migraine with aura

Types of Nociceptive Pain

  1. Radicular pain. Radicular pain occurs when the nerve roots are irritated. It goes down your arm or leg through a nerve from the spinal cord. It causes numbness, weakness, and tingling or feelings of pins and needles, among other symptoms.
  2. Somatic pain. Somatic pain happens due to activated pain receptors in your tissues. This type of pain is often stimulated by movement. It’s usually localized. Headaches and cuts are both considered somatic pain.
  3. Visceral pain. Visceral pain happens due to the inflammation or injury of internal organs such as the heart. Visceral pain is often vague, occurs frequently, and feels like a deep ache or pressure.

Nociceptive vs. Neuropathic Pain

Neuropathic pain is linked with damage to the body’s neurological system, typically caused by an infection. It is generally described as shooting pain that travels along the nerve. On the other hand, nociceptive pain arises from actual or threatened damage to non-neural tissue due to the activation of the nociceptor. 

What Does Nociceptive Pain Feel Like

Nociceptive pain feels sharp, aching, or throbbing. People commonly experience this condition in the musculoskeletal system. This includes the joints, muscles, skin, tendons, and bones. Left untreated, it can interfere with your daily life and make it difficult to move, causing mobility issues.

Examples of Nociceptive Pain

man bruised finer bleeding and swelling
  • Cuts
  • Bruises
  • Sprain
  • Joint arthritis
  • Crash injury
  • Broken bones
  • Joint damage caused by arthritis
  • Damage or blockage in your internal organs and soft 
  • Cancer pain is also usually nociceptive

Treatment for Nociceptive Pain

Treatment for this condition involves treating the underlying condition or waiting for the injury to heal. A combination of pain management strategies such as physical therapy and medications also treats nociceptive pain. Doctors may also recommend prescription medications like opioids or antidepressants, depending on the severity of the condition.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Child

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental disorder. It typically appears in early childhood before a child turns seven. ADHD makes it difficult for children to inhibit their spontaneous responses from movement to speech to attentiveness.

Signs and Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children

While many children are naturally quite active, kids with attention deficit disorder hyperactive symptoms are always moving. They may try to do several things simultaneously, bouncing around from one activity to the next. Other common signs and symptoms include:

Little boy playing with his feet
  • Tapping of foot 
  • Shaking of legs
  • Fingers are drumming
  • Constantly fidget and squirm
  • Have difficulty sitting still, playing quietly, or relaxing.
  • Move around frequently
  • Often running or climbing inappropriately
  • Talk excessively

Impulsive Signs and Symptoms of ADHD in Children

  • Act without thinking
  • Often interrupt others
  • Say the wrong thing at the wrong time.
  • Be unable to keep powerful emotions in check
  • Guess, rather than taking time to solve a problem
  • Blurt out answers in class without waiting to be called on or hear the whole question.
  • Intrude in other people’s conversations or games
  • Angry outbursts or temper tantrums
Alcohol or drug abuse

Causes of ADHD

In addition to genetics, other possible causes and risk factors also include:

  • Low birth weight
  • Brain injury
  • Exposure to environmental risks at a young age or during pregnancy
  • Alcohol and tobacco use of mother during pregnancy
  • Premature delivery

How to Diagnose ADHD?

Anxiety, depression, sleep problems, and learning disabilities can all have symptoms similar to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and there is no single test to diagnose these. One step involves having a medical exam, including hearing and vision tests, to rule out other problems with symptoms like ADHD. ADHD is diagnosed by rating symptoms and taking a history of the child from the parents, teachers, and sometimes, the child himself.

Treatments for ADHD in Children

Standard treatments for ADHD in children include medications, behavior therapy, counseling, and education services. These treatments can relieve many Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms but do not cure them. Doctors may also recommend Atomoxetine to reduce impulsiveness and hyperactivity in children and adults with ADHD. It is crucial to make sure your child takes the right amount of the prescribed medication.

Vegetarian Diet Can Lower Your Risk of Heart Disease

According to a meta-analysis published in the American Journal of Preventive Cardiology, vegetarians reduce the risk of death from ischemic heart disease. Vegetarian diets, including vegan eating patterns, were associated with a 30% reduced risk of death from ischemic heart disease compared to non-vegetarian diets.

nutritious fruits

How Does Vegetarianism Protect the Heart?

A plant-based diet is more healthful for the heart than a meat-heavy one. Vegetables are rich in fiber and phytonutrients, which reduce inflammation and oxidative stress. Fiber fights high cholesterol. The vegetarian diet is high in fiber from fruits, vegetables, beans, and grains, which is suitable for managing cholesterol.

Vegetables have fewer calories for a healthy weight and are extra antioxidants. A vegetarian diet eliminates fats from animal products and replaces them with high-fiber foods, which fill you up more so you eat less, lowering your risk of obesity. Eating more fruits and vegetables means you are getting more of the nutrients, like antioxidants, that protect against heart disease.

Vegetables that Reduce Your Risk of Heart Disease

  1. Kale. The trendy superfood contains essential heart-healthy nutrients which improve blood flow.
  2. Spinach. A serving of spinach contains more potassium that, helps ease stress on the blood-vessel walls and it helps the body remove excess sodium
  3. Swiss chard. Just one serving of the vegetable contains more than three times your daily value of vitamin K, an essential nutrient for brain, bone, and heart health.
  4. Broccoli. This vegetable has antioxidant effects that reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease. 
  5. Brussels sprouts. Folate is an essential nutrient for healthy cell growth and plays an active role in heart health.
  6. Collard greens. Collard greens have magnesium that helps lower blood pressure in patients with hypertension. It helps blood vessels relax, increasing blood flow through the body and easing pressure on the heart. 
  7. Green Beans. The little pod within the green beans is a starchy legume full of fiber and folate, which have many benefits for heart health. It fights inflammation and may help prevent hypertension through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Medications Used For Kidney Infection

Medications for the Types of Heart Disease

Aside from healthy eating, taking your medications for hypertension, cholesterol, and heart health is also essential in managing heart disease. Take your maintenance pills to ensure healthy and improved heart health. The typical prescription drugs for heart and blood pressure-related conditions are:

What Bacteria Causes Pityriasis Versicolor?

What Is Pityriasis Versicolor?

Pityriasis Versicolor is a common fungal skin infection. The fungus interferes with the normal pigmentation of the skin, resulting in small, discolored patches. These patches may be lighter or darker in color than the surrounding skin and most commonly affect the trunk and shoulders.

Bacteria That Causes Pityriasis Versicolor

Pityriasis Versicolor results from a type of yeast that naturally lives on your skin. When the yeast grows out of control, the skin disease appears as a rash. Malassezia’s yeast that causes tinea versicolor grows on normal, healthy skin. This condition is not contagious but may affect people of any skin color. 

Skin fungi on a boy

Where is Pityriasis Versicolor Found?

The fungus that causes Pityriasis Versicolor can be found on healthy skin. It only starts causing problems when the fungus overgrows or is triggered by humid weather, hormonal changes, and oily skin. The patches most often occur on the chest or back. They also stop the skin from tanning evenly and often appear as lighter spots on tan skin. 

How to Prevent Pityriasis Versicolor?

To help prevent the condition from returning, your doctor can prescribe a skin or oral treatment that you use once or twice a month. You may need to use these just during warm and humid months or when you are at high risk of the condition.

Clotrimazole Cream

Treatment 

You can apply an over-the-counter antifungal lotion, cream, ointment, or shampoo for a mild condition. Wash and dry the affected area when using creams, ointments, or lotions. Then apply a thin product layer once or twice a day for at least two weeks. If you’re using shampoo, rinse it off after waiting five to ten minutes. Some products that are typically recommended for treatment are:

Foods To Eat And Avoid With Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is an impairment in how the body regulates and uses sugar as a fuel. It is a chronic condition that results in too much sugar circulating in the bloodstream. Eventually, high blood sugar levels can lead to circulatory, nervous, and immune disorders.

Facts You Should Know About Type 2 Diabetes

  • The vast majority of people with diabetes have Type 2 diabetes.
  • Diabetes is a leading cause of death in the world. Type 2 diabetes is preventable through proper diet and exercise.
  • Diabetes is the leading cause of blindness, kidney failure, amputation, and other conditions.
  • Type 2 diabetes is more common in older adults, but the increase in children with obesity has led to more cases of type 2 diabetes in younger people.

Foods to Eat With Type 2 Diabetes

Here are some examples of nutritious foods that your diet should include:

Woman cutting zucchini on chopping board
  • Fruits such as oranges, berries, apples, peaches, and pears.
  • Whole grains include quinoa, faro, brown rice, and sugar-free oats. 
  • Vegetables such as broccoli, spinach, zucchini, cucumber, and cauliflower. 
  • Lentils, chickpeas, and beans
  • Nuts and seeds such as almonds, walnuts, chia seeds, and pumpkin seeds
  • Protein-rich foods such as seafood, lean cuts of red meat, and tofu
  • Heart-healthy fats such as olive oil, avocados, canola oil, sesame oil
  • Beverages such as water, black coffee, unsweetened tea, and vegetable juice

Foods to Avoid With Type 2 Diabetes

  • High-fat meat
  • Full-fat dairy
  • Sweeteners such as brown sugar and honey
  • Sugar-sweetened beverages
  • Desserts, ice cream, candies, cookies, and baked goods
  • Processed foods such as chips, convenience meals, and processed meat
  • Trans fats such as vegetable shortening, fried foods, and hydrogenated oils

The Worst Drinks for Type 2 Diabetes

  1. Regular soda. Soda takes the top spot on the list of drinks to avoid, as one can of soda already contains 40 grams of sugar and 150 calories. 
  2. Energy drinks. Energy drinks can be high in caffeine and carbohydrates, which can cause a spike in blood sugar.
  3. Sweetened or unsweetened fruit juices. Bottled or canned fruit juices can add a high amount of carbohydrates to your diet and are pure sugar. This combination can wreak havoc on your blood sugar and increase your risk for weight gain.

Best Exercises If You Have Diabetes

  • Walking 
  • Dancing
  • Swimming 
  • Cycling
  • Aerobic dance
  • Weightlifting
  • Pilates
  • Calisthenics
  • Strength training 
  • Yoga 

Medication for Type 2 Diabetes

Aside from a healthy diet and exercise, you can also manage type 2 diabetes through recommended medications. The goal of the treatment is to maintain healthy blood sugar and reduce the effects of its symptoms. Monitoring your blood sugar and taking Metformin to utilize glucose and enhance insulin-mediated glucose disposal in muscle and fat. 

How to Stop Restless leg syndrome Immediately?

Restless leg syndrome is a disorder in the nervous system that causes an overpowering urge to move your legs. It comes along with an uncomfortable sensation at nighttime or when lying down.

Pregnancy

What Triggers Restless Leg Syndrome?

The specific trigger of restless leg syndrome is not known yet. However, several factors cause the condition and may trigger its attack. Aside from genetic risk factors, restless leg syndrome is also triggered by the following factors:

Home Remedies to Stop the Restlessness Immediately

  1. Rule out the potential causes. Addressing or determining the potential causes of restless leg syndrome to help you decide the next step of treatment. Assess your habits, medications, or if whether or not you are pregnant.
  2. Ensure to have healthy sleep habits. Having good sleep habits could help you offset the sleep loss you suffer from your condition. Make your sleep restful and restorative by having a proper sleep schedule. 
  3. Vitamin and iron supplements. Iron deficiency is thought to be one of the main causes of RLS. Addressing iron deficiency may alleviate restless leg syndrome caused by iron deficiency.
  4. Exercise. Aerobic exercise and lower body resistance training ease mild symptoms of restless leg . But, ensure to avoid working out to the point of aches and pains, as this could make your RLS symptoms worse. You can also incorporate yoga and stretching.
  5. Massage. Massaging your leg muscles could help ease restless leg syndrome symptoms. Massage and direct pressure on leg muscles improve circulation and relaxation.
  6. Prescription medications. Medication is a key treatment for moderate to severe RLS. Dopaminergic drugs are typical prescription that relieves symptoms of restless leg . 
Alcohol or drug abuse

Tips for Better Sleep for People with Restless Leg Syndrome 

  • Take a hot bath with two cups of Epsom salts, which contain magnesium. 
  • Eat a protein-rich meal for dinner to stabilize your blood sugar. Avoid carbohydrates or sweets before bedtime.
  • Drink a lot of water and eat bananas to avoid dehydration and low potassium.
  • Elevate your legs, keep the temperature cool in the room, and do deep breathing exercises. 
  • Avoid alcohol and caffeine.

Treatment for Restless Leg Syndrome

The first line of defense against restless legs syndrome is to avoid substances or foods that may aggravate or worsen the problem. Your doctor will determine the medication for restless leg syndrome after a careful medical assessment.

Treatment of High Prolactin Levels

What is Prolactin?

Prolactin is a hormone made by the pituitary gland that the breasts to grow and make milk during pregnancy and after birth. Prolactin levels are normally high for pregnant women and new mothers. Levels are normally low for nonpregnant women and for men. If prolactin levels are higher than normal, it often means there is a type of tumor of the pituitary gland, known as prolactinoma.

The Difference Between Hyperprolactinemia and Prolactinoma

Hyperprolactinemia means you have higher-than-normal levels of prolactin in your blood. This is typically caused by a benign tumor in your pituitary gland known as a prolactinoma. Prolactinoma also reduces the level of sex hormones.

High Prolactin Levels

Symptoms of High Prolactin Levels

High prolactin levels in women cause the following:

  • Irregular menstrual periods or no menstrual periods
  • Milky discharge from the breasts even if not pregnant
  • Vaginal dryness which causes pain during sex
  • Acne and excessive body and facial hair growth

High prolactin levels in men cause:

  • Reduced facial and body hair
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Enlarged breast
  • Smaller muscles
  • Infertility and loss of sexual interest

What Causes High Prolactin Levels in Women?

There are no specific causes of high prolactin levels in women. But, several factors contribute to your risk of this condition. Some causes include:

  • Medication
  • Kidney disease
  • Underactive thyroid gland
  • Other types of pituitary tumors
  • Pregnancy and breastfeeding
Blood tests

How is High Prolactin Diagnosed?

If you experience the signs and symptoms of prolactinoma, your doctor will recommend the following diagnostic method:

  1. Blood tests. It shows the production or levels of prolactin your body produces. It determines whether levels of other hormones controlled by the pituitary gland are within the standard range. 
  2. Brain imaging. Your provider may be able to detect a prolactinoma using a magnetic resonance imaging scan of your brain.
  3. Vision tests. These can determine if a prolactinoma is affecting your sight.

Treatment of High Prolactin Levels

The goal of treating prolactinoma is to return the production of prolactin to within the standard range and reduce the size of the prolactinoma. Oral medications known as dopamine agonists are generally used to treat prolactinoma. Cabergoline is a recommended medication for this condition. It is considered the most effective dopamine agonist that lowers prolactin levels in approximately 90 percent of people who have prolactinomas.

What is Erectile Dysfunction, And How Can It Affect Relationships?

What is ED?

ED or Erectile Dysfunction is the inability to achieve and keep a firm erection enough for sex. Having erection trouble is not a major concern but, it causes stress, affects your self-confidence, and contributes to relationship problems.

How Does Erectile Dysfunction Affect Relationships?

  • Sexual intimacy can be an important part of a marriage or long-term relationship. ED changes the level of intimacy and may anxiety or a feeling of loss for both partners. 
  • Depending on the severity of the symptoms, they may not be able to have sexual intercourse as frequently as before.
  • Most ED patients may not be able to have sexual intercourse at all.
  • ED also affects the mental health of a person’s partner. It causes confusion, anxiety, lack of desire, and worries that their partner may be unfaithful.
  • These feelings can place strain on a relationship. ED can also be difficult to talk about due to shame or stigma. It holds back partners from communicating openly about it.

How to Deal With Erectile Dysfunction in a Relationship?

Erectile Dysfunction

Some approaches that people can try include:

  • Open communication to reduce the strain of erectile dysfunction. Communication can also clear up misunderstandings and reduce stress. 
  • Counseling mental health could be a factor in a person’s ED, they may suggest counseling. It can give someone a nonjudgmental space to talk about difficulties in coping with ED. 
  • Other forms of intimacy such as cuddling, kissing, and touching can make someone with ED feel accepted and comforted. 
  • Lifestyle changes can also make a big difference. It is important to stop smoking and reduce alcohol intake to see changes. Exercising and reducing weight are also beneficial.

Treatment for ED

If you have erectile dysfunction, your doctor will make sure you are receiving the right treatment for any underlying health conditions. There may be a variety of treatment options available to you depending on the cause and severity of your erectile dysfunction and any underlying health conditions.

Each treatment is explained to you by your doctor, who will consider your preferences and explain the risks and benefits. Sildenafil Suhagra is a potent medication for erectile dysfunction. It allows the muscles to relax and allow blood supply, thereby resulting in an erection.

Stages of Male Pattern Baldness

What is Male Pattern Baldness?

Male pattern baldness is a form of androgenic alopecia that accounts for more than 95% of hair loss in men. Sudden or unexpected hair loss can sometimes indicate a more serious health condition that may need medical attention. Other causes of hair loss include nutritional deficiencies, infections, and some psychological conditions.

Male Pattern Baldness

Stages of Male Pattern Baldness

  • Stage 1. No significant recession of the hairline or not enough evidence of hair loss.
  • Stage 2. This is when the adult or mature hairline is visible along with a slight recession of the hairline around the temples.
  • Stage 3. The first signs of clinically significant balding appear and there is a deeper recession at both temples. This stage is also known as the stage 3 vertex. The hairline stays at stage 2, but there is significant hair loss on the top of the scalp.
  • Stage 4. The hairline recession is more severe, and there is sparse hair or no hair on the vertex.
  • Stage 5. The two areas of hair loss are larger than in stage 4. They are still separated, but the band becomes narrower and sparser.
  • Stage 6. The balding areas at the temples join with the balding area at the vertex. The band of hair across the top of the head is gone or sparse.
  • Stage 7. In the most severe stage of hair loss, only a band of hair going around the sides of the head remains.

How is Male Pattern Baldness Diagnosed?

Typical male pattern baldness is usually diagnosed based on the appearance and pattern of hair loss. Your doctor may also perform a detailed assessment of your medical history, including questions about the prevalence of hair loss in your family.

Age When Men Start  to Lose Hair

Half of the men in the world experience hair loss by age 50. At least 25 percent of these men have experienced early symptoms of baldness during their younger years specifically at 25 years old. Fortunately, there are pharmaceutical, surgical and cosmetic treatments for baldness nowadays.

Treatment for Male Pattern Baldness

Finasteride is an effective treatment medication that is used for male pattern baldness. It slows down hair loss which is caused by a highly active form of testosterone that is linked to baldness.

The Effects of Panic Disorders on Patients

What is Panic Disorder?

Panic disorders is frequent and unexpected panic attacks that are characterized by sudden waves of fear or discomfort. It is also a sense of losing control regardless of having no clear trigger or danger. 

The Impact of Panic Disorder on the Individual’s Health

Panic attacks may occur anytime and some cases may affect your health. These includes:

  1. Central nervous system. Panic attacks cause your brain to release stress hormones and increase the frequency of symptoms such as headaches, depression, and dizziness.
  2. Cardiovascular system. Anxiety causes palpitations, and chest pain, and increases your risk of heart disease and high blood pressure. 
  3. Excretory and digestive systems. Anxiety also causes stomachaches, nausea, diarrhea, and other digestive issues anxiety disorders may also increase your risk of developing irritable bowel syndrome and constipation. 
  4. Immune system. The flight-or-fight stress response during panic attacks causes your body to release a flood of chemicals and hormones. This prepares you to respond appropriately to an intense situation. If this happens over time, it may weaken your immune system. 
  5. Respiratory system. Panic disorder may increase your risk or worsen your chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This also increases your risk of hospitalization. 

Causes of Panic Disorder

  • A family history of panic disorders is often considered one of the causes of the condition. 
  • Mental health issues such as depression or other mental illnesses may also cause panic disorders
  • Alcoholism and drug addiction may also increase your risk of panic attacks. 
Chest pain

Signs and Symptoms

  • Chills 
  • Chest pain
  • Choking or smothering sensation
  • Fear of losing control
  • Feeling like you are going to die
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Rapid heartbeat 
  • Sweating and nausea
  • Trembling or shaking

Can Panic Disorder Be Cured?

Unfortunately, panic disorders can never be entirely cured. However, there are several ways to manage it and prevent it from impairing your life. A combination of medications, therapy, and self-willingness can help you manage the condition. Citalopram is also an effective drug to treat panic disorders associated with major depression and mood disorders. 

How Long Does Panic Disorder Last?

Most panic attacks last between 5 and 20 minutes. Some have been reported to last up to an hour. The frequency of attacks you have will depend on the severity of the condition. Some people have attacks once or twice a month, while others have them several times a week.

Blood tests

How is Panic Disorders Diagnosed?

To help pinpoint a diagnosis, your doctor may recommend:

  • A complete physical exam
  • Blood tests to check your thyroid and other possible conditions and tests on your heart.
  • A psychological evaluation to talk about your symptoms, fears or concerns, stressful situations, relationship problems, situations you may be avoiding, and family history.

How Do You Know If Your Pain Is Neuropathic?

How Does Neuropathic Pain Start?

The pain usually starts as a burning sensation and affected areas are often sensitive to the touch. Symptoms of neuropathic pain include excruciating pain, pins, and needles, difficulty correctly sensing temperatures, and numbness. 

What Does Neuropathic Pain Feel Like?

In people who suffer from neuropathic pain, touch or cold can cause pain, and stimuli that wouldn’t normally cause pain, such as brushing the skin, can be painful. It’s often worse at night. It might be mild or it might be severe. It is common for nerve pain to interfere with important aspects of life such as sleep, sex, work, and exercise. 

What are Some of the Sources of Neuropathic Pain?

  1. Autoimmune diseases. There are several types of inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, such as Sjogren’s syndrome, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.
  2. Diabetes. Among people with diabetes, more than half will develop some type of neuropathy.
  3. Infections. Some of these infections are viral or bacterial, such as Lyme disease, shingles, Epstein-Barr virus, hepatitis B and C, leprosy, diphtheria, and HIV.
  4. Inherited disorders. Disorders such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease are hereditary types of neuropathy.
  5. Tumors. Growths, cancerous and noncancerous, can develop on the nerves or press on nerves. It is also possible to develop polyneuropathy from some cancers associated with the immune system. 
  6. Bone marrow disorders. These include an abnormal protein in the blood, a form of bone cancer, lymphoma, and the rare disease amyloidosis.
  7. Other diseases. These include kidney disease, liver disease, connective tissue disorders, and an underactive thyroid.
Alcohol or drug abuse

Foods To Avoid if You Have Neuropathic Pain

  • Gluten
  • Sugar and artificial sweeteners
  • Alcohol
  • Saturated fats
  • Salty foods
  • Refined grains

Treatment for Neuropathic Pain

Treatment goals are to manage the condition causing your neuropathy and to relieve symptoms. Your doctor might recommend watchful waiting to see if your neuropathy improves pain relievers, antidepressants, anti-seizure medications, and other therapies. Tramadol is also a pain reliever and not an over-the-counter drug. It works by changing the way your brain senses pain.

Epidemic Typhus: Symptoms and Causes

What is Typhus Called Today?

Epidemic typhus is also known today as louse-borne typhus. It is an uncommon disease caused by a bacteria called Rickettsia Prowazekii that spread to people through contact with infected body lice. 

Facts About Typhus

  • Typhus is a vector-borne bacterial disease; there are two types termed endemic and epidemic.
  • Typhus has a long and deadly history, especially epidemic typhus.
  • Risk factors include visiting or living in areas where rats, mice, and other animals have high populations. 
  • There is usually a good to excellent prognosis for endemic typhus, but the prognosis for epidemic typhus can vary from good to poor, with the elderly usually suffering the worst outcome.
  • By practicing good hygiene and living in a clean environment, one can prevent or reduce one’s risk of both types of typhus.
  • There is no commercially available vaccine against either endemic or epidemic typhus.
itchy skin

Symptoms of Epidemic Typhus

The symptoms of typhus include:

  • Cough
  • Headache
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Skin rash
  • Flu-like symptoms
  • Muscle aches and fever
  • Rapid breathing
  • Confusion

Causes of Typhus

Different insects spread different types of typhus. These includes:

  • Chiggers. These carry scrub typhus, which is most common in southeast Asia.
  • Body lice. It spreads after a bite from an infected body louse.
  • Fleas. A person may contract murine typhus after contact with an animal that carries infected fleas.

3 Types of Typhus

  1. Epidemic typhus. This louse-borne typhus is a disease caused by a bacteria called Rickettsia prowazekii. While previously responsible for many illnesses worldwide, it is now considered rare.
  2. Scrub typhus.  Scrub typhus is spread to people through bites of infected chiggers. Scrub typhus is most prevalent in rural areas in Southeast Asia, Indonesia, China, Japan, India, and northern Australia.
  3. Murine typhus. It is also endemic typhus or flea-borne typhus and is a disease caused by a bacteria called Rickettsia Typhi. People get sick with murine typhus when infected flea feces are rubbed into cuts or scrapes in the skin.

What is the Difference Between Typhoid and Typhus?

Typhoid is a foodborne illness that spreads often through contaminated food or water, and symptoms develop within three weeks. Typhus, on the other hand, is a flea-borne disease that occurs in areas where overcrowding and poor hygiene are common.

Treatment for Typhus

Epidemic typhus should be treated with the antibiotic doxycycline. This is effective if given to the patient soon after symptoms begin. Doxycycline is a tetracyclic antibiotic that inhibits the growth of disease-causing bacteria.

What are the Symptoms of Hypercalcaemia?

What is Hypercalcaemia?

Hypercalcaemia is a condition in which the calcium level in your blood is above normal. It weakens your bones, creates kidney stones, and interferes with how your heart and brain work.

migraine with aura

Symptoms of Hypercalcemia?

  • More frequent urination and thirst
  • Bone pain and fatigue
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Headaches and constipation
  • Reduced appetite
  • Forgetfulness, irritability, and depression
  • Muscle aches and weakness
  • Cramping and or twitches

What Foods to Avoid if Calcium is High?

If you are diagnosed with hypercalcemia, avoid the following food choices as much as possible:

  • Stop your intake of cheese, milk, pudding, ice cream, and yogurt
  • Avoid buying products that have added calcium
  • Canned salmon or sardines with soft bones
  • Calcium-fortified orange juice
  • Calcium-fortified ready-to-eat cereals

Complications of Hypercalcaemia

Hypercalcemia complications can include:

  • Nervous system problems. Severe hypercalcemia can lead to confusion, dementia, and coma, which can be fatal.
  • Osteoporosis. Bone fractures, spinal column curvature, and loss of height may result if your bones continue to release calcium into your blood.
  • Abnormal heart rhythm. If you have hypercalcemia, the electrical impulses that control your heartbeat can be affected, resulting in irregular heartbeats.
  • Kidney stones. If your urine contains too much calcium, crystals might form in your kidneys. Over time, the crystals can combine to form kidney stones and this can be extremely painful.
  • Kidney failure. Your kidneys can be damaged by severe hypercalcemia, limiting their ability to cleanse the blood and eliminate waste products.

What Cancers Cause High Calcium Levels?

Cancers that more commonly cause high calcium levels in your blood include:

What are the Types of Depressive Disorders?

What are Depressive Disorders?

Depression is a mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. It affects how you feel, think and behave and can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems. Sometimes you may feel as if life is not worth living but note that you’ll get through it and that what you feel is valid. 

Types of Depressive Disorders

  1. Major depressive disorder. This is a clinical depression that causes intense or overwhelming symptoms that last longer than two weeks. These symptoms interfere with everyday life.
  2. Bipolar depression. This causes alternating periods of low mood and extremely high-energy periods. Low periods can lead to depression symptoms like sadness, hopelessness, and fatigue.
  3. Perinatal and postpartum depression. An individual may suffer from postpartum depression during pregnancy or up to one year after giving birth. Symptoms go beyond and cause minor sadness, worry or stress.
  4. Persistent depressive disorder. It is also known as dysthymia. This causes less severe symptoms than major depression. But people experience PDD symptoms for two years or longer.
  5. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder.  The premenstrual dysphoric disorder is a severe form of premenstrual disorder.  It affects women in the days or weeks leading up to their menstrual period.
  6. Psychotic depression. There are severe depressive symptoms as well as hallucinations and delusions in people with psychotic depression. Hallucinations involve seeing, hearing, or feeling things that aren’t really there, while delusions involve believing in things that aren’t true.
  7. Seasonal affective disorder. Late fall and early winter are the most common times for seasonal depression or seasonal affective disorder. It often goes away during the spring and summer.
Anxiety and stress

Symptoms and Signs of Depressive Disorders

  • Unhappiness, emptiness, or hopeless feeling
  • Angry outbursts, irritability or frustration, even over small matters
  • The inability to enjoy most or all normal activities, such as hobbies, sports, or sex
  • Weight loss or weight gain due to reduced appetite and increased food cravings
  • Anxiety, agitation, or restlessness
  • Slowed thinking, speaking, or body movements
  • Fixation on past failures or self-blame, feelings of worthlessness or guilt
  • Trouble thinking, concentrating, making decisions and remembering things
  • Sleep disturbances, including insomnia or sleeping too much
  • Tiredness and lack of energy, so even small tasks take extra effort
  • Suicidal thoughts attempt to commit suicide, or thoughts of death regularly
  • Unexplained physical problems, such as back pain or headaches

Risk Factors for Depressive Disorders

  • Characteristics such as low self-esteem, dependence, self-criticism, or pessimism can be attributed to certain personality types
  • Traumatic or stressful events, such as physical or sexual abuse, the death or loss of a loved one, a difficult relationship, or financial problems
  • Family members who suffer from depression, bipolar disorder, alcoholism, or suicide
  • History of other mental health disorders, such as anxiety disorder, eating disorders, or post-traumatic stress disorder
  • Abuse of alcohol or recreational drugs
  • Serious or chronic illness, including cancer, stroke, chronic pain, or heart disease
  • Medicines that lower blood pressure, such as sleeping pills.

Depressive Disorders Medication

Medications and psychotherapy are effective for most people with depression. Medication can be prescribed to relieve symptoms by your primary health care provider or psychiatrist. People with depression may also benefit from seeing a psychiatrist, psychologist, or other mental health professional. Bupropion is an antidepressant medication that works in the brain. It is also used to treat major depressive disorder ,seasonal affective disorder, and to help people quit smoking

What Triggers Tonsillitis in Adults?

Tonsillitis is inflammation of the tonsils or the two oval-shaped pads of tissue at the back of the throat. It is not contagious, but most of the infections that cause tonsillitis are contagious.  

What is the Cause of Tonsillitis in Adults?

Tonsillitis is most often caused by viruses and bacteria. Viruses that can cause tonsillitis are:

old couple coughing

Can Tonsillitis Infect Other People?

Tonsillitis does not infect other people but the viruses that cause this condition are contagious. Bacterial tonsillitis spreads when a person has direct contact with the saliva or mucus of someone who already has the infection. Viral tonsillitis spreads through the surfaces. The most effective way to stop the spread of tonsillitis is by halting the spread of the pathogens that cause it.

How Serious is Tonsillitis in Adults?

Tonsilitis infections that are left untreated are serious and may lead to several complications. Seek immediate help if your tonsils have white pus-filled spots.

Tonsillitis Diagnosis

Strep Throat Diagnosis

Your doctor will take several assessments and tests on your symptoms. Diagnosing tonsilitis includes:

  • Examining your throat for redness, swelling, or white spots on your tonsils.
  • Assess other symptoms such as a fever, cough, runny nose, rash, or stomachache.
  • Look in your ears and nose for other signs of infection.
  • Feel the sides of your neck to see if your lymph nodes are swollen and tender.

How Do You Treat Tonsillitis in Adults?

Homecare treatments are typical steps to manage tonsillitis. These include getting enough sleep, avoiding irritants, proper hydration, and taking a pain reliever. Antibiotics such as Amoxicillin are also helpful in treating bacterial tonsillitis. Buy Amoxicillin in your local pharmacy and complete the treatment period to successfully manage the condition.

What Is Salmonella Infection?

Salmonella infection is a common bacterial disease that affects the intestinal tract. The bacteria typically live in animal and human intestines and are shed through stool. Humans become infected most frequently through contaminated water or food.

migraine with aura

Symptoms of Salmonella infection

Causes of Salmonella Infection

  • Raw or undercooked eggs. Some infected chickens produce eggs that contain salmonella even before the shell is formed, despite an egg’s shell appears to be a perfect barrier to contamination. Raw eggs are used in homemade versions of foods such as mayonnaise and hollandaise sauce.
  • Unpasteurized dairy products. Salmonella can be present in unpasteurized milk and milk products. The pasteurization process kills harmful bacteria, including salmonella.
  • Raw meat, poultry, and seafood. The butchering process may result in feces getting onto raw meat and poultry. Contaminated waters may result in contaminated seafood.
  • Fruits and vegetables. Salmonella is sometimes present in water used for irrigation or washing during the processing of some fresh produce, particularly imported varieties. It is also possible for juices from raw meat and poultry to contaminate uncooked foods, such as salads, in the kitchen.

Salmonella Complications

If the salmonella infection gets into your blood, it can infect other parts of your body, including:

  • The tissues around your brain and spinal cord
  • Heart valve linings and your blood vessels
  • Your bones and bone marrow

Who is at Higher Risk for Salmonella?

You’re at an increased risk of getting salmonella if you:

  • Live or work around high-risk animals. This includes chickens, ducks, and turtles.
  • Take antacids or recently took antibiotics. You are more likely to get sick if you take these medications because they lower your defenses against salmonella.
  • Live with inflammatory bowel disease. Children under the age of 5 are also at risk of the disease.
Diagnosis for Hypersexuality

When should I Call a Doctor?

See your doctor if you’re still having general symptoms more than a week after first getting the infection. When these symptoms last for more than a couple of days, a young child, an older adult, or someone with a weakened immune system should consult a doctor if your child has bloody stools and ongoing high fever.

Medications

Some medications such as anti-diarrhea can ease cramping associated with diarrhea, such as loperamide. Salmonella infections, however, may also prolong diarrhea. Ivermectin also has properties that fight against the bacteria that cause salmonella. However, it is always important to follow your physician’s recommended treatment.

What are the Two Major Symptoms of Shift Work Sleep Disorder?

Shift work sleep disorder is a sleeping condition that is considered a circadian rhythm disorder. Working evening or nighttime hours can disrupt the body’s circadian rhythm or natural sleep-wake cycle. This leads to abbreviated rest intervals and an overall loss of sleep.

Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease

The Two Primary Symptoms of Shift Work Disorder

  1. Insomnia. People with shift work disorder often have difficulty falling and/or staying asleep. Specific insomnia symptoms often vary by shift. The early risers often have difficulty falling asleep, while the evening shift workers wake up frequently during the night. Sleep loss with shift work disorder averages one to four hours per night.
  2. Excessive sleepiness. The person may feel fatigued and less alert during the night or early morning hours of work because of shift work disorder. They often feel the need to nap at least once during their shift. Aside from reducing their performance capacity, these impairments can also put their safety at risk.

How is Shift Work Sleep Disorder Diagnosed?

Your doctor will use diagnostic criteria to determine whether you have sleep work disorder. Your doctor will likely ask you a series of questions about your sleep patterns and disturbances as well as what sort of shift you currently work. Your doctor might first rule out conditions such as narcolepsy and obstructive sleep apnea. They might order a sleep study to rule out these, or other, sleep disorders.

What Causes Shift Work Sleep Disorder?

  • Working night shifts
  • Working rotating shifts
  • Working very early morning shifts
  • Working overnight shifts
old guy in blue head swirling confusion

Other Symptoms of Shift Work Sleep Disorder

  • Irritability
  • Depression
  • Lack of energy
  • Excessive sleepiness during waking hours 
  • Inability to fall asleep or stay asleep
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Headaches
  • Sleep involving an insufficient number of hours
  • Sleep that doesn’t feel adequate
  • Relationship problems

How is Shift Work Sleep Disorder Treated?

Healthy sleep is primarily achieved through lifestyle changes, but some people may turn to sleep aids for assistance. Several workers report that melatonin greatly improves their sleep quality, and it is considered safe. Armodafinil is also used as a treatment for excessive sleepiness caused by sleep apnea, narcolepsy, or shift work sleep disorder.

Nausea: Causes, Signs, & Symptoms

Nausea is a feeling of stomach discomfort and a wanting to vomit. Symptoms of nausea can lead to vomiting stomach contents. The condition has many causes and can often be prevented.

What Causes Nausea?

Nausea can stem from a variety of causes such as being highly sensitive to motion or to certain foods, medications, or the effects of certain medical conditions. Common causes of nausea include:

  1. Heartburn or gastroesophageal reflux disease. The contents of your stomach can rise back up your esophagus when you eat when you have heartburn or gastroesophageal reflux disease. This creates a burning sensation that causes nausea.
  2. Infection or virus. Bacteria or viruses can affect the stomach and lead to nausea. It is possible to get food poisoning from foodborne bacteria. Viral infections can also cause nausea.
  3. Medications. Taking certain medications can upset the stomach or contribute to nausea. Be sure to carefully read the medication information for any new treatments you may be taking.
  4. Motion sickness and seasickness. Motion sickness and seasickness can result from a bumpy ride on a vehicle. When the brain receives messages from the body, they may not sync up with the senses, resulting in nausea, dizziness, and vomiting.
  5. Diet. It is possible to experience nausea after overeating or eating certain foods, such as spicy or high-fat foods. Eating foods you’re allergic to can also cause nausea.
  6. Pain. Intense pain can contribute to nausea symptoms, and painful conditions such as pancreatitis, gallbladder stones, and or kidney stones cause nausea.
  7. Ulcer. Nausea can result from ulcers, or sores, in the stomach or intestines. When you eat, an ulcer can cause a burning sensation and sudden nausea.

Signs and Symptoms of Nausea

  • Weakness
  • Urge to vomit
  • Sweating
  • A buildup of saliva in your mouth
woman having a glass of water

How to Relieve Nausea?

The general relief for nausea includes:

  • Getting fresh air
  • Eating frequent and small meals
  • Staying hydrated by sipping cold drinks
  • Avoid spicy foods
  • Drinking peppermint tea or ginger tea
  • Avoid strong-smelling foods
  • Avoid greasy foods
  • Eating foods that contain ginger   

What is the Difference Between Nausea and Vomiting?

When you feel nauseated, you usually have the urge to vomit. However, nausea does not always lead to vomiting. Vomiting is the forcible voluntary or involuntary emptying of stomach contents through the mouth. Some triggers that may result in vomiting can come from the stomach and intestines.

How Can You Prevent Nausea?

  • Eating small meals throughout the day instead of three large meals
  • Eating slowly and avoiding hard-to-digest foods
  • Eating foods that are cold or at room temperature to avoid becoming nauseous from the scent of hot or warm food

When to See A Doctor?

For those with underlying conditions, home remedies can relieve nausea. However, they do not replace medical treatment. If a person suffers from nausea frequently for no apparent reason, they can consult a doctor. If the cause is psychological, speaking with a therapist may help.

Treatment for Nausea

Promethazine is used to prevent and control motion sickness, nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. In addition, it may be used to help people go to sleep and control their pain or anxiety before or after surgery or other procedures. This product is available in several dosage forms. 

What is Syphilis?

Syphilis is a bacterial infection typically spread by sexual contact. The infection starts as a painless sore in the genital, mouth, or rectum. Syphilis spreads from person to person through the skin or mucous membrane contact with these sores. The bacteria that cause this infection can remain inactive in the body for decades before becoming active again.

Symptoms of Syphilis

Symptoms depend on the stage of syphilis:

  1. Early or primary syphilis. People with primary syphilis get one or more sores called chancres. They are usually small, painless ulcers. The spots may appear on your genitals, anus, rectum, or in or around your mouth. 
  2. Secondary syphilis. Typically, this stage begins 6 weeks to 6 months after exposure and lasts 1 to 3 months. People with secondary syphilis usually get rash on the palms of their hands and soles of their feet. They may also have different rashes on other parts of their body. Other symptoms include moist, wart-like lesions in the groin, white patches in the mouth, swollen lymph glands, fever, hair loss, and weight loss.

Syphilis Causes

Syphilis is caused by the bacteria treponema pallidum. Getting syphilis is as simple as touching someone with a sore from syphilis. Typically, the bacteria enter your body through your skin through cuts or through your mucous membranes during sexual activity.

How is Syphilis Transmitted?

Syphilis is transmitted is through direct contact with syphilitic chancres, or sores that may develop in the penis, anus, vagina, and mouth. Syphilis is primarily transmitted sexually. Note that you cannot get the infection by sharing a toilet, wearing another person’s clothing, or using other people’s eating utensils.

Skin rashes

Stages of Syphilis Infection

  1. Primary syphilis. The first sign of syphilis is a small sore, called a chancre. The sore appears at the spot where the bacteria entered your body. 
  2. Secondary syphilis. The rash may begin on your trunk and eventually cover your entire body within a few weeks of healing the original chancre. This rash is usually not itchy and may be accompanied by wartlike sores in your mouth or genital area. 
  3. Latent syphilis. Syphilis moves from the secondary stage, when you have symptoms, to the hidden stage if you are not treated. Signs and symptoms may never return, or the disease may progress to the third stage.
  4. Tertiary syphilis. In the late stage, the disease may damage the brain, nerves, eyes, heart, blood vessels, liver, bones, and joints. These problems may occur many years after the original, untreated infection.
  5. Neurosyphilis. As soon as syphilis spreads, it can cause damage to the brain and nervous system, as well as to the eyes.
  6. Congenital syphilis. Babies born to syphilis-infected mothers can be infected through the placenta or during delivery. Congenital syphilis in newborns usually is not accompanied by symptoms, although it may cause a rash on the palms and soles of the feet.

Syphilis Risk Factors

  • Unprotected sex
  • Multiple sex partners
  • HIV
  • Man having sex with men

Treating and Curing Syphilis

Syphilis is curable with quick diagnosis and treatment. When treated too late, the infection can permanently damage the heart and brain. Doxycycline is a tetracyclic antibiotic that is used as a treatment medication for syphilis. This prevents the bacteria from multiplying and spreading to other parts of the tissue.

Scabies: Everything You Need to Know

What is Scabies?

Scabies is an infestation of the skin by the human itch mite and affects people of all races. The microscopic scabies mite burrows into the upper layer of the skin where it lives and lays its eggs. It can spread rapidly under crowded conditions where close body and skin contact is frequent. 

Symptoms

  • Severe and usually worse itching especially at night 
  • Wavy and thin tunnels made up of tiny blisters
  • Pimple-like skin rash 
Ear mite under microscope

Causes

Scabies is caused by a tiny, eight-legged mite. Mites burrow just under the skin and lay eggs in tunnels. The eggs hatch and the mite larvae travel to the surface of the skin, where they mature. Once these mites have spread to other parts of your skin or to other people’s skin, they may multiply and become more widespread. 

Allergic reactions to mite eggs, wastes, and eggs are responsible for itching. When people with scabies touch one another or share clothing or bedding, the mites can spread. A scabies-infected animal may cause brief itching if the mites get under the skin. But within a few days, the mite will die.

How Do Scabies Spread?

Scabies typically spread through prolonged, skin-to-skin contact that gives the mites time to crawl from one person to another. It also spread through shared personal items, such as bedding or towels, which may occasionally be blamed. Scabies can be passed easily between family members or sexual partners.

Different Types of Scabies

  1. Nodular. This type is more common among children. Even after the mites are gone, brown-red nodules may still be visible.
  2. Bullous. Adults with this type of scabies may mistake it for bullous pemphigoid, another skin blistering condition.
  3. Crusted. This type often happens in people with faulty immune systems. It tends to form crusted areas covering a large area of skin. 
  4. Scalp. Psoriasis-like scales may appear on your scalp in this form.

How Long Does Scabies Last?

Scabies mites can live for 1 to 2 months in children and adults. When they are not on people, mites only survive for up to 72 hours. The itching and rash that scabies cause may initially become worse, but they will heal within four weeks.

Treatment

Ivermectin is an FDA-approved antiparasitic drug used to treat several neglected tropical diseases, including scabies. It improves the patient’s condition by killing the mites that cause the condition. Buy Ivermectin online and take them as prescribed by doctors.

Cervicitis

Cervicitis is an inflammation of the cervix, the lower, narrow end of the uterus that opens into the vagina. Cervicitis is common and may be caused by several factors. Typical causes include infections, chemical or physical irritations, and allergies.

Couple in bed kissing

What Causes Cervicitis?

  1. Sexually transmitted infections. Most often, the bacterial and viral infections that cause cervicitis are transmitted by sexual contact. Cervicitis can result from common sexually transmitted infections like chlamydia, including gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, and genital herpes.
  2. Allergic reactions. An allergy, either to contraceptive spermicides or to latex in condoms, may lead to cervicitis. It is due to a reaction to feminine hygiene products, such as feminine deodorants, which also can cause cervicitis.
  3. Bacterial overgrowth. An overgrowth of some of the bacteria that are normally present in the vagina can lead to cervicitis.

Symptoms

  • Large amounts of unusual vaginal discharge
  • Pain during sex
  • Frequent and painful urination
  • Bleeding between menstrual periods
  • Vaginal bleeding after sex is not associated with a menstrual period

Can You Get Cervicitis Without STD?

Yes, you can get cervicitis without a sexually transmitted disease. It is more common for women to suffer from cervicitis due to sexually transmitted infections, such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital herpes, and trichomonas.

How is Cervicitis Diagnosed?

Cervicitis can be diagnosed during a full pelvic exam. Pap smears may also be performed. These tests allow your healthcare provider to analyze your cervical and uterine cells for abnormalities. A sample of vaginal discharge will also be taken to your doctor to test for infections such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomonas.

unused condom on a mans palm

Prevention

  • Use deodorant tampons instead of douches to avoid irritants.
  • Make sure your partner is free of any STI and does not have multiple sex partners. 
  • Make sure that any foreign objects you insert into your vagina are properly placed. Follow the instructions on how long to leave it inside, how often it should be changed, and how often it should be cleaned.
  • Use a condom every time you have sex to lower your risk of getting an STI. A condom must be used properly every time.

How is Cervicitis Treated?

Specific treatment for cervicitis will be determined by your health care provider based on your age, overall health, the severity of the condition, and medical history.  The goal of the treatment is to reduce symptoms and prevent the spread of infection. Medications include antibiotics. Azithromycin is a potent antibiotics that are given to manage cervicitis.

Erosive Esophagitis Causes and Treatments

Esophagitis is inflammation, irritation, or swelling of the lining of the esophagus. Erosive esophagitis is a type of esophagitis in which there is damage to the tissue lining. Treatment for esophagitis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of tissue damage.

Chest pain

Symptoms of Erosive Esophagitis

  • Heartburn
  • Chest pain
  • Dysphagia or discomfort swallowing
  • Feeling like something is stuck in your throat
  • Burning sensation in the esophagus
  • Bleeding or bloody stools and vomit
  • Black or tarry stools

Causes and Risk Factors of Erosive Esophagitis

Several factors can contribute to an increased risk of developing esophagitis:

  1. Refluxed stomach acid. The most common cause of esophagitis is the backflow of stomach acid into the esophagus. Other triggers of reflux include pregnancy, obesity, smoking, alcohol, caffeinated beverages, and fatty or spicy foods.
  2. Infections. These include infections caused by viruses, fungi, and bacteria. HIV/AIDS causes weakened immune systems, which makes infection more likely.
  3. Radiation injury. Esophagitis can be caused by radiation treatment in the chest or neck area during cancer treatment.
  4. Injury from chemicals. An esophagus injury can be very severe and even life-threatening if strong chemicals like drain cleaners are ingested.
  5. Excessive vomiting. Excessive vomiting can cause inflammation of the esophagus because of the acid contained in the vomit.
  6. Pills getting stuck. If a pill gets stuck in the esophagus, it can cause burning of the lining. A motility disorder may also cause the esophageal muscles to lack the ability to contract properly to propel contents into the intestines. Scarring or strictures may narrow the esophagus, but so can scarring and strictures; scarring and strictures may narrow the esophagus.

Esophagitis Diagnosis

  • Upper endoscopy. The esophagus is viewed using a long, flexible lighted tube called an endoscope.
  • Biopsy. The test involves removing a small sample of esophageal tissue, which is then examined under a microscope in a laboratory.
  • Upper GI series. During this procedure, X-rays are taken of the esophagus after drinking a barium solution. X-rays show white spots on the esophageal lining due to the coating of barium and allow doctors to view certain abnormalities of the esophagus.

Treatment

Treatment for esophagitis depends on the type and severity of the symptoms. Over-the-counter drugs like antacids, or medications that block acid production. Doctors may also recommend surgery to strengthen the valve that separates your stomach and your esophagus. 

Pantoprazole is also a recommended medication for most types of esophagitis. This medicine works by blocking acid production in the stomach. Buy Pantoprazole online to treat erosive esophagitis and GERD.

Hirsutism

Hirsutism is a condition in women that results in excessive growth of dark or coarse hair in a male-like pattern. Hair usually grows on the face, back, and chest. It is caused by an excess of male hormones called androgens.

acne on womans forehead

Symptoms of Hirsutism

When high androgen levels cause hirsutism, other signs might develop over time. Symptoms may include:

  • Balding 
  • Acne
  • Deeping voice
  • Decreased breast size
  • Enlargement of the clitoris
  • Increased muscle mass

Who is at Risk for Hirsutism?

  • Polycystic ovary syndrome 
  • Severe insulin resistance
  • Changes in hormones due to menopause
  • A family history of excess hair growth 
  • Pituitary gland disorder
  • Use of medicine for endometriosis
  • Disorder of the adrenal gland or thyroid gland
  • Use of anabolic steroids or corticosteroids

What is the Cause of Hirsutism in Women?

  1. Polycystic ovarian syndrome. PCOS is a common hormonal condition that causes women to produce too many androgens. Additionally, PCOS can cause acne, abnormal menstruation, diabetes, weight gain, and infertility.
  2. Postmenopause. The hormonal changes in your body after menopause may lead to increased facial hair, including a mustache.
  3. Cushing’s syndrome. Cortisol overproduction leads to Cushing’s syndrome, which affects your hair, skin, nails, glands, and nerves. High blood pressure, diabetes, and rapid weight gain are also symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome.
  4. The natural production of androgens. All people have androgens, but men make more of them. Hirsutism may occur in females with high androgen levels or sensitive hair follicles.
  5. Other conditions. You may also have a more serious condition if your hirsutism is suddenly accompanied by symptoms like a deeper voice or acne. The conditions may include problems with your adrenal glands or ovaries, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia or tumors on your adrenal glands or ovaries that produce androgen.
  6. Medications. Hirsutism can be caused by anabolic steroids, testosterone, cyclosporine, minoxidil, danazol, and phenytoin, among others.
Blood tests

How is Hirsutism Diagnosed?

Several blood tests can determine if elevated androgen levels are causing your hirsutism, including tests that measure testosterone levels or testosterone-like hormones. Your doctor might also examine your abdomen and do a pelvic exam to look for masses that could indicate a tumor. The diagnostic method includes a CT scan and ultrasound.

Treatments for Hirsutism

Treatments for hirsutism may include losing weight if you’re overweight this can help control hormone levels. You can also shave, wax, pluck, or use hair removal creams. The medication Finasteride is also recommended for the treatment of hirsute women with the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) or idiopathic hirsutism.

Urethritis

Urethritis is inflammation of the urethra. That is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. There are a few types of urethritis, an inflammation of the bladder. Among the types are gonorrhea-related diseases and non-gonorrhea-related diseases.

What are the Signs and Symptoms of Urethritis?

  • Pain while peeing 
  • Pain during sexual intercourse 
  • Pelvic pain
  • Itchiness at the tip of the urethra
  • Pus and blood or penile discharge

What Causes Urethritis?

Urethritis
  • Sexually transmitted infections are a common cause of urethritis, other causes include:
  • Chlamydia
  • Trichomoniasis
  • Genital herpes
  • Activities that put pressure on your urethra, like riding a bicycle or some sexual acts
  • Squeezing your penis roughly
  • Urinary tract infections.
  • Yeast infections.
  • Exposure to irritants like soaps, douches, and spermicides
  • Use of catheter 

Types of Urethritis

  1. Gonococcal urethritis. It is caused by the same bacterium that causes sexually transmitted gonorrhea. 
  2. Nongonococcal urethritis. It is urethritis caused by other infections that are not gonorrhea such as chlamydia.
newborn baby with mother and doctor

What are the Dangers of Urethritis?

Potential dangers or complications of urethritis include:

  • Pelvic inflammatory disease 
  • Perinatal transmission of infection to the newborn
  • Proctitis
  • Chronic pelvic pain
  • Epididymitis
  • Infertility
  • Prostatitis 
  • Spread of infection 
  • Urethral scarring and narrowing

Can a Man Give a Woman Urethritis?

Urethritis is not always sexually transmitted, but a person with multiple sexual partners has a greater risk of exposure. This means that infected men can transmit the disease to a woman through sexual activities.

Urethritis Treatment

Antibiotics can successfully cure urethritis caused by bacteria. Many different antibiotics can treat urethritis. Azithromycin is a potent antibiotic that helps in managing the symptoms of urethritis. It is commonly used in both children and adults that is often prescribed in pill form. 

Azithromycin works by stopping the bacteria that cause infections in the body. It prevents the bacteria from growing by inhibiting their ability to make proteins. Note that azithromycin is only effective for bacterial infections and not for viral infections. Buy Azithromycin online at its lowest price.

Spasticity

What is Spasticity?

Spasticity refers to an abnormal increase in muscle tone or stiffness that interferes with movement, and speech, or may be painful or uncomfortable. It is usually caused by nerve damage within the brain or spinal cord that controls muscle movement that causes spasms.

hand arthritis in x ray

What Are the Symptoms of Spasticity?

  • Overactive reflexes
  • Increased muscle tone
  • Involuntary movements such as contractions and spasms
  • Pain
  • Abnormal posture
  • Decreased functional abilities
  • Permanent contraction of the muscle and
  • Bone and joint deformities

Causes of  Spasticity

Generally, spasticity is caused by damage or disruption to areas of the brain and spinal cord responsible for controlling muscle and stretch reflexes. An imbalance in inhibitory and excitatory signals, which causes the muscles to lock in place, can cause these disruptions. Spasticity can be harmful to growing children as it can affect muscles and joints. Different degrees of spasticity can be experienced by people with brain injury, spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis.

Nonsurgical Treatments for Spasticity

man in red getting a physical therapy from a nurse
  1. Speech therapy. Speech therapy can help you with speech, communication, and swallowing if you have spasticity in your mouth, face, or throat muscles.
  2. Casting or bracing. To improve range of motion and facilitate function, you can use casts or braces to stretch spastic muscles.
  3. Physical therapy. A physical therapist generally focuses on lower extremity stretching and strengthening exercises and mobility training.
  4. Occupational therapy. Most occupational therapists focus on stretching, strengthening, and training the upper extremities for daily activities such as bathing, grooming, and cooking.
  5. Assistive devices. A person with spasticity can benefit from a variety of assistive devices that can make everyday tasks easier and more efficient.

Spasticity Treatment

It is important to treat spasticity to improve comfort, mobility, and independence. Our treatment goals include relaxing the muscles as much as possible, relieving pain and stiffness, promoting optimal long muscle growth, and improving ambulation and independence for them.

Medications may be used individually or in combination. Tizanidine is a medication that reduces rigidity, upper motor neuron spasticity, and hyperreflexia. It inhibits polysynaptic reflexes and reduces muscle tone and frequency of muscle spasms. Buy Tizanidine here for spasticity treatment.

Soft Tissue Injuries

What are Soft-tissue Injuries?

Soft tissue injuries involve the muscles, tendons, or ligaments of various areas of the body. Several activities can cause soft-tissue damage and as a result, there may be pain, swelling, bruising, or damage.

Common Symptoms of Soft Tissue Injuries

  • Bursitis or inflammation due to repeated stress
  • Contusion 
  • Muscle Sprains or an injury to a ligament or joint capsule from overstretching
  • Muscle Strains  due to traumatic stretching or tear to a muscle or tendon
  • Inflammation or irritation of a tendon 

How Soft Tissue Injuries Occur

All soft tissue injuries vary in terms of severity that falls into the following category:

  • Grade 1 or Mild. Resulting in tenderness and swelling, these soft tissue injuries are caused by overstretching of the body’s fibers.
  • Grade 2 or Moderate. There is often tearing of the soft tissues of the joints, resulting in a feeling of looseness and tenderness as well as pain, swelling,, and swelling in the joint. As a result, pressure or body weight cannot be applied to the injured joint, and the individual needs to stay off it for at least a few weeks.
  • Grade 3 or Severe. There is a significant recovery time required for these injuries due to the complete tears of the soft tissues. Following an injury, people are often unable to use the joint or muscle area at all. Symptoms of severe soft tissue injuries include swelling, pain, and instability.

Treatment for Soft Tissue Injuries

Nabumetone is a medication that is used to treat symptoms of soft tissue injury. It is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Take the recommended dose of this medication per day as per directed by your doctor. 

Drink plenty of water

Prevention

Conditioning and training can prevent many soft-tissue injuries. Other prevention tips include:

  • Warm-up.  Warm up to prepare for exercise, even before stretching. A warm-up increases your heart rate and blood flow and loosens up your muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joints.
  • Drink water.  Drink 1 pint of water 15 minutes before you start exercising and another pint after you cool down. Have a drink of water every 20 minutes or so while you exercise.
  • Use proper equipment.  Wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothes that let you move freely and are light enough to release body heat.
  • Aim for balanced fitness.  Develop a balanced fitness program that incorporates cardiovascular exercise, strength training, and flexibility. Add activities and new exercises cautiously. 
  • Cool down.  Before you completely stop, slow down your motions and lessen the intensity of your movements for at least 10 minutes. This phase of a safe exercise program should conclude when your skin is dry and you have cooled down.
  • Stretch.  Begin stretches slowly and carefully until reaching a point of muscle tension. Stretching should never result in pain, and you should never bounce on a fully stretched muscle.
  • Rest.  Schedule regular days off from vigorous exercise and rest when tired. Fatigue and pain are good reasons not to exercise.

Menopause

Menopause is a natural biological process that marks the end of your menstrual cycles. It is diagnosed after you have gone 12 months without a menstrual period.

What are the First Signs of Menopause?

woman wiping her sweat with tissue
  • Hot flashes and night sweats. Hot flashes can make you feel warm or hot suddenly for no apparent reason. Your skin may turn red and may also cause a rapid heartbeat. These can be so intense they wake you up.
  • Trouble in sleeping.  Waking up during the night or having trouble going to sleep can happen for lots of reasons and it may be a sign you are approaching menopause. 
  • You feel moody. Moodiness around the menopausal period is due to the change in hormones. If you have had anxiety or depression in the past, your symptoms may worsen during menopause.
  • Forgetfulness. Forgetfulness can stem from not only menopause but also from stress. If you’re worried that you are forgetting too much, let your doctor know.
  • Less interested in sex. Some women say they are less interested in sex or have trouble getting aroused when they are in menopause. It is due to the skin around your vagina may become drier. This can make sex hurt.
  • Some physical changes. You may also notice your hair and skin become drier and thinner. Some women gain weight during menopause. There is also the possibility that your body will become more fat around the waist and less muscle overall as well.

What are the 3 Stages of Menopause?

  1. Perimenopause. It is the time leading up to menopause. During this time, hormone levels begin to decline and menstrual cycles become erratic and irregular. Hot flashes and dry vaginal skin are common menopause side effects.
  2. Menopause. A woman who hasn’t had a period for 12 months in a row has stopped producing the hormones that cause her menstrual cycle. Once this has occurred, you enter postmenopause.
  3. Postmenopause. It is the time after menopause has occurred. Postmenopause is your lifelong state once it occurs. Heart disease and osteoporosis are among the health conditions associated with postmenopause.

What is the Average Age of Menopause?

Menopause can happen in your 40s or 50s, but the average age is 51 in the United States. Signs and symptoms, including changes in menstruation, can vary among women. Keep up with regular visits with your doctor for preventive health care and any medical concerns.

Treatment for Menopause

Menopause has NO TREATMENT. However, some medications help in relieving your signs and symptoms and preventing or managing chronic conditions that may occur with aging. Estradiol Valerate is a treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause. It is largely responsible for the development and maintenance of the female reproductive system. 

What is Periodontitis?

Periodontitis is a serious gum infection that damages the soft tissue. If left untreated, this can destroy the bone that supports your teeth. It can also cause teeth to loosen or lead to tooth loss. This condition is common and highly preventable through proper oral hygiene. 

What are the Stages of Periodontitis?

  1. Inflammation or gingivitis. Periodontitis begins with inflammation in the gums known as gingivitis. The first sign of gingivitis is bleeding gums when you brush or floss your teeth and discoloration of the teeth. 
  2. Early periodontal disease. As periodontitis progresses, your gums recede from your teeth and small pockets form between them. As your immune system fights the infection, your gum tissue recedes. You will likely experience bleeding during brushing and flossing. 
  3. Moderate periodontal disease. Periodontal disease that progresses to moderate can cause bleeding and pain around the teeth and gum recession. Your teeth will begin to lose bone support and become loose which may lead to an inflammatory response throughout your body.
  4. Advanced periodontal disease. Your teeth begin to slide out of place when the connective tissue that holds them in place deteriorates in advanced disease. The gums, bones, and other tissue that support your teeth are destroyed. You may experience severe mouth pain, bad breath, and a foul taste in your mouth if you have advanced periodontitis.
person gums and teeth

What are the Symptoms of Periodontitis?

  • Gums that bleed when you brush your teeth or floss
  • Bad breath and receding gums
  • Loose teeth or changes in the position of your teeth
  • Red, swollen, and tender gums
  • Pain when chewing
  • Foul taste in your mouth
  • Plaque build-up or tartar on your teeth

What Causes Periodontitis?

  • Plaque forms on your teeth when starches and sugars in food interact with bacteria normally found in your mouth. 
  • Chronic inflammation of the gums can lead to periodontitis, causing pockets of plaque, tartar, and bacteria to form between your gums and teeth. In time, these pockets become deeper, filling with more bacteria.
  • Plaque can harden under your gumline into tartar if it stays on your teeth. The bacteria in tartar make it more difficult to remove. 
  • Plaque can cause gingivitis, the mildest form of gum disease. There is inflammation and irritation of your gums around the base of your teeth when you have gingivitis.
Obesity

Risk Factors

  • Gingivitis
  • Poor oral health habits
  • Conditions that cause decreased immunity
  • Certain diseases, such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and Crohn’s disease
  • Smoking or chewing tobacco
  • Recreational drug use
  • Smoking marijuana or vaping
  • Hormonal changes, such as those related to pregnancy or menopause
  • Obesity and genetics
  • Vitamin C deficiency

Treatment

Treatment for Periodontitis involves either surgical or non-surgical procedures. The treatment depends on the severity of the condition. Some cases also requires antibiotic treatment such as Doxycycline.

Doxycycline is used as a prescription medicine to treat advanced gum diseases. It inhibits the growth of disease-causing bacteria. Doxycycline prevents the activity of collagenase in the cell walls of the bacteria. Buy Doxycycline here to prevent the bacteria from multiplying and spreading to other parts of the tissue.

Vaccines Are Safe And Here’s Why

Why Do People Think Vaccines Are Bad?

Vaccination opposition is not a new concept. As long as there have been vaccines, there have been people who objected to them. Conspiracy theories that link vaccinations to chronic conditions may cause them to question their safety. 

Here are common reasons why some people think vaccines are bad:

  1. Autism. The belief that vaccines can cause autism has become widespread. However, NO VACCINES CAN CAUSE AUTISM. They are very safe for everyone. 
  2. Flu shots. Some people don’t get flu vaccines due to the common myths that it does not protect against all strains of the flu. Some people also think that vaccination could make them sick, which is false.
  3. Mistrust of science. Some opposition is due to mistrust of science and other people are also skeptical of science that they do not understand, or the chemicals they do not know that go into vaccines. 

Are Vaccines Safe?

Vaccines

Vaccines are safe and are given to millions of people. Every shot goes through safety testing before they are approved. They are evaluated properly before being licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and recommended for use by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vaccines are also monitored after they are recommended to the public to ensure that they are potent, sterile, and pure.

Any licensed vaccine is thoroughly tested across multiple phases of trials before it is approved for use. Shots are also reviewed once it is introduced. Experts are also continually monitoring information from several sources for any sign that a vaccine may cause health risks. Note you are far more likely to be seriously injured by a vaccine-preventable disease than by injection. Diseases that vaccines can prevent are:

  • Cervical cancer
  • COVID-19
  • Diphtheria
  • Ebola virus disease
  • Cholera
  • Japanese encephalitis
  • Measles
  • Hepatitis B
  • Influenza
  • Meningitis
  • Pertussis
  • Mumps
  • Rabies 
  • Polio
  • Rotavirus
  • Influenza
  • Rubella
  • Typhoid
  • Pneumonia
  • Varicella    
  • Yellow fever

It’s Beneficial to be Vaccinated

Infectious diseases can be prevented through vaccination, which is one of the best ways to protect yourself, your children, and future generations. In other words, if you vaccinate, you help wipe out diseases that could spread now and into the future.

In addition to looking after your own family, you also protect vulnerable people in your community by getting your family fully vaccinated. The more people who are vaccinated, the fewer people will be infected, and the less widely a disease can spread.

Additionally, immunization programs reduce the social, psychological, and financial burdens of disease on people and governments, as well as the strain placed on healthcare and social care systems.

Improving Your Immune System

There are things you can do to help give your immune system what it needs to function optimally when needed. Along with complete vaccination, you can improve your immune system by:

  • Staying up-to-date on recommended vaccines
  • Maintaining a healthy diet and maintaining proper hydration are keys to a strong immune system. 
  • Regular exercise to improve immune function. 
  • Get plenty of sleep to give your immune system the best chance to fight off infection and illness.
  • Minimize stress and avoid its causes.

Fungal Nail Infections

Nail infections caused by fungi can cause nails to become discolored, thick, and more likely to break and crack. The same fungi that cause jock itch, athlete’s foot, and ringworm can cause nail infections. 

Fungal Nail Infection

Who is at Risk for Fungal Infections?

Fungal infections are more likely to develop if you:

  • Have diabetes
  • Age 65 or over
  • Wear artificial nails
  • Have skin injury around the nail
  • Have weakened immune system
  • Wear closed shoes
  • Have moist fingers or toes for an extended time

Fungal Nail Infection Symptoms

A spot of white or yellow may appear under your nail at first. This spreads over time and can cause your whole nail to turn white, yellow, green, or black.

  • It may be difficult to trim the nail if it thickens. 
  • Nails may start to curl up or down or loosen from the nail bed. 
  • Your nail could become brittle and crumble.
  • Your nail may become misshapen and may have a bad smell

Types of Fungal Nail Infections

  1. Distal or lateral subungual onychomycosis. This results from a fungus called a dermatophyte. You can get it in your fingernails or toenails. 
  2. Proximal subungual onychomycosis. White spots appear first at the cuticle of the nail bed in the center. Infections with HIV, for instance, usually affect people with immune system problems.
  3. Candidal onychomycosis. Infections of the fingernails are usually caused by yeast. Nails damaged by an injury or another infection are more likely to suffer from this condition.
  4. White superficial onychomycosis. The condition is less common and affects the nail surface, mainly your toenails. It starts as white spots, which become powdery and cause the nail to crumble.

Fungal Nail Infections Treatment

  • Oral antifungals. Fluconazole is an oral antifungal medication. It is indicated to treat fungal infections which can invade any part of the body including the nails. Buy Fluconazole here for the effective treatment of fungal nail infections.
  • Laser or photodynamic therapy. Fungus-killing treatments using special light are being studied by doctors.
  • Topical antifungals. You rub or brush these medicines onto your nails. Although they may work for mild infections, they can’t cure more serious ones because they don’t penetrate deep enough into the nail. 
  • Surgery. The doctor may remove your nail completely if other treatments don’t work and allow a healthy one to grow in its place. 

Prevention 

  • Wash your hands and feet regularly. Dry well, apply an antifungal foot powder, and moisturize your nails. 
  • Cut nails straight across, smooth the edges with a file and file down thickened areas. 
  • Choose shoes made of materials that breathe.
  • Discard old shoes or treat them with disinfectants or antifungal powders.
  • Wear absorbent socks or change your socks throughout the day.
  • If you have an athlete’s foot, treat it with an antifungal product.

Smoking Cessation

Smoking cessation lowers the risk of cancer and other serious health problems. People who want to quit smoking can use counseling, behavior therapy, medicines, and nicotine-containing products, such as patches, gum, lozenges, inhalers, and nasal sprays.

Worst Diseases Caused by Smoking

  1. Lung Cancer. More people die from lung cancer than any other type of cancer. Cigarette smoking is the number one risk factor for lung cancer; it’s responsible for close to 90% of lung cancer cases.
  2. Asthma. Asthma is a chronic lung disease that makes it harder to move air in and out of your lungs. Nearly 25 million Americans suffer from this serious health condition. Smoking only makes it worse.
  3. Reproductive effects in women. In women, smoking can cause ectopic pregnancy, which occurs when a fertilized egg implants somewhere other than the uterus.  Smoking while pregnant can cause babies to be born prematurely and/or with low birth weight.
  4. Over 10 other types of cancer. The risk of developing second primary cancer increases for cancer patients and survivors who smoke. At least a dozen cancers, including liver and colorectal, and prostate cancer, are caused by smoking.
  5. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. COPD is an obstructive lung disease that makes it hard to breathe. It causes serious long-term disability and early death. The fourth leading cause of death in the United States is COPD, which is caused by cigarette smoking in 85% to 90% of cases.
  6. Heart disease and stroke. Smoking can cause blockages and narrow your arteries, which means less blood and oxygen flow to your heart. Because smoking affects your arteries, it can trigger stroke. It can cause paralysis, slurred speech, altered brain function, and death.
smoking cigarettes

Tips to Quit Smoking

  • Ask your health care provider about nicotine replacement therapy. The options include prescription nicotine in a nasal spray or inhaler, nicotine patches, and gums.
  • Find out your triggers and have a plan in place to avoid them or get through them without using tobacco.
  • When you are about to give in to your tobacco craving, do something to distract yourself.
  • Chew on sugarless gum or hard candy or munch on raw carrots, nuts, or sunflower seeds.
  • Physical activity can help distract you from tobacco cravings. It is possible to control a tobacco craving with just a few minutes of activity.
  • Use relaxation techniques to relieve stress, such as deep breathing, muscle relaxation, yoga, visualization, massage, or relaxing music.
  • If you are struggling to resist a tobacco craving, contact a family member, friend, or member of a support group.  

Smoking Cessation Medication

Bupropion to be used as a smoking cessation aid. Bupropion acts as a reuptake inhibitor on two of the brain chemical namely dopamine and norepinephrine. The dose and efficacy of this medication depend on the severity of your condition. Buy Bupropin here to manage cigarette dependence.

Interesting Facts About Mosquitoes

Mosquito season usually starts in the spring when temperatures outside reach 50 degrees Fahrenheit. Mosquito season can last throughout summer and fall. Mosquitoes emerge from hibernation where there is a warm spring following a cold winter. After mating, almost all females begin looking for blood to produce more eggs, even though their life cycles, habitats, and tolerance to cold vary.

Facts About Mosquitoes

female mosquito biting human skin with blood
  • Only female mosquitoes bite. Male mosquitoes make do just fine with plants, but females need a blood meal before they can lay eggs.
  • Flood-prone soil or shallow water are ideal places for females to lay their eggs.
  • Around 250 million people are infected with malaria each year, mostly children in Africa, and approximately one million die from it.
  • There are over 3,000 different species of mosquitoes throughout the world.
  • It is estimated that mosquitoes live less than 2 months.
  • A mosquito doesn’t have teeth. It uses its serrated proboscis to pierce the skin and locate capillaries.
  • The bumps from bites are caused by saliva. The proboscis has two tubes. One draws blood and the other pumps saliva. The saliva usually causes minor allergic reactions, causing swelling and itching around the bite site.
  • Mosquitoes are drawn to humans by their breath.  Their receptors can detect carbon dioxide released when we exhale.
  • Female mosquitoes can lay up to 300 eggs at a time and will lay eggs up to three times before they die.
  • Mosquitos can hibernate and may live up to six months.

Medications for Mosquito Bites

  • Apply a lotion, cream, or paste. Nonprescription hydrocortisone cream can ease the itching caused by bites. You can also dab the bite with a paste made from baking soda and water.
  • Use a cool, moist cloth or cold pack to soothe the bite for a few minutes.
  • Take an oral antihistamine. For stronger reactions, try taking a nonprescription antihistamine.

Natural Home Remedies for Mosquito Bites

cut aloe vera with gel
  • Oatmeal can help relieve itching and swelling due to its compound that contains an anti-irritant.
  • Crushed ice is also ne of the home remedies for mosquito bites. The cold also numbs the skin, which can give you immediate but short-term relief.
  • Aloe vera gel has been shown to reduce pain from burns and help them heal faster.
  • Onions may reduce the bite’s sting and irritation. Onions also have natural antifungal and antibacterial properties.
  • Peppermint oil can also relieve itching.
  • Applying honey to a bite may help reduce inflammation and prevent infection.

Gonorrhea Symptoms

Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease caused by infection with the Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacterium. It infects the mucous membranes of the reproductive tract that including the uterus, cervix, and fallopian tube. This can also infect the mucous membranes of the mouth, throat, eyes, and rectum.

What are the Symptoms of Gonorrhea?

abdominal pain

Symptoms of gonorrhea in men:

  • Painful urination
  • Pain in one testicle or both
  • Pus-like discharge from the tip of the penis

Gonorrhea in women leads to the following symptoms:

Common symptoms in men and women:

  • Anal itching
  • Soreness in the genital or anus
  • Bleeding
  • Painful bowel movements

Gonorrhea Causes

You can get gonorrhea from any kind of sexual contact, including:

  • Oral intercourse
  • Giving and receiving anal sex
  • Vaginal intercourse

How is Gonorrhea Diagnosed?

If you have any symptoms or sexual history, your healthcare provider will ask you about them. Urine tests are often used to diagnose gonorrhea. Doctors may also recommend further testing such as:

  • Obtaining a sample of cervix fluid for testing during a pelvic exam.
  • Collecting a sample of fluid from the penis.
  • Throat or anal culture to see if the infection is in those areas
Taking HIV Medicine during Pregnancy 

Treatment of Gonnorhea

Adults with gonorrhea are treated with antibiotics. Uncomplicated gonorrhea should be treated with antibiotics because of emerging drug-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Antibiotic resistance is making gonorrhea increasingly difficult to treat. Symptoms should be observed by a doctor if they have not improved after a few days. If the treatment is working, further testing can be conducted.

Amoxicilin is a known antibiotic that treats symptoms of gonorrhea. Avoid having sexual contact in any form of sexual practice while on treatment. You can buy Amoxicillin from any pharmacy, as it is an easily available drug. You can also order Amoxicillin online.

Preventions of Gonorrhea

  • Avoid casual sex and multiple sexual partners
  • Be in a healthy and long-term monogamous relationship with an uninfected partner who has been tested
  • Practice safer sex by using condoms correctly and regularly.
  • If you have been diagnosed with or treated for gonorrhea, inform your partner. If you and your partner have been diagnosed with gonorrhea, do not engage in sexual activity until your treatment is complete.

Countries With High Malaria Risk

Overview Of What is Malaria

Malaria is serious and can be a fatal disease caused by a bite of an infected mosquito. Upon entering your body, parasites travel to the liver, where they mature. Infected red blood cells become infected after several days following the maturation of the parasites. More than 400,000 people die each year from malaria, which infects nearly 290 million people each year.

malaria mosquito on skin

What Mosquito Carries Malaria?

Malaria is caused by an infected Anopheles Mosquito. It is the only type of mosquito that spreads the infection. An infected mosquito bites a person carrying the parasite and draws blood. As soon as the mosquito bites another person, that person becomes infected. Both malaria parasites and the human immune system have complex structures, making it difficult to unravel their mechanisms of protection.

Places Where Malaria is Common

The infection is common in tropical regions including:

  • Most areas of Asia and Africa
  • Some parts of the Middles East
  • South and Central America
  • Haiti and the Dominican Republic
  • Some Pacific Islands

Here’s How to Prevent Getting Malaria When Traveling?

man on vacation in asia
  • If you do not have air conditioning or a screen in your bedroom, use a mosquito net.
  • Permethrin can be applied to mosquito nets to provide additional protection.
  • Clothing should be sprayed with insecticide or repellent to prevent bites from mosquitoes.
  • Travelers can protect themselves from malaria by taking prescription medicine and preventing mosquito bites.
  • Apply insect repellent to exposed skin.
  • If you are outdoors at night, wear long sleeves and long pants.
  • Before going to bed, spray your bedroom with pyrethrin.
  • Help prevent the infection by sharing awareness and basic tips to avoid the spreading of the infection.

Using Hydroxychloroquine to Treat Malaria

Hydroxychloroquine is used to prevent or treat malaria caused by mosquito bites.  It is also used to prevent malaria infection specifically if other medications do not work. Buy hydroxychloroquine with a doctor’s prescription here. Ensure to follow the guidance set by your doctor when taking the medication.

Testicular Pain

Testicular pain can be caused by a sudden injury, inflammation, sexually transmitted infections, or an emergency condition known as testicular torsion. This condition affects males at any age. Testicular pain can affect one or both of the testicles.

Causes of Testicular Pain

  1. Epididymitis. It is an infection of the organ where sperm matures before exiting the body.
  2. Hernias. It occurs tissue pushes through a weak part of the abdominal muscles and can push into the scrotum, causing testicular pain and swelling.
  3. Testicular torsion. This condition is very common in young men. The pain usually starts gradually and may affect one or both of the testicles.
  4. Testicular tumor. A testicular tumor can cause pain and swell in the testicular area. Most of the symptoms of testicular tumors resemble other testicular conditions.
  5. Kidney stone. This condition causes pain that radiates in one or both testicles. This includes other symptoms such as bloody urine, nausea, and pain in the top of the penis.
  6. Orchitis. It is an infection that affects the testicles. Anyone who has symptoms of orchitis should seek immediate treatment.  Symptoms of orchitis include fatigue, testicular pain, and fatigue.
Blood tests

How is Testicular Pain Diagnosed?

Your doctor will examine you standing up and lying down. Your doctor will assess when the pain started, how long it has lasted, how much it hurts, and where it hurts. Blood and urine tests can help to rule out infections as a possible cause. An ultrasound will be performed if a lump is found in your testicle. Upon receiving the results of the ultrasound scan, you will be referred to a urologist to have cancer removed.

How to Prevent Testicular Pain?

The underlying causes of testicle pain cannot always be prevented, but there are some steps you can take to reduce them. Prevention steps include:

  • To avoid testicular injuries, wear an athletic supporter
  • Use a condom during intercourse when practicing safe sex
  • A monthly examination of the testicles should reveal any changes or lumps
  • To prevent urinary tract infections, empty your bladder completely when you urinate

Treatment for Testicular Pain

Treatment for testicular pain involves home remedies, pain relievers, antibiotics, and tricyclic antidepressants. Note the treatment for testicular pain depends on the causes and severity of the condition. You can also apply ice to the affected area or try warm baths.

Tapentadol is also helpful for testicular pain treatment. It is used to treat moderate to severe pain. It works directly in the central nervous system and reduces feelings of pain by interrupting the way nerves signal pain between the brain and the body. Buy Tapentadol to treat severe pain. Ensure to seek advice from your doctor before using this medication.

Strongyloidiasis Infection

What is Strongyloidiasis?

Strongyloidiasis infection is caused by roundworm or nematode. The roundworm is usually found in warm climates, like those of tropical and subtropical countries. Certain strains of this infection have also been found to infect primates, dogs, and cats.

abdominal pain

Signs and Symptoms of Strongyloidiasis?

Risk Factors of Strongyloidiasis

Strongyloides are most commonly transmitted by contacting soil contaminated with Strongyloides larvae. The risk of being infected increases when activities increase contact with the soil, such as:

  • Walking with bare feet
  • Contact with human waste
  • Contact with sewage
  • Farming and coal mining are occupations that increase soil contamination

Strongyloidiasis Medication

Safe and effective drugs are available to treat Strongyloidiasis infection. Ivermectin is also a recommended medication for a condition such as strongyloidiasis. Ivermectin works by paralyzing and inactivating the gut of parasites in humans. Buy Ivermectin here at the most reasonable price. These are medical-grade medications that require a doctor’s prescription.

How Can Strongyloidiasis Be Prevented?

Strongyloides infection can be prevented by wearing shoes and avoiding contact with feces or sewage. Additionally, if you suspect that you are infected, you should be tested and treated if you are positive for the disease. Preventing disease begins with the proper disposal of sewage and the management of feces.

Hay Fever: Symptoms and Treatment

Hay fever is a common name for allergic rhinitis. It is caused by environmental allergens through direct contact in your mouth and eyes. Typical allergens that cause hay fever are pollens, dust mites, molds, and animal dander.

Symptoms of Drug Allergy

Hay Fever Symptoms

  • Runny nose
  • Nasal stuffiness
  • Itchy and red eyes
  • Watery eyes
  • Cough and sneezing
  • Itchy throat and nose
  • Postnasal drip or mucus that runs down the back of your throat
  • Allergic shiners or bruised-appearing skin under the
  • Fatigue and lack of sleep

Causes of Hay Fever

Hay fever symptoms usually start right after you’re exposed to the allergen. These allergens will trigger your immune system, which mistakenly identifies the substance as something harmful. In response to this, your immune system produces antibodies to defend your body which results in hay fever symptoms.

Genetic factors can also be a cause or trigger of hay fever. Having allergies in your family increases the likelihood of developing especially if your parents have allergies-related diseases. Knowing the causes and triggers of hay fever may help you manage and avoid the condition.

When to See A Doctor?

See your doctor if any of the following occur:

  • There is a prolonged duration of your symptoms and they are bothersome to you.
  • Over-the-counter medications are not helping you.
  • Your hay fever symptoms are worsened by another condition, such as asthma.
  • Hay fever occurs all year round and the symptoms are severe
  • You are experiencing unpleasant side effects from your allergy medications.
  • If you want to know if allergy shots or immunotherapy are right for you, you want to learn more about your options.

Diagnosing Hay Fever

Diagnosing hay fever starts with a complete assessment of the signs, symptoms, and history of the condition. Doctors of allergists may also recommend skin tests to determine the causes of symptoms and for proper diagnosis. The skin test method includes:

  1. Prick or scratch test. This test involves pricking or scratching the skin with a drop of a possible allergen. Most commonly, this type of skin test is called a percutaneous test.
  2. Intradermal test. By injecting a tiny amount of an allergen under the skin, a small amount of that allergen can be determined. It takes about 20 minutes for a reaction to appear at the site. In general, this test is more sensitive than the scratch or prick test.

Treatment of Hay Fever

Treatment medications for hay fever include antihistamines. Most of these are over-the-counter products that help relieve symptoms of allergy. Immunotherapy is also a suggested treatment for hay fever that has long-lasting relief. Immunotherapy may lead to lasting remission of allergy symptoms.

Loratadine for Hay Fever Treatment

Loratadine is an antihistamine that works by selectively antagonizing peripheral H1 histamine receptors. It is an effective medication, with the results showing immediately after taking the pill. This is also used to treat skin allergies and hives. Buy Loratadine for hay fever treatment at the most reasonable price.

Pinworms Infection: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

What is Pinworm Infection?

Pinworm is an intestinal infection caused by tiny parasitic worms. Thousands of people are affected by this common infection every year, especially school-aged children. It is a contagious infection but if you get rid of pinworms quickly, they will not spread or cause any harm.

How Do Pinworm Infections Spread?

Fecal-oral transmission of pinworm infection occurs by direct hand contact with an infected pinworm egg, or indirectly, by passing it through contaminated clothing, bedding, food, or other items. As soon as pinworm eggs are deposited on the skin around the anus, they become infective.

Pinworms can live for two to three weeks on clothing, bedding, or other objects. Infectious pinworm eggs are found on fingers, under fingernails, or on contaminated objects and surfaces such as clothing, bedding, and other objects. Pinworm eggs sometimes become airborne due to their small size and can be ingested.

abdominal pain

Symptoms of Pinworms Infection

  • Itching of the anal or vaginal area
  • Irritability and insomnia
  • Restlessness and teeth grinding
  • Nausea
  • Occasional stomach pain

Causes of Pinworms Infection

  • Causes of pinworm infection include acquiring it by ingesting or inhaling pinworm eggs. Infected people usually deposit these microscopic eggs on surfaces.
  • The eggs remain in the intestine until they hatch and mature. During the night, adult female pinworms exit the body through the anus.
  • Upon laying eggs, they return to the colon from the folds of skin around the anus. These eggs often cause itching and irritation.

What Do Pinworms Look Like?

A pinworm is a parasitic nematode that lives in the intestines and lays eggs on the skin around the anus. Their name comes from their pin-like tails.

Prevent Pinworm Infections

  • Trim your fingernails. Your fingernails should be cleaned and trimmed to prevent the eggs from being transferred.
  • Avoid touching the anal area. Protect the affected area from touching or scratching by making sure your children do not do so.
  • Wash your hands often. After using the bathroom, changing a diaper, touching your mouth or nose, or petting a dog or cat, wash your hands with soap and warm water. Make sure your children wash their hands, too.
  • Shower often. To remove pinworm eggs from the skin, people who have pinworms should shower every day. Showering is more effective than bathing because bathwater can become contaminated with eggs.
  • Keep surfaces clean. You can help prevent the spread of the infection by regularly cleaning toys, counters, toilets, utensils, dishes, and other surfaces with soap and water.
  • Wash sheets, towels, and underclothes frequently. The linens should be washed every day until the treatment is complete. Washing laundry with eggs in it can spread infections, so don’t shake them out before washing.

Treatment of Pinworms Infection

Pinworm can be treated with either prescription or over-the-counter medications. Consult your doctor before using treatment medication for suspected pinworm infection. The treatment method involves two doses of medication with the second dose being given 2 weeks after the first dose.

Ivermectin is also an antihelminthic medication that is used for pinworm infection. Ivermectin works by interfering with the nerve and muscle functions of worms, by paralyzing and killing them. Consult your doctor before using this medication to know the possible benefits and side effects. Buy Ivermectin here at the lowest reasonable price.

Neuropathic Pain

Neuropathic pain is often described as a shooting or burning sensation. It can subside on its own but tends to last for days or weeks. Often it is caused by nerve damage or a malfunctioning nervous system, and it is unrelenting and severe at times. Nerve damage affects both the area around the injury and the site of the injury in terms of nerve function.

Alcohol or drug abuse

What are the Causes of Neuropathic Pain?

What are the Symptoms of Neuropathic Pain?

  • Spontaneous pain that comes without stimulation
  • Pain that feels like a shooting, stabbing, burning, or electric shock
  • Tingling, numbness feeling
  • Induced pain or pain brought about by normally non-painful stimuli like cold or gentle brushing
  • Increase of pain due to painful stimuli such as pinpricks and heat.
  • Either a spontaneous or evoked unpleasant sensation.
  • Trouble sleeping, and emotional problems due to severe pain.
  • A normally painful stimulus that may be lessened by a less painful stimulus
Medications Used For Kidney Infection

Neuropathic Pain Treatment

Anticonvulsants and antidepressant drugs are often the first lines of treatment. Some neuropathic pain studies suggest the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Doctors may also recommend stronger pain killers. So, ensure to discuss the pros and cons of the medicine you take with your doctor.

In the case of another medical condition, such as diabetes, better management of that disorder may help alleviate the pain. Effective management of the condition can also help prevent further nerve damage. An invasive or implantable device may be used by a pain specialist in cases that are difficult to treat. It has been shown that electrical stimulation of the nerves involved in neuropathic pain can significantly reduce pain symptoms.

Tramadol for Neuropathic Pain

Tramadol is a narcotic-like pain reliever and not an over-the-counter drug. It works by changing the way your brain senses pain. Your body sends pain messages to your brain when the drug binds with the receptor, just like endorphins in your body.

Chronic pain can be treated round the clock with the extended form, which releases into the body slowly. The immediate release is released into the body right away. Buy Tramadol here at a reasonable price, but ensure to seek advice from your doctor first.

Intermittent Claudication

Intermittent claudication is muscle pain that happens when you are active and stops when you rest. The pain may also intensify and can interfere with your simple activities.

Colchicine Knee Pain

What are the Symptoms of Intermittent Claudication?

  • Pain, discomfort, and fatigue in muscles
  • Pain in the calves, hips, thighs, and feet
  • Pain in the forearm, biceps, and shoulders

Severe symptoms may also occur over time and may result in warning symptoms of peripheral artery disease, usually in more-advanced stages, including:

  • Severe and constant pain
  • Pain that progresses to numbness
  • Cool skin
  • Skin discoloration
  • Wounds that do not heal

What is the Most Common Cause of Claudication?

Atherosclerosis is the common cause of claudication. It causes a buildup of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in and on the artery walls. The plaque or build-up causes the arteries to narrow, blocking blood flow. The plaque can also burst, leading to a blood clot. Other condition that causes claudication includes:

  • A bulging artery in your belly or leg
  • Narrowed spinal canal
  • Damaged nerves

Intermittent Claudication Treatment

The goal of the treatment for claudication is to reduce the pain and manage the risk factors that contribute to heart and blood vessel disease. Exercise is one of the treatment activities that reduces pain, increases exercise duration, and improves vascular health in the affected limbs. Surgery and other procedure include:

  • Angioplasty. This procedure improves blood flow by widening a damaged artery.
  • Vascular surgery. This type of surgery replaces the vessel that is causing claudication and allows blood to flow around the blocked or narrowed artery.

Cilostazol for Intermittent Claudication Treatment

Cilostazol is a medication used to help the symptoms of intermittent claudication in peripheral vascular disease. It increases blood flow and the amount of oxygen that gets to the muscles. Cilostazol also stops platelets from sticking together and prevents them from forming harmful clots.

Treatment Medications Used for Claudication

Doctors often recommend one or more medications to control pain and manage risk factors for cardiovascular disease. It often includes medications for high cholesterol, pain, high blood pressure, and medicine for other cardiovascular risks.

losing weight

Lifestyle and Home Remedies for Intermittent Claudication

  1. Quit smoking. Peripheral artery disease complications are greatly increased by smoking. Talk to your health care provider if you need help quitting.
  2. Foot care. It is important to know how to inspect your feet properly so that injuries can be treated as soon as possible. Support and protect your feet by wearing socks and appropriate shoes.
  3. Exercise. Keeping your heart healthy and managing your weight requires regular exercise.
  4. Eat a healthy diet. Reduce your fat intake by eating a variety of low-starch vegetables, fruits, and whole grains, along with modest portions of lean meats, poultry, fish, and low-fat dairy products.

Major Depressive Disorder Symptoms and Causes

Major depressive disorder is a medical condition that affects your mood and ability to function. This type of disorder may occur only once during your life. During these times, symptoms occur most of the day, nearly every day including feelings of sadness and emptiness. As to what causes major depressive disorder, a variety of factors may be involved. 

Anxiety and stress

Signs and Symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder

  • Unexplained physical problems, such as back pain or headaches
  • Feelings of sadness, tearfulness, emptiness, or hopelessness
  • Sleep disturbances
  • Tiredness and lack of energy
  • Angry outbursts, irritability, or frustration
  • Slowed thinking, speaking, or body movements
  • Feelings of worthlessness or guilt
  • Loss of interest or pleasure in most or all normal activities
  • Reduced appetite and weight loss or increased cravings for food 
  • Anxiety
  • Trouble thinking and concentrating
  • Frequent or recurrent thoughts of death, suicidal thoughts, or suicide attempts 

Factors That Cause Major Depressive Disorder

As with many mental disorders, a variety of factors may be involved, such as:

  • Hormones: Depression may be caused or triggered by changes in the body’s hormone balance. Pregnancy, postpartum, thyroid problems, menopause, and other conditions can cause hormonal changes.
  • Biological differences: There are physical changes in the brain of people who suffer from depression. It remains unclear what the significance of these changes is, but they may eventually help determine the cause.
  • Brain chemistry: Depression is likely caused by neurotransmitters, which are naturally occurring brain chemicals. According to recent research, changes in the function and effect of these neurotransmitters and their interaction with neurocircuits involved in maintaining mood stability may contribute to depression.
  • Inherited traits: Depression is more prevalent in people whose blood relatives also suffer from it. Depressive disorders may be caused by genes, according to researchers. 
Alcohol or drug abuse

Complications Associated With Major Depressive Disorder

Depression is a serious illness that can be very difficult to deal with. Without treatment, depression can lead to emotional, behavioral, and health problems that affect every aspect of your life.

  • Pain or physical illness
  • Alcohol or drug misuse
  • Excess weight or obesity can lead to heart disease and diabetes
  • Family conflicts, relationship difficulties, and work or school problems
  • Social isolation
  • Anxiety, panic disorder, or social phobia
  • Suicidal feelings, suicide attempts, or suicide
  • Self-mutilation, such as cutting
  • Premature death from medical conditions

Treatment for Major Depressive Disorder

People with a major depressive disorder often have medications and psychotherapy to effectively treat the condition. 

Psychotherapy is also known as talk therapy or psychological therapy. It is a general term for treating depression by talking about your condition and related issues with a mental health professional.  

Medications may include antidepressants such as:

  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
  • Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)
  • Atypical antidepressants
  • Tricyclic antidepressants
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)

The usually recommended medication for major depressive disorder:

  • Escitalopram – is an antidepressant drug that is used in adults and adolescents 12 to 17 years of age. It works by increasing the amount of serotonin, a natural substance in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. 

What Are The Major Risk Factors For Lung Cancer?

Lung cancer is known to be the leading cause of cancer deaths globally. The major risk factors that research has found may increase your chances of getting lung cancer. 

A risk factor is anything that increases a person’s chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, like smoking, can be changed. Others, like a person’s age or family history, can’t be changed.

Types of Lung Cancer

Lung cancer cells are categorized under the microscope into two major types. Depending on the type of lung cancer you have, your doctor will make treatment decisions.

The two general types of lung cancer include:

  • Small Cell Lung Cancer: This occurs almost exclusively in heavy smokers and is less common than non-small cell lung cancer.
  • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: This is an umbrella term for several types of lung cancers. Non-small cell lung cancers include squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell carcinoma.
smoking cigarettes

Major Risk Factors of Lung Cancer

  • Smoking

The number one risk factor for lung cancer is smoking cigarettes. Cigars and pipes are also tobacco products that increase lung cancer risk. More than 7,000 chemicals are present in tobacco smoke. Smoking increases a person’s risk the longer they smoke and the more cigarettes they smoke each day. 

  • Secondhand Smoke

Secondhand smoke (smoking from someone else’s cigarettes, pipes, or cigars) can also cause lung cancer. Inhaling secondhand smoke is like smoking. 

  • Radon

In the United States, radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. Water, soil, and rocks all contain radon, a naturally occurring gas. There is no way to see, taste, or smell it. By getting into homes or buildings through cracks or holes, radon can get trapped and build up in the air. Radon levels are high in homes and buildings where people live or work. Lung cancer can be caused by radon over long periods.

  • Personal or Family History of Lung Cancer

There is a risk that you may develop another lung cancer if you are a lung cancer survivor, especially if you smoke. Your risk of lung cancer may be higher if your parents, siblings, or children have had lung cancer. This could be true because they also smoke, or they live or work in the same place where they are exposed to radon and other substances that can cause lung cancer.

Lung Cancer Diagnosis

Treatment for Lung Cancer 

A treatment plan is based on several factors such as overall health, the stage of your cancer, and the type. In some cases, you may choose not to undergo treatment. For instance, you may feel that the side effects of treatment will outweigh the potential benefits. When that’s the case, your doctor may suggest comfort care to treat only the symptoms the cancer is causing. 

Treatment may include:

  • Surgery
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Stereotactic body radiotherapy
  • Targeted drug therapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Palliative care 

What Type Of Bacteria Causes Urinary Tract Infection?

Urinary tract infection is caused by a bacteria called Escherichia coli (E. coli). Doctors usually treat urinary tract infections with antibiotics. On the other hand, you can take steps to lessen your chances of getting the infection in the first place.

What is Urinary Tract Infection and Its Causes?

Urinary tract infection is an infection of your urinary system including kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Most infections may involve the lower urinary tract such as the bladder and the urethra. 

The different types of urinary tract infection can include:

  • Urethritis
  • Cystitis
  • Pyelonephritis 
  • Urethritis
  • Vaginitis 

This type of infection is caused by micro-organisms, usually bacteria. In the urinary tract, bacteria do not normally live. UTIs occur when bacteria multiply in the urinary tract.

Urinary infections and cystitis can be caused by a variety of germs. Escherichia coli (E.coli) is the most common germ that causes urinary tract infections. The urethra lining can easily become infected with E.coli. When the urine flows back up from the bladder to the kidneys or when the urinary flow is blocked, some people are at greater risk of infection.

Diagnosing Encephalitis

Common Symptoms of Urinary Tract Infection

  • Want to urinate more often and urgently 
  • Burning pain when urinating
  • A feeling that the bladder is still full after urinating
  • Pain above the pubic bone
  • Cloudy, bloody, or very smelly urine

Complications of Urinary Tract Infection

When a urinary tract infection is left untreated, it can have serious consequences such as:

  • Recurrent infections in women who experience two or more urinary tract infections in six months or four or more within a year.
  • Permanent kidney damage from an acute or chronic kidney infection (pyelonephritis) because of an untreated urinary tract infection.
  • Urethral narrowing (stricture) in men from recurrent urethritis that is previously seen with gonococcal urethritis.
  • Increased risk in pregnant women of delivering premature infants or low birth weight. 
  • Sepsis is a potentially life-threatening complication of an infection, especially if the infection works its way up your urinary tract to your kidneys. 

Prevention of Urinary Tract Infection

These prevention tips may be useful in reducing the risk of developing urinary tract infection:

  • Drink plenty of water and other fluids to flush the urinary system 
  • Go to the toilet as soon as you feel the urge to urinate, rather than holding
  • Avoid potentially irritating feminine products
  • Empty your bladder soon after intercourse

Treatment for Urinary Tract Infection

Urinary tract infections are very serious, especially if you suspect you may have a bladder infection or kidney infection, both of which are very dangerous. It is possible to prevent urinary infections from spreading to the bladder or kidneys if they are treated early.

You will be tested for microorganisms in your urine by your doctor. Antibiotics are usually effective in treating urinary tract infections.

  • Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim – this is a combined antibiotic medication that works by eliminating the bacteria that cause many kinds of infections including urinary tract infections. 

What Are The Signs Of Heart Failure?

The early signs of heart failure are often very subtle, but it’s dangerous to ignore them. Proper treatment can improve the signs of heart failure and may help some people live longer. Lifestyle changes such as losing weight, exercising, reducing salt in your diet, and managing stress can improve your quality of life. 

Possible Causes of Heart Failure

Heart failure often develops after other conditions have damaged or weakened the heart. However, heart failure can also occur if the heart becomes too stiff. 

Heart failure causes the main pumping chambers of the heart to become stiff and not fill properly between beats. The heart muscle may weaken and become damaged in some people. The ventricles can become too stretched to pump enough blood through the body. The heart cannot keep up with the demands placed on it to pump blood over time.

Any of the following conditions can damage or weaken your heart and can cause heart failure. Some of these can be present without your knowing it:

  • Coronary artery disease and heart attack
  • High blood pressure
  • Faulty heart valves
  • Damage to the heart muscle
  • Inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis)
  • A heart problem that you’re born with (congenital heart defect)
  • Abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias)
  • Long-term diseases (diabetes, HIV, an overactive or underactive thyroid, or a buildup of iron or protein)
Chest pain

Signs of Heart Failure

Heart failure signs may include:

  • Shortness of breath with activity or when lying down
  • Rapid or irregular heartbeat
  • Reduced ability to exercise
  • Very rapid weight gain from fluid buildup
  • Nausea
  • Lack of appetite
  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet
  • Persistent cough or wheezing with white or pink blood-tinged mucus
  • Swelling of the belly area 
  • Difficulty concentrating or decreased alertness
  • Chest pain if heart failure is caused by a heart attack

See your doctor if you think you might be experiencing signs of heart failure. Call for medical assistance if you have any of the following:

  • Fainting or severe weakness
  • Chest pain
  • Sudden, severe shortness of breath and coughing up white or pink, foamy mucus
  • Rapid or irregular heartbeat associated with shortness of breath, chest pain, or fainting

Treatment for Heart Failure

Chronic diseases such as heart failure require lifelong management. In some cases, however, heart failure can improve with treatment, and the heart may become stronger as a result.

The underlying cause of heart failure can sometimes be treated by doctors. Heart failure may be reversed, for instance, by repairing a heart valve or controlling a fast heart rhythm. In most cases, heart failure is treated with a combination of medicines and sometimes with devices that help the heartbeat. 

Doctors usually treat heart failure with a combination of medications. Depending on your symptoms, you might take one or more medications. The recommended medication can be:

  • Digoxin – this is usually along with other medications. Digoxin belongs to a class of medications called cardiac glycosides. It works by affecting certain minerals inside heart cells. This reduces strain on the heart and helps it maintain a normal, steady, and strong heartbeat. 

What Is An Acute Manic Episode?

An acute manic episode is the phase of bipolar I disorder. During acute mania, an individual may experience increased impulsivity that causes them to act in a way that is brash, untimely, or immoral. People with acute mania will also likely have increased energy, get little to no sleep and talk very fast, and often jump from topic to topic. They may experience some symptoms of psychosis, where they are not fully aware of or connected to reality. 

Possible Causes of an Acute Manic Episode

The most common cause is bipolar disorder. Those with bipolar disorder be subject to experience cycles of mania and depression over several weeks or months. In several cases, those with bipolar disorder don’t have any predictable mania triggers which makes the onset of manic episodes unpredictable.

In addition to bipolar disorder, acute mania may also be caused by drugs or medications, especially stimulants. Certain other medical conditions, especially thyroid conditions or mental health diseases, may also cause episodes.

Acute Manic Episode Risk Factors

The most significant risk factors for the manic episode are the risk factors for bipolar disorder, which commonly causes mania. These include having close relatives with bipolar disorder or having a history of substance abuse. Other risk factors of mania include using drugs recreationally or failing to treat underlying mental health conditions that may cause mania. Drug-induced mania is quite rare but is still something that may be experienced.

Diagnosis for Hypersexuality

How Is Acute Manic Episode Diagnosed?

A psychiatrist can evaluate a patient for mania by asking questions and discussing symptoms. Direct observations can indicate that a patient is having a manic episode.

The episode must occur for a week or less than a week if the patient is hospitalized. In addition to a disturbed mood, patients must experience at least three of the following symptoms:

  • Being easily distracted.
  • Engages in risky or impulsive behavior
  • Has racing thoughts.
  • Has a reduced need for sleep
  • Has obsessive thoughts

An acute manic episode disrupts a person’s life and negatively affects relationships, as well as work or school. Many manic episodes need hospitalization to stabilize the mood of the patient and prevent self-harm. In some instances, hallucinations or delusions are part of manic episodes. For the person’s state to be considered a manic episode, symptoms must not be the result of outside influences, such as abuse of drugs or alcohol.

Treatment for Acute Manic Episode

Usually, acute mania treatment is part of a broader bipolar disorder treatment. The first focus is usually placed on the more short-term mania recovery so that the person suffering from the manic episode can resume normal activities. 

Mania management may involve hospitalization and therapy with a psychiatrist. While this may be the typical course of treatment for many people, each person’s situation is unique, and someone with specific questions should seek the advice of a doctor.

Medication usually used:

Stomach Ulcers Causes and Treatment

The cause of stomach ulcers is an infection with H. pylori. Treatment for this condition depends on the cause. Usually, treatment will involve killing the H. pylori bacterium is present, removing or decreasing the use of NSAIDs if possible, and helping your ulcer to heal with medication.

What Is A Stomach Ulcer And How Common It Is?  

A stomach ulcer is an open sore that develops in your stomach lining. It occurs when the protective mucous lining in your stomach and duodenum has been eroded which allows gastric acids and digestive enzymes to eat away at your stomach and duodenal walls. This eventually causes an open sore that is continually irritated by the acid. 

Stomach ulcers are very common in Western countries. Some estimates say that 1 in 10 people will have one at some point in their lives. That’s because many of the causes that contribute to stomach ulcers are common in Western life. Fortunately, these causes are usually easy to trace and reverse, giving ulcers a chance to heal and your stomach lining a chance to repair. 

abdominal pain

What Causes Stomach Ulcer?

The two most common causes are:

  • H. pylori infection – this common bacterial infection affects up to half of the people globally. It mainly lives in the stomach. Several people have reported no problems with it. It is kept in check by their gut immune system. However, some individuals are infected with H. pylori overgrowth. Peptic ulcer disease and chronic inflammation are caused by the bacteria multiplying in the stomach lining. H. pylori infection is associated with about 60% of duodenal ulcers and 40% of gastric ulcers.
  • Overuse of NSAIDs – contributes to ulcers in several ways. They irritate the mucous lining of the stomach and repress some of the chemicals that protect and repair it. There is a 30% chance of developing peptic ulcers in people who take NSAIDs regularly. Overuse of NSAIDs causes up to 50% of stomach ulcers.

The less common cause of stomach ulcers include:

  • Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome – this is a rare condition that causes your stomach to produce too much gastric acid. 
  • Severe physiological stress – severe illness, burns, or injuries can produce stress ulcers in the stomach. Physiological stress changes your body’s PH balance, increasing stomach acid. Stress ulcers develop very quickly in response to stress, unlike normal stomach ulcers that develop gradually. 
Medications Used For Kidney Infection

Treatment for Stomach Ulcer

Treatment for stomach ulcers depends on the cause. 

You may find relief from the pain of a stomach ulcer if you:

  • Consider switching pain relievers. 
  • Control stress. Stress may worsen the symptoms of a stomach ulcer. 
  • Don’t smoke. Smoking may interfere with the protective lining of the stomach which makes your stomach more susceptible to the development of an ulcer. Smoking also increases stomach acid.
  • Limit or avoid alcohol. Excessive use of alcohol can irritate and erode the mucous lining in your stomach and intestines which causes inflammation and bleeding.

Recommended medication for stomach ulcers:

What Causes Obesity?

Obesity is considered one of the biggest health problems worldwide. When it comes to the cause of obesity, poor nutrition and lack of exercise are important factors. 

What is Obesity?

Obesity occurs when your body accumulates and stores excessive amounts of fat. If you consume high amounts of energy, particularly fat and sugars, but do not burn off the energy through exercise and physical activity, much of the surplus energy will be stored by the body as fat.

overweight
overweight

Causes of Obesity 

  • Genetics: You are at high risk of being obese if one or both parents are obese. Genetics affects hormones involved in fat regulation. 
  • Physical Inactivity: Sedentary people burn fewer calories than active people. A survey shows strong correlations between physical inactivity and weight gain in both sexes. 
  • Overeating: Overeating leads to weight gain especially if the diet is high in fat or sugar. Foods high in sugar and fat have high energy density. A study shows that diets high in fat contribute to weight gain. 
  • Frequency of Eating: The relationship between frequency of eating and weight is somewhat controversial. There is information about obese people eating less often than people of normal weight. Experts have observed that people who eat small meals four or five times daily have lower cholesterol levels and more stable blood sugar than people who eat less frequently. 
  • Medications: Medications linked with weight gain include antidepressants, anticonvulsants, diabetes medications, certain hormones, and corticosteroids. The reason for the weight gain with the medications differs for each medication. If this is a concern, you should discuss it with your physician rather than discontinuing the medication, as this could have serious effects
  • Psychological Factors: For some people, emotions influence eating habits. Several people eat too much in response to emotions such as sadness, boredom, anger, or stress. While most obese people have no more psychological disturbances than normal weight people, about 30% of the people who seek treatment for serious weight problems have difficulties with binge eating.
  • Diseases: Diseases such as insulin resistance, hypothyroidism, polycystic ovary syndrome, and Cushing’s syndrome are also contributors to obesity. 
  • Social Issues: There is a link between social issues and obesity. Lack of money to purchase healthy foods or lack of safe places to walk or exercise can increase the risk of obesity.

Complications of Obesity

Obese people are more likely to develop several potentially serious health problems such as:

Obesity Treatment 

The goal of obesity treatment is to reach and stay at a healthy weight. This improves overall health and lowers the risk of developing complications related to obesity.

Weight-loss medication is used along with diet, exercise, and behavior changes. Before selecting a medication, your doctor will consider your health history. Recommended weight loss medication may include:

  • Orlistat – this is prescribed to people suffering from obesity. Orlistat works by preventing the lipases that are needed to break down the fatty acids, thereby inhibiting the absorption of fatty acids in the diet. 

Phenytoin Sodium for Seizures 

Phenytoin Sodium is an anticonvulsant or antiepileptic drug usually recommended for managing seizures. The drug works by blocking the spread of seizure activity in the brain. It also helps keep the neurons in your brain from becoming too active. As a result, Phenytoin Sodium reduces how often you have seizures.

What Is A Seizure?

A seizure is a burst of uncontrolled electrical activity between brain cells that causes temporary abnormalities in muscle tone or movements, behaviors, sensations, or states of awareness.

There are two major types of seizures: 

Seizures
  • Focal Onset – starts in one area and can spread across the brain and cause mild or severe symptoms, depending on how the electrical discharges spread. 
  • Generalized Onset – can start as focal seizures that spread to both sides of the brain. They also can occur as generalized onset seizures in which seizure activity starts simultaneously over both sides of the brain. This seizure usually starts during childhood and is similar to a thermostat surge or a light flash. 

Common Signs and Symptoms of Seizure

Signs and symptoms can range from mild to severe. Signs and symptoms may include:

  • A staring spell
  • Temporary confusion
  • Loss of consciousness or awareness
  • Uncontrollable jerking movements of the arms and legs
  • Cognitive or emotional symptoms, such as anxiety, fear, or déjà vu

Common Causes of Seizure

Brain nerve cells send and receive electrical impulses, which allow them to communicate with one another. A seizure can be caused by anything that disrupts these communication pathways. Several types of seizure disorders can be caused by genetic mutations. 

The most common cause of seizures is epilepsy. Sometimes seizures may be caused or triggered by:

Treatment and Medication for Polio 
  • Lack of sleep
  • Stroke
  • Brain tumor
  • Flashing lights, moving patterns, or other visual stimulants
  • High fever, which can be associated with an infection such as meningitis
  • Low blood sodium, which can happen with diuretic therapy
  • Head trauma that causes an area of bleeding in the brain
  • Autoimmune disorders
  • Abnormalities of the blood vessels in the brain
  • Use of illegal or recreational drugs
  • Alcohol misuse, during times of withdrawal or extreme intoxication
  • Medications such as certain antidepressants, pain relievers, or smoking cessation therapies, that lower the seizure threshold
  • COVID-19 virus infection

Treatment for Seizure

Many seizures are treated with anti-seizure medications. Anti-seizure medications come in many different forms. Finding the medicine that works best for you and causes the fewest side effects is the goal of medication. You may be prescribed more than one medication by your doctor in some cases.

If your doctor prescribes you medication, he or she will consider your condition, your frequency of seizures, and your age among other things. Also, your doctor will review any other medications you may be taking to make sure they won’t interact with the anti-epileptic medication.

Medication mostly prescribed by doctors may include:

  • Phenytoin Sodium – this is a widely used anticonvulsant drug that acts by reducing the spread of certain activities in the brain that result in seizures. 

What Is The Main Cause Of High Triglycerides?

The most common causes of high triglycerides relate to diet and metabolism. Also, excess body weight and a high-fat, high-carb diet, several health conditions may contribute. 

If you’ve been diagnosed with high triglycerides, you may be looking for ways to make your diet and exercise routines healthier, but some other culprits should also be on your radar.

What Are High Triglycerides?

Triglycerides are a kind of fat that is found in the blood. Cholesterol is another kind. Stored in fat cells for later use, triglycerides are a major energy source. Normal amounts are important for good health. Eating more fat than the body burns can lead to high triglyceride levels. 

High triglyceride levels may result in the hardening of the arteries, which increases the risks of heart attack, stroke, and heart disease. They can be part of metabolic syndrome, which also includes too much fat around the waist, high blood sugar, high blood pressure, and abnormal cholesterol levels.

Sometimes high triglyceride levels mean poorly controlled type 2 diabetes, liver or kidney disease, low thyroid hormone levels, or rare genetic conditions.

overweight
overweight

What Are the Causes and Symptoms of High Triglycerides?

Causes of High Triglycerides may include:

  • Obesity
  • Eating too much unhealthy food
  • Genetics

Certain illnesses include:

Some drugs such as:

Drinking a lot of alcohol can also increase the levels of triglycerides. 

Most people with High Triglycerides have no symptoms. Very high levels of Triglycerides can cause small fat deposits under the skin and painful inflammation of the pancreas called pancreatitis. 

losing weight
Exercise

Managing High Triglycerides

Dos 

  • Exercise regularly.
  • Eat fish.
  • Stop smoking.
  • Eat more fruits and vegetables and high-fiber foods. 
  • Lose weight by changing your diet and doing aerobic exercise, such as jogging, walking, bicycling, or swimming. Exercise at least 30 minutes daily.

Don’ts 

  • Don’t drink more than two alcoholic drinks each day.
  • Don’t forget to treat other medical conditions such as diabetes and an underactive thyroid.
  • Don’t change your diet or medicines without your doctor’s approval.

How Are High Triglycerides Treated?

High triglycerides, like high cholesterol, are a potentially serious health problem. But, with lifestyle changes and, if necessary, medications, most people will be able to successfully manage their condition and reduce their cardiovascular disease risk.

If diet, exercise, and other lifestyle changes are not enough to lower your triglycerides or your doctor feels your numbers are too high to address the problem with lifestyle interventions alone, they may recommend medication. 

  • Gemfibrozil – this medication is in a class of lipid-regulating medications called fibrates. The drug works by reducing the production of triglycerides in the liver. As a result, it lowers your levels of triglycerides. 

How Can I Increase My Eyelash Hair?

If you want to increase your eyelash hair, there are several treatments you can use. Eyelash hair is known to protect the eyes from light debris. They are also like sensors that warn your eyes of potential danger when objects come close. Just like the hair on your head, eyelash hair naturally falls out and replaces itself in a natural cycle. It is normal to lose between one and five eyelashes each day. Most of the time, some shedding and thinning is completely natural and nothing to worry about.

symptoms of food allergy

Causes of Eyelash Hair Loss 

These are the most common culprits:

When to See a Specialist?

If you have ruled out the lists above and the problem persists, it may be time to see a specialist to look into underlying conditions. It is more concerning if lashes fall out on both lids, which could indicate a more systemic problem.  Seek immediate help if you notice accompanying hair loss on the eyebrows and the scalp, or you also have skin changes such as itching, redness, or scaling, this may be a sign of a health problem or condition such as:

  • Thyroid Disorders
  • Blepharitis 
  • Trichotillomania
  • Alopecia Areata 
  • Certain Cancers 

Proven Way to Increase Your Eyelash Hair 

Grooming Your Eyelash Hair 

Proper eyelash hair maintenance can improve the health of your eyelashes which makes it less likely for them to break. This can make them appear longer and thicker. Some eyelash hair grooming tips include:

  • Removing eye makeup at the end of each day
  • Regularly brushing your eyelashes with an eyelash brush
  • Washing your face and eyes with gentle soap daily

Medication 

  • Bimatoprost is the only medication approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that makes eyelashes grow longer and thicker. Your doctor can prescribe this medication, which you apply regularly to the lash line of the upper eyelid. It delivers full results when used daily for at least two months. Once you begin using Bimatoprost, you must continue using it regularly to maintain the results. 

How To Prevent Eyelash Hair Loss?

  • Remove makeup gently as rubbing or tugging your eyelash hair can make them fall out. 
  • Use new mascara because you might be allergic to your brand and not know it. 
  • Ditch your eyelash hair curler. It can cause eyelash hair to come out, especially if you tug or use them while wearing mascara.
  • It is recommended to take off makeup before bed. Eyelashes coated with mascara are more brittle and prone to breakage. 
  • Remove carefully any false eyelashes and extensions. These products adhere to your natural lashes with medical-grade glue. Removing the glue can take your lashes out along with it. Make sure to use a gentle, oil-based cleanser. 

What Are The Types Of Breast Cancer?

There are many types of breast cancer and many different ways to define them. The different type of breast cancer is defined by where in the breast they begin and how much they have grown or spread. These types of breast cancer you’ve been diagnosed with will help you and your doctor decide on the best treatment options for you.

What Is Breast Cancer?

Breast cancer is a disease where cells in the breast grow out of control. This type of cancer can begin in different parts of the breast. A breast is made up of three main parts: lobules, ducts, and connective tissue. Most breast cancers begin in the ducts or lobules.

Types of Breast Cancer

A type of breast cancer is determined by the specific cells in the breast that become cancer.

1. Invasive Breast Cancer

Invasive breast cancer has spread into the surrounding breast tissue. The two most common types of invasive breast cancer are defined by where in the breast they begin to grow:

  • Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC)
  • Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC)

Some types of invasive breast cancer have features that affect how they develop and how they are treated.

2. Non-Invasive Breast Cancer

When breast cancer is called non-invasive it means it has not spread beyond the breast tissue where it started. There are two main types of non-invasive breast cancer:

mammogram result on screen
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), is non-invasive breast cancer that has not spread outside the milk ducts where it started.
  • Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), is non-invasive breast cancer that has not spread outside the lobules where it started.

3. Cancerous Phyllodes Tumors of the Breast

Phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare. Most phyllodes tumors are benign but about 25% are cancerous.

What Are The Symptoms Of Breast Cancer?

  • Redness or flaky skin in the nipple area or the breast
  • Pulling in of the nipple or pain in the nipple area
  • New lump in the breast or underarm (armpit)
  • Irritation or dimpling of breast skin
  • Any change in the size or the shape of the breast
  • Pain in any area of the breast
  • Nipple discharge other than breast milk, including blood
  • Thickening or swelling of part of the breast

Treatment for Breast Cancer

Treatment for breast cancer depends on the type of breast cancer you have. Your doctor also considers your overall health and your preferences. Most women undergo surgery for breast cancer and many also receive additional treatment after surgery. Chemotherapy might also be used before surgery in certain situations.

The medication you can use if you have breast cancer:

What Are Signs Of Acute Pain?

There are several signs associated with acute pain since the term itself is quite vague and broad. Conversely, if you’re experiencing acute pain, it’s important to take some time off to rest and receive sufficient treatment. After all, the only way to get back on track as soon as possible is to fully heal. Failing to receive proper care can only lead to complications and even more time off the field to do the things you want to get done.

What Is Acute Pain?

Acute pain is a sensation you feel as soon as you experience an injury. For instance, if you slice open a finger while chopping vegetables, break a bone, or fall down the stairs, you are going to feel acute pain. It’s a signal from your body that it has just undergone physical trauma. Commonly, the pain stops once the injury heals.

back pain

Signs of Acute Pain

Acute pain tends to be of relatively short duration. The most common signs of acute pain may include:

Common Causes of Acute Pain

Besides blunt trauma examples, a person could also suffer from acute pain because of any of the following reasons:

  • Sprains and strains of a body part
  • Going to the dentist
  • Giving birth
  • Infections on a cut
  • Getting burned
  • Slipping and falling
  • Menstrual cramps
  • Passing a kidney stone
  • Bumping a body part against a hard surface

The range of pain can vary significantly depending on what’s causing it or the severity of the injury. 

Effects of Acute Pain 

The effects of acute pain extend far beyond an injured body part. Debilitating pain will affect other areas of a person’s life as well. People suffering from severe pain often find it difficult to sleep or lose their appetite because of it. In a worst-case scenario, it may lead to depression or addiction to pain medication, depending on where the pain is located.

losing weight

Acute Pain Treatment 

Every person’s pain is unique, just as every person’s life is unique. It is also important to provide them with the right pain management treatments and medications. People differ in their pain treatment to ensure that they receive effective treatment based on their unique characteristics.

Initial treatment may include some of the following:

  • Opioid medications
  • Muscle relaxant medications
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
  • Stress reduction
  • Resting the affected part of the body
  • Application of heat or ice
  • Physical therapy
  • Exercise
  • Bioelectric therapy 

A secondary tier of treatments may include

Recommended medication:

  • Tramadol – this drug is a narcotic-like pain reliever that is effective in managing acute and chronic pain. 

Can Streptococcus Pneumoniae Be Cured?

Doctors usually recommend antibiotics to cure Streptococcus Pneumoniae. Antibiotic treatment for serious infections typically includes broad-spectrum antibiotics until results of antibiotic sensitivity testing are available.

What is Streptococcus Pneumoniae?

Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the bacteria responsible for pneumococcal disease. When someone with this disease coughs or sneezes, the bacteria spreads. Pneumococcus bacteria can cause infections in many parts of the body including:

  • Blood (bacteremia)
  • Lungs (pneumonia) 
  • Brain and spinal cord tissue (meningitis)
  • Ears (otitis)
  • Sinuses (sinusitis)

Symptoms of Streptococcus Pneumoniae

Chest pain

Symptoms of Streptococcus Pneumoniae depend on the part of the body affected. Symptoms can include:

In severe cases, pneumococcal disease can cause hearing loss, brain damage, and death. 

Who Is At Risk?

Children at Risk for Streptococcus Pneumoniae

Children at increased risk for this disease include those younger than 2 years old and those with:

  • Chronic heart, lung, or kidney disease
  • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak
  • Cochlear implant 
  • Diabetes
  • Nephrotic syndrome 
  • Sickle cell disease, a damaged spleen, or no spleen
  • HIV infection, cancer, solid organ transplant, or another condition or taking medicine that weakens the immune system

Adults at Risk for Streptococcus Pneumoniae

Adults 65 years or older are at increased risk for the disease. Adults of all ages are also at increased risk if they have:

  • Cochlear implant
  • CSF leak
  • Diabetes
  • Alcoholism
  • Chronic heart, lung, kidney, or liver disease
  • Nephrotic syndrome
  • HIV infection, cancer, solid organ transplant, or another condition or taking medicine that weakens the immune system
  • Sickle cell disease, a damaged spleen, or no spleen

Adults who smoke cigarettes are also at increased risk for the disease. Chronic lung illnesses that increase the risk of an adult for the Streptococcus Pneumoniae include asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, and emphysema.

Blood tests

How to Diagnose Streptococcus Pneumoniae?

If doctors suspect Streptococcus Pneumoniae is serious, they will collect blood or cerebrospinal fluid samples. In the brain and spinal cord, cerebrospinal fluid surrounds them. You can see how lumbar puncture fluid is collected in the illustration below. A laboratory tests the samples after they have been collected by doctors. By growing the bacteria in the laboratory, it is possible to identify the specific type of bacteria that is causing the infection. A doctor can select the right antibiotic based on the cause, including the type of infection.

Adults can be diagnosed using a urine test. The diagnosis of ear and sinus infections is usually based on the history and physical examination findings that support the diagnosis.

Treatment for Streptococcus Pneumoniae

It is common for broad-spectrum antibiotics to be used as the first line of treatment for serious infections until results of antibiotic sensitivity testing are available. Antibiotic sensitivity testing shows which antibiotics will be most successful. Broad-spectrum antibiotics work against a wide range of bacteria. Once the sensitivity of the bacteria is known, doctors may choose a more targeted antibiotic. The most recommended medicine is:

  • Cephalexin – this is a first-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that is active against streptococci. 

The Most Common Rheumatic Disorders

Osteoarthritis is the most common type of Rheumatic Disorder. This affects about 27 million adults in the United States alone. Osteoarthritis is a chronic condition characterized by the breakdown of the joint’s cartilage. 

The breakdown of cartilage causes the bones to rub against each other, causing stiffness, pain, and loss of movement in the joint. Patients who have been diagnosed with Osteoarthritis are generally cared for by an Orthopedic Specialist.

What are the Risk Factors of Rheumatic Disorder?

The rheumatic disorder can develop in people of any age, sex, or race. There are several different forms of rheumatic disorder and some people are more susceptible to some than others. Some contributing factors to the disease include age, gender, genetics, and environmental factors. Some people are at higher risk for developing a rheumatic disorder, including those people who carry the PTPN22 gene, women, Hispanics, and African Americans.

Common Types of Rheumatic Disorder

hand arthritis in x ray

What Causes Rheumatic Disorder?

In many cases, the cause depends on the type of rheumatic disorder. But researchers believe that some or all of the following may play a role:

  • Genes and family history
  • Lifestyle choices such as being overweight
  • Trauma
  • Infection
  • Nervous system problems
  • Metabolic problems
  • Too much wear and tear and stress on a joint or joints
  • Environmental triggers
  • Certain hormones

Rheumatic Disorder Diagnosis

Diagnosis of rheumatic disorder begins with a discussion of your medical history. Your doctor will talk with you about your symptoms, including:

  • How much pain you’re in
  • Factors that worsen the pain
  • Where you feel pain or other symptoms
  • When your symptoms began and whether they’re constant or change throughout the day
  • Drugs, body positions, and other things that may relieve your symptoms
Medications Used For Kidney Infection

Rheumatic Disorder Treatment

Various types of medication are prescribed to treat rheumatic disorder. Some drugs only treat symptoms like pain and inflammation, while others can alter the course of the disease.

Depending on the condition, medication may include:

  • Prednisolone – this medicine is a man-made form of a natural substance (corticosteroid hormone) made by the adrenal gland. Prednisolone lessens the immune system’s response to various diseases to reduce symptoms such as pain and swelling.

Medicine that is usually recommended for rheumatic disorder:

Besides medication, various other types of treatments may be prescribed for a rheumatic disorder such as:

  • Physical therapy
  • Hot and cold therapy
  • Occupational therapy
  • Relaxation therapy
  • Specific exercise regimes to increase muscle strength and joint flexibility
  • Splints, braces, and assistive devices to support weak joints
  • Surgery

Prevention and Treatment of Hypertension

Prevention and treatment of hypertension start with a basic understanding of blood pressure. The American Heart Association defines blood pressure as the force exerted by the heart on the artery walls as it beats. From the heart, blood flows to all parts of the body through arteries. When the blood pressure in the arteries is too high during heartbeats, the artery walls are damaged, which can contribute to heart disease. 

migraine with aura

Symptoms of Hypertension

Even if blood pressure readings reach dangerously high levels, many people with high blood pressure have no symptoms.

Symptoms of high blood pressure may include headaches, shortness of breath, or nosebleeds, but these aren’t specific and usually appear only after high blood pressure has reached a severe or life-threatening level.

Risk Factors of Hypertension

Hypertension has many risk factors including:

  • Age – your risk increases as you age, until about 64 years hypertension is more common in men, and women are more likely to develop it after the age of 65. 
  • Family history – hypertension tends to run in families. 
  • Being obese or overweight – the more you weigh, the more blood you need to supply oxygen and nutrients to your tissues. 
  • Lack of physical activity – inactive people tend to have higher heart rates. Lack of physical activity also increases the risk of being overweight.
  • Using tobacco – raise your blood pressure temporarily, but the chemicals in tobacco can damage the lining of your artery walls.
  • Too much salt and too little potassium in the diet – too much salt in your diet can cause your body to retain fluid which raises blood pressure. Also, a proper balance of potassium is critical for good heart health.
  • Drinking too much alcohol – over time, heavy drinking can damage your heart. Having more than one drink a day for women and more than two drinks a day for men may affect your blood pressure.
  • Stress – high levels of stress can lead to a temporary increase in blood pressure.
smoking cigarettes

How to Prevent and Treat Hypertension

The following lifestyle changes to help prevent and treat hypertension:

  • Eat healthily: Limiting sodium intake per day can reduce high blood pressure since sodium holds excess fluid in the body creating a burden on the heart.
  • Limit alcohol consumption: Having less than two drinks per day for men and less than one drink per day for women is recommended.
  • Exercise: Exercise strengthens the heart allowing it to pump blood with less effort. 
  • Lose weight: Losing weight will decrease the amount of pressure it takes to move blood around the body. Quit smoking: Quitting smoking should be a top priority for people with and without high blood pressure.

Medication used for Hypertension:

  • Olmesartan – this is in a class of drugs called angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Olmesartan works by blocking the action of certain natural substances that tighten the blood vessels which allows the blood to flow more smoothly and the heart to pump more efficiently.

Types and Treatment of  Candidiasis?

The treatments used for Candidiasis vary substantially and are based on the anatomic location of the infection, underlying disease and immune status, risk factors for infection, the specific species of Candida responsible for the infection, and, in some cases, the susceptibility of the Candida species to specific antifungal drugs. 

What Causes Candidiasis?

Candida albicans (Monilia albicans) is a harmless yeast fungus that causes candidiasis. In healthy people, yeast is supposed to be present. However, chemotherapy or broad-spectrum antibiotics that suppress the bacterial flora present in the body may cause the fungus to multiply in the mouth or bowels. Candida infections may also be caused by other health conditions, such as pregnancy or diabetes.

Types of Candidiasis

There are several types of Candidiasis:

strep throat

Thrush (Oropharyngeal Candidiasis) 

When the candida yeast spreads in the mouth and throat, it can cause an infection called thrush. This type of Candidiasis is most common in newborns, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems. Symptoms of Thrush may include:

  • Redness or soreness in the mouth and throat
  • White or yellow patches on the tongue, lips, gums, the roof of the mouth, and inner cheeks
  • Pain when swallowing, if it spreads to the throat
  • Cracking at the corners of the mouth

Genital Yeast Infection (Genital Candidiasis)

This happens when too much yeast grows in the vagina. A yeast infection typically happens when the balance in the vagina changes. This can be caused by:

  • Diabetes
  • Pregnancy
  • A weakened immune system
  • Some medicines, including antibiotics and birth control pills
  • Use of some douches, lubricants, vaginal sprays, or spermicides
  • Wearing a wet bathing suit or workout clothes, or underwear that doesn’t breathe  

Diaper Rash from Yeast Infection

Diaper rashes are usually caused by leaving a dirty or wet diaper on too long, but once your baby’s skin becomes irritated, infection becomes more likely. Check to see if their bottom is red and sensitive and if there’s a raised red border around the sores if their diaper rash doesn’t go away. Check for candidiasis with your pediatrician if this is the case. Antifungal creams can be applied to treat it. Preventing diaper rash and candidiasis starts with keeping your baby’s bottom clean and dry.

Invasive Candidiasis

If candida yeast enters the bloodstream, it can travel to the heart, brain, blood, eyes, and bones. This can cause a serious, life-threatening infection. Invasive Candidiasis happens most often in people who have recently been admitted to a hospital or live in a health care facility. The symptoms include fever and chills. Since it’s likely a person with this infection is already sick with another condition, it can be hard to diagnose.

Treatment for Candidiasis

When thinking about treatment for a yeast infection, it is important to know that there are many different types of yeast. Your healthcare provider may discuss different types of treatment depending on the type of yeast infection.

The most common medication recommended is:

  • Clotrimazole Cream – this is an azole antifungal medication for topical treatment of tinea infections. Clotrimazole is also used for the treatment of athlete’s foot, otomycosis, and candidiasis. This prescription is more effective in the treatment of candidiasis because of its long-lasting residual effect after once-daily application. 

What Are The Types Of Sexual Dysfunction?

Sexual Dysfunction occurs during any phase of the sexual response cycle. This prevents you from experiencing satisfaction from sexual activity. People of all ages experience sexual dysfunction, although the chances increase as you age. 

Types of Sexual Dysfunction

Sexual dysfunction is generally classified into four categories:

  • Desire Disorders: Lack of sexual desire or interest in sex.
  • Orgasm Disorders: Delay or absence of orgasm (climax).
  • Arousal Disorders: Inability to become physically aroused or excited during sexual activity.
  • Pain Disorders: Pain during intercourse.
Alcohol or drug abuse

What Causes Sexual Dysfunction?

Sexual dysfunction usually does not occur overnight. For example, pain during intercourse or ejaculatory/orgasmic challenges be susceptible to have their roots in other conditions that affect the body. Listed below are likely causes of sexual dysfunction.

  • Health Changes: When the body endures major illnesses or challenges affecting the blood vessels, this can affect sexual functioning. 
  • Hormonal Imbalance: Hormones are known to have a key role to play in sexual health and wellness. Any changes in the production of hormones can affect performance and satisfaction during sexual activities.
  • Alcohol and Drug Use: Alcohol and drug usage have many downsides including a negative impact on sexual performance.
  • Psychological Factors: In some cases, anxiety about upcoming obligations, or even performance during sex can contribute to challenges during intimate moments. 

How Is Sexual Dysfunction Diagnosed?

Most of the time, you realize something is interfering with your enjoyment (or your partner’s enjoyment) of a sexual relationship. A complete history of symptoms and physical examination are usually the first steps your provider takes. Diagnostic tests may be ordered to rule out medical problems that may be contributing to the dysfunction. In most cases, lab testing plays a very limited role in the diagnosis of sexual dysfunction.

It helps a clinician understand the underlying cause of the problem and recommend the most appropriate treatment if attitudes about sex and other contributing factors are evaluated and help diagnose the problem.

How Is Sexual Dysfunction Treated?

Most types of sexual dysfunction can be addressed by treating the underlying physical or psychological problems. Other treatment strategies include:

  • Mechanical Aids: Aids such as vacuum devices and penile implants may help men with erectile dysfunction. 
  • Behavioral Treatments: These involve various techniques including insights into harmful behaviors in the relationship or self-stimulation for treatment of problems with arousal or orgasm.
  • Sex Therapy: Therapists are often good marital counselors. For the couple who wants to begin enjoying their sexual relationship, you can work with a trained professional.
  • Psychotherapy: Therapy with a professional counselor can help you address sexual trauma from the past, feelings of anxiety, and poor body image. All of these factors may affect sexual function.
  • Medication: Tadalafil is the most recommended medication for sexual dysfunction. This drug is a class of medications called phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors. Tadalafil works to treat sexual dysfunction by increasing blood flow to the penis during sexual stimulation.

What Causes Excessive Sleepiness?

The most common causes of excessive sleepiness are sleep deprivation and disorders such as insomnia and sleep apnea. Uncontrollable yawning, heavy eyelids and the prevailing impulse to doze off during the day are signs of excessive sleepiness. Struggling to stay awake can drag down performance in daily activities, put a strain on social and personal relationships, and create serious risks especially when driving.

migraine with aura

Signs and Symptoms of Excessive Sleepiness

  • Headache
  • Loss of appetite
  • Hallucinations
  • Anxiety
  • Irritability 
  • Decreased energy
  • Restlessness
  • Constant, recurrent episodes of extreme sleepiness during the day
  • Difficulty waking up in the morning or after daytime naps, sometimes appearing confused or combative
  • Slow thinking, slow speech, inability to focus or concentrate, and memory problems
  • Sleeping longer than 10 or more hours yet still being very sleepy during the day and having difficulty remaining awake during the day

Causes of Excessive Sleepiness

Excessive sleepiness is not a condition in itself instead, it is a symptom caused by an underlying problem.

Sleepiness Caused by Sleep Deprivation

Sleep deprivation may be short-term or chronic and can itself be caused by numerous sleep disorders and other medical conditions:

  • Failure to Prioritize Sleep: Choosing to stay up late to watch a series or wake up early to go to the gym are examples of how sleep can get bumped down the list of priorities. This can cause drowsiness the next day, and the problem can accumulate over time.
  • Insomnia: This condition can make it hard to fall asleep or stay asleep for as long as you want. 
  • Sleep Apnea: It creates fragmented sleep that typically causes daytime drowsiness and may affect up to 20% of adults. 
  • Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS): This condition causes a strong sensation of needing to move one’s extremities and is a known risk for disrupting total sleep time and sleep quality.
  • Poor Sleep Quality: Sleep insufficiency isn’t just about a low quantity of sleep it’s also about sleep quality. 
  • Pain: Virtually any ailment that induces pain can complicate sleep and make a person prone to drowsiness during the day.
  • Frequent Nighttime Urination: This condition involves needing to get up from bed during the night to pee and is estimated to affect up to one out of three older adults and one out of five younger people.

Sleepiness Caused by Other Medical and Brain Conditions

Treatment and Medication for Polio 

Treatment for Excessive Sleepiness

Treatment depends on what is causing your sleepiness. There are both lifestyle changes and medication approaches:

  • Maintain good sleep habits such as establishing a regular sleeping schedule, having an environment that allows for sleep, and limiting caffeine and exercise before bedtime.
  • Taking Armodafinil promotes wakefulness. This drug is in a class of medications called wakefulness-promoting agents. It works by changing the amounts of certain natural substances in the area of the brain that controls sleep and wakefulness.